Learning, Marginalization, and Improving the Quality of Education in Low-income Countries - cover image


Daniel A. Wagner; Nathan M. Castillo; Suzanne Grant Lewis;

Published On





  • English

Print Length

488 pages (xxii+466)


Paperback156 x 34 x 234 mm(6.14" x 1.33" x 9.21")
Hardback156 x 37 x 234 mm(6.14" x 1.44" x 9.21")


Paperback2017g (71.15oz)
Hardback2421g (85.40oz)



OCLC Number





  • JN
  • JNFN
  • 1QFG


  • EDU001030
  • EDU008000
  • EDU048000
  • EDU036000


  • LC213


  • learning
  • Sustainable Development Goal on Education
  • Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid
  • quality of education
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Learning, Marginalization, and Improving the Quality of Education in Low-income Countries

  • Daniel A. Wagner (editor)
  • Nathan M. Castillo (editor)
  • Suzanne Grant Lewis (editor)

Improving learning evidence and outcomes for those most in need in developing countries is at the heart of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal on Education (SDG4). This timely volume brings together contributions on current empirical research and analysis of emerging trends that focus on improving the quality of education through better policy and practice, particularly for those who need improved 'learning at the bottom of the pyramid' (LBOP). This volume brings together academic research experts, government officials and field-based practitioners. National and global experts present multiple broad thematic papers – ranging from the effects of migration and improving teaching to the potential of educational technologies, and better metrics for understanding and financing education. In addition, local experts, practitioners and policymakers describe their own work on LBOP issues being undertaken in Kenya, India, Mexico and Ivory Coast. The contributors argue persuasively that learning equity is a moral imperative, but also one that will have educational, economic and social impacts. They further outline how achieving SDG4 will take renewed and persistent effort by stakeholders to use better measurement tools to promote learning achievement among poor and marginalized children. This volume builds on the second international conference on Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid (LBOP2).* It will be an indispensable resource for policymakers, researchers and government thinktanks, and local experts, as well as any readers interested in the implementation of learning equity across the globe.

Table of Contents

Contributor Biographies

Daniel A. Wagner

1. Diversity and Equity in Education: Policy, Practice, and Options for Reaching Children at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Lauren Pisani and Amy Jo Dowd

2. Education on the Move: How Migration Affects Learning Outcomes

Jo Kelcey, Ozen Guven and Dana Burde

3. Teaching at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Teacher Education in Poor and Marginalized Communities

Kwame Akyeampong

4. Improving the Impact of Educational Technologies on Learning Within Low-Income Contexts

Nathan M. Castillo, Taskeen Adam and Björn Haßler

5. Reducing Inequality in Education Using “Smaller, Quicker, Cheaper” Assessments

Luis Crouch and Timothy S. Slade

6. Not All Pyramids Are the Same: Relative Learning Exclusion and Its Evolution Over Time

Dirk Van Damme, Tijana Prokic-Breuer and Stan Vermeulen

7. Financing Education at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Samer Al-Samarrai and Luis Benveniste

8. Mexico: Education and Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Sylvia Schmelkes del Valle, Héctor Robles Vásquez and Annette Santos del Real

9. India: Learning in the Margin: Reflections on Indian Policies and Programs for Education of the Disadvantaged

Rangachar Govinda

10. India: Learning Challenges for the Marginalized

Udaya Narayana Singh, Rajarshi Singh and Padmakali Banerjee

11. India: The Role of Civil Society Organizations and Scalable Technology Solutions for Marginalized Communities

Lorie Novak

12. Ivory Coast: Children at the Bottom of the Pyramid and Government Policies

François Joseph Azoh and Zamblé Théodore Goin Bi

13. Ivory Coast: Promoting Learning Outcomes at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Kaja Jasińska and Sosthène Guei

14. Kenya: Education, Learning and Policy-Framing for Children at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Sara Ruto, Ann Gachoya and Virginia Ngindiru

15. Kenya: Free Primary and Day Secondary Education Policies and Their Contributions to Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Emmanuel O. Manyasa and Mercy G. Karogo

16. Kenya: Disability and Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid

John K. Mugo, Diana Makau and David K. Njengere

17. Kenya: Education in Marginalized Communities

Joyce Kinyanjui

Afterword: The Challenge Ahead for Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid

Rachel Hinton and Asyia Kazmi

List of Illustrations
List of Tables


Daniel A. Wagner

Professor of Education at University of Pennsylvania

Nathan M. Castillo

Assistant Professor of Global Studies in Education at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Suzanne Grant Lewis