Henry Häkkinen; Silviu Petrovan; Nigel G. Taylor; William J. Sutherland; Nathalie Pettorelli

Published On


Page Range

pp. 90–129


  • English

Print Length

30 pages

4. Gulls (Laridae)

With key information linked to thematic maps, this section evaluates the climate change vulnerability of ten gulls (Laridae) species – European Herring Gulls, Audouin’s Gull, Caspian Gull, Lesser Black-backed Gull, Glaucous Gull, Great Black-backed Gull, Ivory Gull, Black-legged Kittiwake, Sabine’s Gull, and Yellow-legged Gull – in the North-East Atlantic. The assessments for every species cover three categories each: the exposure, or the magnitude in percentage and the characteristics of climate change; the sensitivity, or how much and by which climatic events the species are affected, depending on their biological features; the adaptive capacity, or the potential of species to respond to climate change.
Assessments of local conservation actions against climate change impacts are listed here in readily consultable tables. Interventions are evaluated by evidence of effectiveness and grouped by types of impacts on gulls: increased competition due to mortality, mammal predation, exposure to pollution and heavy metals, reduced area of breeding, foraging, or prey availability, parasite load, and storms causing nest destruction, foraging difficulty, and mortality. Criteria of relevance, strength, and transparency measure the effectiveness of the actions.


Silviu O. Petrovan

Senior Researcher in the Department of Zoology at University of Cambridge

Nigel G. Taylor

Research Associate (Conservation Science Group) at University of Cambridge

William J. Sutherland

Miriam Rothschild Chair in Conservation Biology in the Department of Zoology at University of Cambridge