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Acoustemologies in Contact: Sounding Subjects and Modes of Listening in Early Modernity

Acoustemologies in Contact: Sounding Subjects and Modes of Listening in Early Modernity Emily Wilbourne and Suzanne G. Cusick (eds)
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In this fascinating collection of essays, an international group of scholars explores the sonic consequences of transcultural contact in the early modern period. They examine how cultural configurations of sound impacted communication, comprehension, and the categorisation of people. Addressing questions of identity, difference, sound, and subjectivity in global early modernity, these authors share the conviction that the body itself is the most intimate of contact zones, and that the culturally contingent systems by which sounds made sense could be foreign to early modern listeners and to present day scholars.

Drawing on a global range of archival evidence—from New France and New Spain, to the slave ships of the Middle Passage, to China, Europe, and the Mediterranean court environment—this collection challenges the privileged position of European acoustical practices within the discipline of global-historical musicology. The discussion of Black and non-European experiences demonstrates how the production of ‘the canon’ in the cosmopolitan centres of colonial empires was underpinned by processes of human exploitation and extraction of resources. As such, this text is a timely response to calls within the discipline to decolonise music history and to contextualise the canonical works of the European past.

This volume is accessible to a wide and interdisciplinary audience, not only within musicology, but also to those interested in early modern global history, sound studies, race, and slavery.


Acoustemologies in Contact: Sounding Subjects and Modes of Listening in Early Modernity
Emily Wilbourne and Suzanne G. Cusick (eds) | January 2021
348pp. | 17 colour illustrations | 6.14" x 9.21" (234 x 156 mm)
ISBN Paperback: 9781800640351
ISBN Hardback: 9781800640368
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781800640375
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781800640382
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781800640399
ISBN Digital (XML): 9781800640405
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0226
BIC: AVX (Music recording and reproduction), AVA (Theory of music and musicology), HBLH (Early modern history: c. 1450/1500 to c. 1700) ; BISAC: MUS051000 (MUSIC / Genres & Styles / Choral); MUS007000 (MUSIC / Instruction & Study / Composition), MUS020000 (MUSIC / History & Criticism). OCLC Number: 1232503507.


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Contents

Notes on Contributors

Introduction Download
Emily Wilbourne and Suzanne G. Cusick

1. Listening as an Innu-French Contact Zone in the Jesuit Relations Download
Olivia Bloechl

2. Native Song and Dance Affect in Seventeenth-Century Christian Festivals in New Spain Download
Ireri E. Chávez Bárcenas

3. Performance in the Periphery: Colonial Encounters and Entertainments Download
Patricia Akhimie

4. ‘Hideous Acclamations’ Download
Glenda Goodman

5. Black Atlantic Acoustemologies and the Maritime Archive Download
Danielle Skeehan

6. Little Black Giovanni’s Dream Download
Emily Wilbourne

7. A Global Phonographic Revolution Download
Zhuqing (Lester) S. Hu

8. ‘La stiava dolente in suono di canto’ Download
Suzanne G. Cusick

9. ‘Now Despised, a Servant, Abandoned’ Download
Nina Treadwell

10. ‘Non basta il suono, e la voce’ Download
Jane Tylus

Bibliography

List of illustrations

Index

Patricia Akhimie is Associate Professor of English at Rutgers University–Newark. She is the author of Shakespeare and the Cultivation of Difference: Race and Conduct in the Early Modern World (2018), and co-editor of Travel and Travail: Early Modern Women, English Drama, and the Wider World (with Bernadette Andrea, 2019). Her research has been supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Folger Shakespeare Library, the Ford Foundation, the National Sporting Library, and the John Carter Brown Library.

Olivia Bloechl is Professor of Music at the University of Pittsburgh, with research interests in the early modern Atlantic world, French Baroque opera, postcolonialism, feminist ethics, and global music history. She is the author of Native American Song at the Frontiers of Early Modern Music (2008) and Opera and the Political Imaginary in Old Regime France (2017), and co-editor of Rethinking Difference in Music Scholarship (with M. Lowe and J. Kallberg, 2015). A longtime advocate of postcolonial and global approaches to music history, she is a founding convener of the Global Music History Study Group of the AMS.

Ireri E. Chávez Bárcenas is Assistant Professor of Music at Bowdoin College. She received her doctoral degree in musicology from Princeton University and a master’s degree in religion and music from Yale University. Her work analyzes the performance
of villancicos within the institutional and social fabric of Puebla de los Ángeles and develops a new methodology for the study of function, meaning, and transmission of the vernacular song tradition in the Spanish empire. She has published studies on the villancico in early seventeenth-century New Spain and on Vivaldi’s opera Motezuma and the adaptation of conflicting historiographical interpretation about the Conquest of Mexico in Early Modern Italy.

Suzanne G. Cusick is Professor of Music on the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University and Honorary Member of both the American Musicological Society and the Society for Ethnomusicology; she has published extensively on gender and sexuality in relation to the musical cultures of early modern Italy and of contemporary North America. Her 2009 book Francesca Caccini at the Medici Court: Music and the Circulation of Power received the ‘Best Book’ award for 2010 from the Society for the Study of Early Modern Women. More recently, she has studied the use of sound in detention and interrogation of prisoners held during the twenty-first century’s ‘war on terror’, work for which she won the Philip Brett Award of the American Musicological Society. Cusick is currently at work on a monograph on gendered, eroticized, and politicized modes of hearing in Medicean Florence. She currently serves as President of the American Musicological Society.

Glenda Goodman is Assistant Professor of Music at the University of Pennsylvania. She works on the history of early American music. Her first book, Cultivated by Hand: Amateur Musicians in the Early American Republic (2020), considers the material and social practice of amateur music-making. She also researches music, Indigeneity, and colonial encounter, and is currently working on a new book about sacred music and Native American Christian conversion in colonial New England and New York. She is also working on a collaborative project, American Contact: Intercultural Encounter and the History of the Book, which will result in a volume and digital project. Her articles have appeared in the Journal of the American Musicological Society, the Journal of the Society for American Music, the William and Mary Quarterly, Eighteenth-Century Studies, and the Journal of the Royal Musical Association.

Zhuqing (Lester) S. Hu is Assistant Professor in Musicology at the University of California, Berkeley. He holds a Ph.D. in Music History and Theory from the University of Chicago, where his dissertation was recognized with a Dean’s Distinguished Dissertation Award of the Humanities Division in 2020. He is a former recipient of the Howard Mayer Brown Fellowship from American Musicological Society, the Mellon Dissertation Research Fellowship from the Council for Library and Information Resources, and the Chateaubriand Fellowship from the French Embassy in the US. His research focuses on global histories of music in the early modern era, particularly intersections between music and empire-building in Eurasia and comparative studies between the Qing Empire (1636–1912) and the European-Atlantic world. His works have appeared in Early Music and Opera Quarterly, and he is currently working on a monograph based on the ‘Phonographic Revolution’ hypothesis he develops in his contribution to this volume.

Danielle Skeehan is Associate Professor in English at Oberlin College, where she specializes in early and nineteenth-century American literature. Her work has appeared in The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation, The Appendix, The Journal of the Early Republic, Commonplace, and Early American Studies. Her first book, The Fabric of Empire: Material and Literary Cultures of the Global Atlantic, 1650–1850 (2020), provides a new model for thinking about the different media, languages, literacies, and textualities in the early Atlantic world.

Nina Treadwell is Professor of Music at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She is a music historian and a performer on Renaissance and Baroque plucked-string instruments. She particularly enjoys playing basso continuo in baroque operas, especially those ripe for queer performative interventions. Ironically, her written work often engages with ‘opera’s others’, musico-theatrical works that typically fall outside of the musicological canon and are rarely performed. Her first book—Music and Wonder at the Medici Court: The 1589 Interludes for ‘La pellegrina’—was published by Indiana University Press in 2008. She is currently completing a monograph on queerness in sixteenth-century Italian music-making.

Jane Tylus is Andrew Downey Orrick Professor of Italian Studies and Professor of Comparative Literature at Yale. She is the author of several monographs (Siena, City of Secrets (2015); Reclaiming Catherine of Siena (2009); Writing and Vulnerability in the Late Renaissance (1993)) and has translated the complete poetry of Gaspara Stampa and Lucrezia Tornabuoni de’ Medici. She is currently working on a book manuscript entitled ‘Saying Goodbye in the Renaissance’ and a collection of essays on accompaniment and translation. She is General Editor of I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance.

Emily Wilbourne is Associate Professor of Musicology at Queens College and the Graduate Center in the City University of New York, and (since 2017) Editor-in-Chief of Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture. Her first book, Seventeenth-Century Opera and the Sound of the Commedia dell’Arte, was published in 2016 by Chicago University Press, and an edited collection in honor of Suzanne G. Cusick appeared as a special issue of Women & Music in 2015. Wilbourne’s articles have appeared in the Journal of the American Musicological Society, Women & Music, Recercare, Teatro e storia, Italian Studies, Echo, and Workplace. In 2011, Wilbourne was awarded the Philip Brett Award for excellence in queer music scholarship for her article, ‘Amor nello specchio (1622): Mirroring, Masturbation, and Same-Sex Love’; in 2017–2018, she was the Francesco De Dombrowski Fellowship at the Harvard University Center for Renaissance Studies at Villa I Tatti in Florence.

SECTION I: COLONIAL CONTACT

1. Listening as an Innu-French Contact Zone in the Jesuit Relations (OLIVIA BLOECHL)

Acoustemologies—or ways of listening and knowing the world through sound—are culturally specific; they have had a role in histories of colonial interaction and integration within sense-based ‘contact zones’. This chapter illustrates the role of contact and acoustemologies with a case drawn from the history of missionization in Nitassinan (Innu territory in eastern Quebec/Labrador), as documented in the Jesuit Relations (1632–1673). Especially in the earliest field reports, the priests' minute documentation of song, sound, and listening outlines distinct Innu and French Jesuit acoustemologies, whose differences clearly mattered for all sides. Focusing on these listening ‘bodies in contact’ (Ballantyne and Burton, 2005) offers a unique perspective on the close, improvisatory engagement of Indigenous and European people in a period of enormous regional upheaval. It also directs our attention to the larger stakes that are attached to sonic micro-interactions in world history.

2. Native Song and Dance Affect in Seventeenth-Century Christian Festivals in New Spain (IRERI E. CHÁVEZ BÁRCENAS)

Ceremonial song and dance traditions were essential for Nahua cultures at the time of European contact. In the first hundred years after the conquest, devotional songs and dances in Nahuatl were considered essential for the wholehearted engagement of native converts with the Catholic faith and they were thus incorporated into religious ceremonies organized by the mendicant orders. This chapter explores early descriptions of Nahua music-making along with four villancicos in Nahuatl in order to demonstrate a particular kind of hybrid devotional singing in colonial context. The narrative posited by the surviving villancicos includes the representation of native characters as humble, suffering workers, underscoring the exploitative conditions of native workers in seventeenth-century New Spain.

3. Performance in the Periphery: Colonial Encounters and Entertainments (PATRICIA AKHIMIE)

When early modern English travellers relate their exchanges with the people they have met in far-flung places, they frequently include descriptions of music both familiar and strange, performed by foreign visitors and Indigenous peoples alike. The presence of music, however, and its seemingly transparent meanings enables perilous miscommunications. Failures of musical interpretation or sudden alterations of meaning in musical exchanges proliferate in reports of English and European encounters in the New World. This chapter argues that the English carried with them an epistemology of musical meaning that was predicated on the ways that music functioned in European entertainments, particularly those associated with English country estates.

SECTION II: CONTACT AND CAPTIVITY

4. ‘Hideous Acclamations’: Captive Colonists, Forced Singing, and the Incorporation Imperatives of Mohawk Listeners (GLENDA GOODMAN)

Music and sound mediated all manner of interactions between European colonists and Haudenosaunee Indians during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, from diplomacy to trade to sacred worship to warfare. This chapter focuses on scenarios in which Mohawk Indians took colonists captive and forced them to sing. Forced singing was frequently accompanied by acts of physical violence performed by the captors. Unlike European torture rationales, the Mohawks’ aim was not merely to inflict pain nor to extract information or confession. Rather, the ritual practices were aimed at aiding the incorporation of captives into Indigenous society and thus were a necessary part of their survivance. Drawing on captivity narratives, proto-ethnographic descriptions, and descriptions warfare, this chapter considers the implications of instances of forced singing both for how they illuminate the importance of vocal music for Haudenosaunee peoples and how we might reconsider the discourse on music, torture, and warfare by focusing on such musical encounters in extremis.

5. Black Atlantic Acoustemologies and the Maritime Archive (DANIELLE SKEEHAN)

On the surface, the slave trade’s systematic documentation—in the form of ship’s logs, insurance documents, sales legers, and account books—appears to record the erasure and suppression of African voices, cultures, and resistance. This chapter proposes, however, that there may be something in these records that we have failed to hear. By understanding the writing of the Middle Passage as an early audio technology—rather than simply a history of exploitation—we can think about sound as a new language of resistance particular to the pathways of the Middle Passage and embedded in the writing itself. In these accounts, the deadly notes of an enslaved cargo communicating and acting in mass interrupt the deadly marks of the official record. Maritime writing thus records the conditions of the Middle Passage from two perspectives: the calculated master narrative at the surface of the record, and the sounds that erupt from the depths.

6. Little Black Giovanni’s Dream: Black Authorship and the ‘Turks, and Dwarves, the Bad Christians’ of the Medici Court (EMILY WILBOURNE)

This chapter provides a close reading and English translation of the one surviving poem by the enslaved, black, possibly castrated chamber singer, Giovanni Buonaccorsi, who was active at the Medici court from at least 1651 until his death in 1674. I argue that the poem was written by Buonaccorsi, that performances were sung, and that in the text Buonaccorsi makes an important claim to community among the ‘Turks, and Dwarves, the bad Christians’ who lived in the court. Several individuals mocked in the poem are matched up with historical persons who were present at the Medici court in the early 1650s.

SECTION III: TEXTUAL CONTACT

7. A Global Phonographic Revolution: Trans-Eurasian Resonances of Writing in Early Modern France and China (ZHUQUING (LESTER) S. HU)

This chapter argues for a simultaneous Phonographic Revolution in both early modern France and early China, understood as a reconceptualization of writing as recordings of the singing-speaking voice. To make this claim, the chapter juxtaposes two mid-eighteenth-century Parisian quarrels—the operatic ‘Querelle des Bouffons’ and the Orientalist debate on ancient Egypt and China—with contemporary Chinese philology, which drew, in turn, on folksong and opera cultures. Parallelisms and connections between the two scholarly cultures show that both moved simultaneously towards a theory that all writing systems are fundamentally phonographic. These concurrent remappings of writing vis-à-vis the voice offer a new heuristic of modernity oblique to the teleology of Western industrial and scientific progress.

SEXTION IV: MEDITERRANEAN CONTACT

8. ‘La stiava dolente in suono di canto’: War, Slavery, and Difference in a Medici Court Entertainment (SUZANNE G. CUSICK)

On 24 February 1607, a central Italian court invited select guests to celebrate the final night of carnival at one of their palaces. Part of the entertainment was a sung and danced spectacle characterized by ‘una musica stupenda’, the success of which launched Francesca Caccini’s theatrical career and her reputation as a pioneer in the history of opera. Like most court entertainments, this one had political overtones. Situating the entertainment in relationship to the court's attitudes toward Muslim power in the eastern Mediterranean, and the court's innovations in the Mediterranean slave trade, this paper explores the ways that the entertainment's sonic design both activated and enabled the disavowal of ethnoreligious biases. The chapter concludes by meditating briefly on implications for the historiographies of aurality, women's musical culture, and opera.

9. ‘Now Despised, a Servant, Abandoned’: Wounded Italy, the Moresca, and the Performance of Alterity (NINA TREADWELL)

During Carnival at the court of Urbino in 1513, two intermedii (interludes) were staged across the course of two unrelated comedies, both highlighting the personification of a ransacked Italy. This chapter explores the presentation of violated Italy in the broader context of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) and specifically in relation to the Urbinate audience, whose own city had been sacked some ten years previously. Drawing on tropes familiar to the audience, including those associated with popular laments, this chapter demonstrates how performances were designed to elicit an intense, bodily identification. Italy’s first performance was wracked by her inability to speak, while her second, envoiced performance engaged with themes of sexual violence and betrayal. The performance concluded with a moresca demonstrating military expertise, seemingly to eviscerate the memory of Italia’s suffering, yet the efficacy of the moresca, as antidote to Italy’s (and the Italian peninsula’s) alterity, was questionable.

10. ‘Non basta il suono, e la voce’: Listening for Tasso’s Clorinda (JANE TYLUS)

This chapter considers the sounds of the stranger in Torquato Tasso’s late Renaissance epic, Gerusalemme liberata, focusing on the figure of Clorinda, who is also central to the musical composition Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, written by Claudio Monteverdi several decades later. Clorinda is a Muslim woman, killed in a duel by a Crusader who loves her. Critics have called attention to Monteverdi’s innovations with respect to Clorinda, since in his rendition she is finally allowed to speak in the moments before her death. This chapter suggests that we need to consider the manner in which Tasso also ‘lets’ her speak, arguing that he was supremely attentive to the importance of what he called ‘parole pellegrine’, or foreign words and sounds. This poetics of alterity is crucial for understanding his achievement, and allows us to understand why Clorinda herself is never fully absorbed into the world of Tasso’s poem.