This chapter uses prolonged contact between Chone Tibetan and other Tibetan languages, as well as Chinese, to introduce other key concepts in the politics of language. It problematizes the concept of ‘linguistic hegemony’ to demonstrate that the usual binary of dominant versus subordinate/minority language is more complicated in the context of language contact. The authors develop the notion of ‘dual hegemonies’ to capture this sort of complex hierarchy. Language policy is argued to be the institutionalization of (not only the representation of) language ideology – language practices stem from language policies, such as adult literacy programs, which coerce minority language speakers to accept their language as inferior. Their consent to this ideology in turn justifies the practice of coercion.