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What Works in Conservation 2021

What Works in Conservation 2021 William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith (eds)
Paperback ISBN: 978-1-80064-272-0 £40.95
Hardback ISBN: 978-1-80064-273-7 £51.95
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Does the creation of artificial reefs benefit subtidal benthic invertebrates?
Is the use of organic farming instead of conventional farming beneficial to bat conservation?
Does installing wildlife warning reflectors along roads benefit mammal conservation?
Does the installation of exclusion and/or escape devices on fishing nets benefit marine and freshwater mammal conservation?

What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation.

This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 2526 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2021 edition containssubstantial new material on bat conservation, terrestrial mammal conservation and marine and freshwater mammals, thus completing the evidence for all mammal species categories. Other chapters cover practical global conservation of primates, amphibians, bats, birds, forests, peatlands, subtidal benthic invertebrates, shrublands and heathlands, as well as the conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility, management of captive animals and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.

This is the sixth author-approved edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis.


What Works in Conservation 2021
William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith (eds) | August 2021
1038pp. | 6.14" x 9.21" (234 x 156 mm)
What Works in Conservation Series | ISSN: 2059-4232 (Print); 2059-4240 (Online)
ISBN Paperback: 9781800642720
ISBN Hardback: 9781800642737
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781800642744
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781800642751
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781800642768
ISBN Digital (XML): 9781800642775
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0267
BIC: RNKC (Conservation of the environment), RNKH (Conservation of wildlife and habitats), RND (Environmental policy and protocols); BISAC: NAT010000 (Ecology), NAT011000 (Environmental Conservation & Protection), SCI026000 (Environmental Science), NAT000000 (NATURE / General), SCI000000 (SCIENCE / General). OCLC Number: 1262965903.




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Introduction Download
William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith

Who is What Works in Conservation for?

1. Amphibian Conservation Download
Rebecca K. Smith, Helen Meredith and William J. Sutherland

1.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

1.2 Threat: Agriculture

1.3 Threat: Energy production and mining

1.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

1.5 Threat: Biological resource use

1.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

1.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

1.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

1.9 Threat: Pollution

1.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

1.11 Habitat protection

1.12 Habitat restoration and creation

1.13 Species management

1.14 Education and awareness raising

2. Bat Conservation Download
Anna Berthinussen, Olivia C. Richardson and John D. Altringham

2.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

2.2 Threat: Agriculture

2.3 Threat: Energy production

2.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

2.5 Threat: Biological resource use

2.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

2.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

2.8 Threat: Invasive or problematic species and disease

2.9 Threat: Pollution

2.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

2.11 Habitat protection

2.12 Habitat restoration and creation

2.13 Species management

2.14 Education and awareness raising

3. Bird Conservation Download
David R. Williams, Matthew F. Child, Lynn V. Dicks, Nancy Ockendon, Robert G. Pople, David A. Showler, Jessica C. Walsh, Erasmus K. H. J. zu Ermgassen and William J. Sutherland

3.1 Habitat protection

3.2 Education and awareness raising

3.3 Threat: Residential and commercial development

3.4 Threat: Agriculture

3.5 Threat: Energy production and mining

3.6 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

3.7 Threat: Biological resource use

3.8 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

3.9 Threat: Natural system modifications

3.10 Habitat restoration and creation

3.11 Threat: Invasive alien and other problematic species

3.12 Threat: Pollution

3.13 Threat: Climate change, extreme weather and geological events

3.14 General responses to small/declining populations

3.15 Captive breeding, rearing and releases (ex situ conservation)

4. Farmland Conservation Download
Lynn V. Dicks, Joscelyne E. Ashpole, Juliana Dänhardt, Katy James, Annelie Jönsson, Nicola Randall, David A. Showler, Rebecca K. Smith, Susan Turpie, David R. Williams and William J. Sutherland

4.1 All farming systems

4.2 Arable farming

4.3 Perennial (non-timber) crops

4.4 Livestock farming

4.5 Threat: Residential and commercial development

4.6 Threat: Agri-chemicals

4.7 Threat: Transport and service corridors

4.8 Threat: Hunting and trapping (for pest control, food or sport)

4.9 Threat: Natural system modification

4.10 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

4.11 Threat: Education and awareness

5. Forest Conservation Download
Har’el Agra, Simon Schowanek, Yohay Carmel, Rebecca K. Smith and Gidi Ne’eman

5.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

5.2 Threat: Agriculture

5.3 Threat: Transport and service corridors

5.4 Threat: Biological resource use

5.5 Habitat protection

5.6 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

5.7 Threat: Pollution

5.8 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

5.9 Habitat protection

5.10 Habitat restoration and creation

5.11 Actions to improve survival and growth rate of planted trees

5.12 Education and awareness raising

6. Peatland Conservation Download
Nigel G. Taylor, Patrick Grillas and William J. Sutherland

6.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

6.2 Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture

6.3 Threat: Energy production and mining

6.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

6.5 Threat: Biological resource use

6.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

6.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

6.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

6.9 Threat: Pollution

6.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

6.11 Habitat creation and restoration

6.12 Actions to complement planting

6.13 Habitat protection

6.14 Education and awareness

7. Primate Conservation Download
Jessica Junker, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Lisa Orth, Rebecca K. Smith, Silviu O. Petrovan and William J. Sutherland

7.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

7.2 Threat: Agriculture

7.3 Threat: Energy production and mining

7.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

7.5 Threat: Biological resource use

7.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

7.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

7.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species and genes

7.9 Threat: Pollution

7.10 Education and Awareness

7.11 Habitat protection

7.12 Species management

7.13 Livelihood; economic and other incentives

8. Shrubland and Heathland Conservation Download
Philip A. Martin, Ricardo Rocha, Rebecca K. Smith and William J. Sutherland

8.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

8.2 Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture

8.3 Threat: Energy production and mining

8.4 Threat: Biological resource use

8.5 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

8.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

8.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

8.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

8.9 Threat: Pollution

8.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

8.11 Threat: Habitat protection

8.12 Habitat restoration and creation

8.13 Actions to benefit introduced vegetation

8.14 Education and awareness

9. Management of Captive Animals Download
Coral S. Jonas, Lydia T. Timbrell, Fey Young, Silviu O. Petrovan, Andrew E. Bowkett and Rebecca K. Smith

9.1 Ex-situ conservation – breeding amphibians

9.2 Promoting health and welfare in captive carnivores (felids, canids and ursids) through feeding practices

9.3 Promoting natural feeding behaviours in primates in captivity

10. Some Aspects of Control of Freshwater Invasive Species Download
David Aldridge, Nancy Ockendon, Ricardo Rocha, Rebecca K. Smith and William J. Sutherland

10.1 Threat: Invasive plants

10.2 Threat: Invasive molluscs

10.3 Threat: Invasive crustaceans

10.4 Threat: Invasive fish

10.5 Threat: Invasive reptiles

10.6 Threat: Invasive amphibians

11. Some Aspects of Enhancing Natural Pest Control Download
Hugh L. Wright, Joscelyne E. Ashpole, Lynn V. Dicks, James Hutchison, Caitlin G. McCormack and William J. Sutherland

11.1 Reducing agricultural pollution

11.2 All farming systems

11.3 Arable farming

11.4 Perennial farming

11.5 Livestock farming and pasture

12. Enhancing Soil Fertility Download
Georgina Key, Mike Whitfield, Lynn V. Dicks, William J. Sutherland and Richard D. Bardgett

12.1 Reducing agricultural pollution

12.2 All farming systems

12.3 Arable farming

12.4 Livestock and pasture farming

13. Subtidal Benthic Invertebrate Conservation Download
Anaelle J. Lemasson, Laura R. Pettit, Rebecca K. Smith and William J. Sutherland

13.1 Threat: Energy production and mining

13.2 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

13.3 Threat: Biological resource use

13.4 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbances

13.5 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species, genes and diseases

13.6 Threat: Pollution

13.7 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

13.8 Habitat protection

13.9 Habitat restoration and creation

13.10 Species management

13.11 Education and awareness

14. Marine and Freshwater Mammal Conservation Download
Anna Berthinussen, Rebecca K. Smith and William J. Sutherland

14.1 Threat: Aquaculture and agriculture

14.2 Threat: Energy production and mining

14.3 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

14.4 Threat: Biological resource use

14.5 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

14.6 Threat: Natural system modifications

14.7 Threat: Invasive or problematic species and disease

14.8 Threat: Pollution

14.9 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

14.10 Habitat protection

14.11 Habitat restoration and creation

14.12 Species management

14.13 Education and awareness raising

15. Terrestrial Mammal Conservation Download
Nick Littlewood, Ricardo Rocha, Rebecca K. Smith, Philip Martin, Sarah Lockhart, Rebecca F. Schoonover, Elspeth Wilman, Andrew J. Bladon, Katie A. Sainsbury, Stuart Pimm and William J. Sutherland

15.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

15.2 Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture

15.3 Threat: Energy production and mining

15.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

15.5 Threat: Biological resource use

15.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

15.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

15.8 Threat: Invasive alien and other problematic species

15.9 Threat: Pollution

15.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

15.11 Habitat protection

15.12 Habitat restoration and creation

15.13 Species management

15.14 Education and awareness raising

William Sutherland holds the Miriam Rothschild Chair in Conservation Biology in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. He is president of the British Ecological Society. His previous twelve books include: Managing Habitats for Conservation (1995), Ecological Census Techniques (2006), The Conservation Handbook: Research, Management and Policy Techniques (2000). He is heavily involved in linking science and policy including through the effective use of evidence.

Lynn Dicks is a Research Fellow funded by the Natural Environment Research Council under the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Sustainability Programme (2013-2016). She works on how to use scientific evidence in policy and practice, developing methods to compile and synthesize ecological evidence and make it useful for decision-making. All her work is focused on insect pollinator conservation and ecosystem services in farmland, but the methods are widely applicable. She is a Co-ordinating Lead Author of the IPBES Thematic Assessment of Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production, due to be published in 2016. She has a degree from Oxford University in Biological Sciences (1995) and a PhD from Cambridge University (2002) on the ecology of flower-visiting insects. From 2002-2009, she worked as a science writer and science communications adviser.

Silviu Petrovan is a Research Associate in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK. He is part of the Conservation Evidence team at the University of Cambridge, a co-author of the Primate Conservation and Captive Management synopses and currently updating the Bird Conservation book. In 2018 he is co-editor of a special issue on amphibians in the journal Biological Conservation. He is a trustee at Froglife where he worked for 5 years as Conservation Coordinator (2011-2016) and undertook numerous research and practical conservation projects for amphibians, reptiles and wetland habitats, incorporating large-scale citizen science elements, automated monitoring hardware and software for ecological road mitigation and wildlife disease surveillance.

Rebecca K. Smith is a Research Associate in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK. She holds degrees in the ecology and conservation of European hares (PhD, University of Bristol), Applied Ecology and Conservation (MSc, University of East Anglia) and Biology (BSc with Honours,University of Bristol). Dr Smith is part of the Conservation Evidence group at the University of Cambridge, which focuses on summarizing and disseminating scientific evidence about the effects of conservation interventions for habitats and species. She is an author of the Amphibian Conservation and Farmland Conservation synopses and has undertaken systematic reviews on the effectiveness of conservation management for birds. Prior to this work Dr Smith undertook projects developing monitoring and management strategies for high conservation priority mammal species. Her current role with Conservation Evidence includes facilitating the development and expert assessment of further synopses including reptile and forest conservation and invasive species management.
Reviews of previous editions:

For public land managers, policy-makers, natural resource specialists, farmers, ranchers and others in the business of protecting and renewing the world’s diverse ecosystems, it’s easy to get lost in a sea of studies and strategies. How does a person determine which solutions will yield the best results in any given situation? What Works in Conservation 2017, a free online book just published by University of Cambridge conservation specialists, aims to help conservation workers navigate that sea. With the guidance of an international team of experts, the book summarizes, organizes and evaluates the outcomes of specific conservation practices reported in more than 150 scientific journals as well as in unpublished reports and other literature from around the world.
—Haley Madderom, Ensia, 18/1/2017

This book provides a quick reference guide to the latest and most relevant scientific studies into many different types of conservation management techniques and interventions. It aims not to make recommendations but to assist land managers and conservationists to make informed decisions about conservation policy or management decisions. [...] This book successfully collates the pros and cons of a wide range of conservation techniques based on available scientific evidence.
—Chris Gregory, BTO News: 318

The volume "What works in conservation" is an original, useful and practical tool for conservationists, managers, activists of non-governmental organizations and also for amphibian ecologists. All of them will obtain relevant informatinon about conservation actions to be realized or eventually to be avoided, this latter information almost never discussed in classic conservation textbooks. The book should always be consulted before (and I stress the word "before") planning any kind of conservation intervention to correctly evaluate, not only possible outcomes but, also non desired and collateral harmful effects.
—Sebastiano Salvidio, Acta Herpetologica (2016) 11(2): 233-34