Many species persist outside protected areas, in areas such as traditional farmland, sustainably logged forests, and unprotected rangelands. These areas can and must play a more important role in ongoing conservation efforts. For instance, traditional peoples that live on undeveloped land have beliefs that are compatible with biodiversity conservation, and so there are conservation strategies that are designed to benefit both these traditional communities and protect biodiversity. Moreover, areas intensively used by humans can also contribute to conservation efforts. Biodiversity-friendly techniques are being developed and implemented for the agriculture, logging, and fisheries industries, many which have been adopted. Mines and other extractive industries can participate in biodiversity offset programmes, and partner with conservation organisations to contribute to local biodiversity protection. But there remains a need to monitor the activities of extractive industries to ensure that cost-cutting measures do not lead to biodiversity losses. Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects link biodiversity conservation with economic development. There is however a need to ensure these approaches remain resilient to challenges that may threaten their long-term success. Human-wildlife conflict, such as livestock predation and crop raiding, remains a major conservation challenge. Multiple mechanisms have been developed to help victims overcome or mitigate such losses. Some of these have even allowed victims to benefit from the animals they previously thought of as nuisances.