Chapter 2 presents challenges to current food systems, particularly those arising from climate change, globalization, demographic trends, and conflicts like the recent war in Ukraine, for instance, that are leading to changes in food availability and dietary patterns. These factors have strong effects on the production and offer of food and thus its availability and access to it. Globally, there is a trend towards higher consumption of processed foods, which is reinforced by increasing urbanization. Globalization leads to a higher dependency of some countries on others, making them vulnerable to supply shortages. This was particularly evident during the recent crises. The need to feed a growing population and the increasing demand for animal foods that accompanies economic development have led to increasing intensification of agriculture, which contributes to climate change and damages the environment.