Chapter 13 by C. Alcidi, F. Corti, D. Gros, and A. Liscai builds on the issue that finding a balance between the objectives of economic growth, environmental sustainability and social fairness has been one of the key priorities of the EU agenda in the last years. While the link between economic growth and social and ecological objectives has historically received much attention, the socio-environmental nexus has received much less. Some scholars recently attempted to identify the possible functions that the welfare state could perform to accompany the green transition. Based on this recent literature, the authors identify two main functions (activating and buffering) that are not mutually exclusive. An important distinction is made in the logic under which the welfare intervention is carried out. Two different types of logic can underpin eco-social policies: compensatory or integrated. They show that an integrated approach to social and environmental policies seems to be the most suitable solution to achieve green and positive social outcomes.