Due to Christmas and New Year Holiday season we may experience shipping delays. We apologise for the inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.


Estara J. Arrant

Published On


Page Range

pp. 163–202

A Further Analysis of the ‘Byzantine (Italian - Levantine) Triad’ of Features in Common Torah Codices

  • Estara J. Arrant (author)
This study analyses the distinctive features of a group of eleven Torah fragments from the Taylor-Schechter collection of Cairo Genizah manuscripts, which appear to come from related regions and use the signs dagesh and shewa in three related ways to reinforce a standard of pronunciation of the biblical text. The three uses of these signs have, individually, been associated with Palestino-Tiberian vocalisation, or labelled as ‘Extended Tiberian’. I contribute a fresh analysis by contextualising the signs with each other, showing how they work together to preserve a standard form of pronunciation of the biblical text through reinforcing the syllabification when the text is read aloud. I also examine the codicological features of each of these fragments, which appear very similar to each other. I conclude that they constitute a
group, and I infer what their physical and linguistic features reveal about their practical function in the reading and study of the Hebrew Bible in the medieval period.


Estara J. Arrant