In Chapter 4, G. Barbieri, F. Cerniglia, G. F. Gori, and P. Lattarulo provide a general overview of the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) with a focus on the investment needs to ensure an ecological transition. The NRRP contains six missions, of which Mission 2 is specifically dedicated to the ecological transition (approximately 59.5 billion euros); however further resources for the transition are also available in other Missions under climate objectives. In total, the available resources are around 71.7 billion euros. This means that out of the total funding allocated to the NRRP (191 billion euros), 37.5% is dedicated to green investment, which is slightly above the minimum threshold set by the EU. In absolute terms, because of the size of the Italian NRRP, this is by far the most significant investment out of all the EU countries. The NRRP is a huge gamble for the future of Italy due to the sheer number of resources involved, the deep structural lags that must be overcome, and the major political consensus needed on the overall objectives and/or missions.