The eleventh chapter discusses the intricate relationship between ports and their hinterland and the critical importance of land transport when considering port development. The chapter considers the integration between a port and an industrial area. Multimodal operations of ports are discussed through a comprehensive review of the international literature which considers the following issues: regionalisation and spatial control, structural and organisation challenges of multi-mode port operation, and the disruption of land access to ports. Three Indonesian port case studies are then presented: Belawan Port in Medan, North Sumatera; Tanjung Priok Port in Jakarta; and Tanjung Perak/Teluk Lamong Port Terminal in Surabaya. The case studies touch on a variety of issues: traffic congestion in and around ports; control of inbound and outbound traffic at ports; empty trips; land-use management and local-through access traffic separation; dedicated toll access; the use of inland waterways as an alternative transport mode; dedicated rail service from an industrial area/ special economic zone; expansion of rail services; use of intermodal systems; IT solutions; the green port concept; inter terminal freight transport; infrastructure that can guarantee efficient freight movement. The chapter concludes with several policy recommendations.