The fifth chapter commences with a review of the literature on intermodal terminals (dry ports). It then examines the symbiotic relationships between port and hinterland, including investment costs (in current Australian dollars using an inflation calculator), with an historical case study that focuses on Port Botany in Sydney, Australia’s second largest container port. The historical backdrop is important for researchers to understand the social, economic and environmental effects of port locational decisions on its hinterland. Specifically, the development of Port Botany has been associated with environmental and social conflicts due to landside constraints and community action. The problem of increasing container volumes handled in seaports requires adequate land to be available nearby or in the immediate hinterland for port-associated functions with efficient inland multi-modal transport access. The relevance to Indonesian ports is discussed.