Yeats's Legacies: Yeats Annual No. 21

Yeats's Legacies: Yeats Annual No. 21 Warwick Gould (ed.)
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The admirable Yeats Annual... a powerful base of biographical and textual knowledge. Since 1982 the vade mecum of Yeats.
—Bernard O'Donoghue, The Times Literary Supplement

Each and every "Yeats Annual” is, indeed, a must read, if not obtain for your library, for any person with an interest in the life, and work, of William Butler Yeats. 
—Declan J. Foley, author of The Only Art of Jack B. Yeats and editor of Yeats 150

This generously stuffed volume has much to appeal to the Yeats scholar: it is packed with new discoveries and crosses the fields of literary and textual criticism, biography and book history.
—Tara Stubbs, The Review of English Studies (August, 2018)

The two great Yeats Family Sales of 2017 and the legacy of the Yeats family’s 80-year tradition of generosity to Ireland’s great cultural institutions provide the kaleidoscope through which these advanced research essays find their theme. Hannah Sullivan’s brilliant history of Yeats’s versecraft challenges Poundian definitions of Modernism; Denis Donoghue offers unique family memories of 1916 whilst tracing the political significance of the Easter Rising; Anita Feldman addresses Yeats’s responses to the Rising’s appropriation of his symbols and myths, the daring artistry of his ritual drama developed from Noh, his poetry of personal utterance, and his vision of art as a body reborn rather than a treasure preserved amid the testing of the illusions that hold civilizations together in ensuing wars. Warwick Gould looks at Yeats as founding Senator in the new Free State, and his valiant struggle against the literary censorship law of 1929 (with its present-day legacy of Irish anti-blasphemy law still presenting a constitutional challenge). Drawing on Gregory Estate documents, James Pethica looks at the evictions which preceded Yeats’s purchase of Thoor Ballylee in Galway; Lauren Arrington looks back at Yeats, Ezra Pound, and the Ghosts of The Winding Stair (1929) in Rapallo. Having co-edited both versions of A Vision, Catherine Paul offers some profound reflections on ‘Yeats and Belief’. Grevel Lindop provides a pioneering view of Yeats’s impact on English mystical verse and on Charles Williams who, while at Oxford University Press, helped publish the Oxford Book of Modern Verse. Stanley van der Ziel looks at the presence of Shakespeare in Yeats’s Purgatory. William H. O’Donnell examines the vexed textual legacy of his late work, On the Boiler while Gould considers the challenge Yeats’s intentionalism posed for once-fashionable post-structuralist editorial theory. John Kelly recovers a startling autobiographical short story by Maud Gonne. While nine works of current biographical, textual and literary scholarship are reviewed, Maud Gonne is the focus of debate for two reviewers, as are Eva Gore-Booth, Constance and Casimir Markievicz, Rudyard Kipling, David Jones, T. S. Eliot and his presence on the radio.

Yeats Annual is published by Open Book Publishers in association with the Institute of English Studies, University of London. Further details, including how to order back issues, can be found at:


Yeats's Legacies: Yeats Annual No. 21
Edited by Warwick Gould | March 2018
lxxii + 612 | 43 colour illustrations | 5.5'' x 8.5'' (216 x 140 mm)
Yeats Annual, vol. 21 | ISSN: 0278-7687 (Print); 2054-3611 (Online)
ISBN Paperback: 9781783744541
ISBN Hardback: 9781783744558
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781783744565
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781783744572
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781783744589
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0135
BIC subject codes: DSC (Literary studies: poetry & poets); BISAC: LIT014000 (Literary criticism: Poetry), LIT004120 (Literary criticism: English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh)


You may also be interested in:

List of Illustrations
Abbreviations
Editorial Board
Notes on Contributors
Editor’s Introduction
Acknowledgements and Editorial Information

ESSAYS
How Yeats Learned to Scan
HANNAH SULLIVAN

EASTER 1916
DENIS DONOGHUE

The Invisible Hypnotist: Myth and Spectre in Some Post-1916 Poems and Plays by W. B. Yeats
ANITA FELDMAN

‘Satan, Smut & Co.’: Yeats and the Suppression of Evil Literature in the Early Years of the Irish Free State
WARWICK GOULD

‘Uttering, mastering it’? Yeats’s Tower, Lady Gregory’s Ballylee, and the Eviction of 1888
JAMES PETHICA

Fighting Spirits: W. B. Yeats, Ezra Pound, and the Ghosts of The Winding Stair (1929)
LAUREN ARRINGTON

W. B. Yeats and the Problem of Belief (with an Afterword, ‘The Centaur and the Daimon’ by WARWICK GOULD)
CATHERINE E. PAUL

Charles Williams and W. B. Yeats
GREVEL LINDOP

Shakespeare in Purgatory: ‘A Scene of Tragic Intensity’
STANLEY VAN DER ZIEL

The Textual History of Yeats’s On the Boiler
WILLIAM H. O’DONNELL

RESEARCH UPDATES
Maud Gonne’s Fictional Affair: ‘A Life’s Sketch’
Edited and with notes by JOHN KELLY

Conflicted Legacies: Yeats’s Intentions and Editorial Theory
WARWICK GOULD

REVIEW ESSAYS AND REVIEWS
‘Both beautiful, one a gazelle’: An Essay reviewing Sonja Tiernan, Eva Gore-Booth: An Image of Such Politics and Lauren Arrington, Revolutionary Lives: Constance and Casimir Markievicz
DEIRDRE TOOMEY

W. B. Yeats, On Baile’s Strand: Manuscript Materials, ed. by Jared Curtis and Declan Kiely
RICHARD ALLEN CAVE

W. David Soud, Divine Cartographies: God, History and Poeisis in W. B. Yeats, David Jones, and T. S. Eliot
GREVEL LINDOP

Yeats, Philosophy, and the Occult, ed. by Matthew Gibson and Neil Mann
R. A. GILBERT

Alexander Bubb, Meeting Without Knowing It: Kipling and Yeats at the Fin de Siècle
JAD ADAMS

Emily C. Bloom, The Wireless past: Anglo-Irish Writers and the BBC, 1931–1968
EMILIE MORIN

Ezra Pound, Posthumous Cantos, ed. by Massimo Bacigalupo
STODDARD MARTIN

Adrian Frazier, The Adulterous Muse: Maud Gonne, Lucien Millevoye and W. B. Yeats with an Afterword by DEIRDRE TOOMEY
STODDARD MARTIN

Publications Received


Jad Adams is a Research Fellow at the Institute of English Studies, University of London. He is an historian working as an author and an independent television producer. He specializes in radical characters from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the Decadence of the 1890s. His literary work includes Kipling (2004), Madder Music, Stronger Wine: The Life of Ernest Dowson (2000) and Hideous Absinthe: A History of the Devil in a Bottle (2004). His most recent book is Women and the Vote: A World History (2014); other books include Tony Benn: A Biography (1992 and, updated, 2011) Gandhi: Naked Ambition (2009) Pankhurst (2003) and The Dynasty: The Nehru-Gandhi Story. His television work includes biographies of Kitchener, Bill and Hillary Clinton, and of historical characters from London’s East End. See http://www.jadadams.co.uk/.

Lauren Arrington is a Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Irish Studies, University of Liverpool. She is the author of Revolutionary Lives: Constance and Casimir Markievicz (2016, reviewed in this volume) and W. B. Yeats, the Abbey Theatre, Censorship, and the Irish State (2010). In the autumn of 2017, she was Burns Distinguished Visiting Scholar in Irish Studiesat Boston College, and she has held visiting fellowships at Trinity College Dublin, the University of Cambridge, and the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. She is currently writing a book provisionally entitled Rapallo: Yeats, Pound, and Late Modernism.

Richard Allen Cave
is Emeritus Professor of Drama and Theatre Arts at Royal Holloway, University of London. He has published extensively on aspects of Irish theatre, and edited the manuscripts of The King of the Great Clock Tower and A Full Moon in March (2007). His Collaborations: Ninette de Valois and W. B. Yeats appeared in 2008.

Denis Donoghue
is University Professor Emeritus and formerly Henry James Professor of English and American Letters at New York University. Among his many books are William Butler Yeats (1971), his edition of W. B. Yeats, Memoirs Autobiography: First Draft (1971), Thieves of Fire: The Promethean Imagination (The T. S. Eliot Lectures at the University of Kent at Canterbury, 1974), Ferocious Alphabets (1981), The Arts without Mystery (The Reith Lectures, BBC, 1982; 1983), We Irish: Essays on Irish Literature and Society (1988), Warrenpoint (1994), Being Modern Together (1991), Walter Pater: Lover of Strange Souls (1995), Adam’s Curse: Reflections on Literature and Religion (2001), On Eloquence (2010), and Metaphor (2014). He is currently writing a book on T. S. Eliot.

Anita Feldman
is a writer, editor, and lecturer at New York University, where she taught writing and literature for twenty-six years. She has also been a guest lecturer on Noh drama at Fordham University. Before that, she was based in Tokyo for almost six years, as an editor for an English-language publisher, an art columnist for the English-language edition of the Mainichi newspaper, and a Tokyo correspondent for the American magazine Art News. She is currently working on a book of essays about Yeats’s plays.

R. A.
Gilbert is the author and editor of twelve books, and many contributions to books and periodicals, on the Golden Dawn and its members. Among the most recent of these are his edition of The House of the Hidden Light, by Arthur Machen & A. E. Waite (2003) and a new collection of papers by Westcott: A Magus Among the Adepts. Essays and Addresses by William Wynn Westcott (2012). One major earlier title, The Golden Dawn Companion (1986), is currently being revised for a new edition. Dr Gilbert is now the editor of The Christian Parapsychologist, and has been a long-term contributor of scholarly articles on archives of occult materials to Yeats Annuals.

Warwick Gould
FRSL, FRSA, FEA is Emeritus Professor of English Literature in the University of London, and Senior Research Fellow of the Institute of English Studies (in the School of Advanced Study), of which he was Founder-Director 19992013. He is co-author of Joachim of Fiore and the Myth of the Eternal Evangel in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1988, rev. 2001), and co-editor of The Secret Rose, Stories by W. B. Yeats: A Variorum Edition (1981, rev. 1992), The Collected Letters of W. B. Yeats, Volume II, 1896–1900 (1997), and Mythologies (2005). He has edited Yeats Annual for thirty years.

John Kelly
is an Emeritus Research Fellow at St John’s College, Oxford, and the Donald Keough Professor in Irish Studies at the University of Notre Dame. He taught English and Irish Literature at Oxford University from 1976 to 2009, and has written extensively on nineteenth- and twentieth-century literature. He is General Editor of The Collected Letters of W. B. Yeats, Vol. 4 to which was awarded the Cohen Prize by the Modern Languages Association. His co-edition, with Ronald Schuchard, of Vol. 5 will be out in 2018. He has also edited and introduced a 12-volume series of Irish fiction, poetry, and essays of the nineteenth century, under the title ‘Hibernia: State and Nation’. His W. B. Yeats Chronology appeared in 2003.

Grevel Lindop
was formerly Professor of Romantic and Early Victorian Studies at the University of Manchester, and is now an independent writer and researcher. He was General Editor of The Works of Thomas De Quincey (21 vols., 2000–2003), and author of The Opium-Eater: A Life of Thomas De Quincey; A Literary Guide to the Lake District; Charles Williams: The Third Inkling; and seven collections of poems, most recently Luna Park. He is a Fellow of the Wordsworth Trust, and Academic Director of the Temenos Academy, founded by Kathleen Raine.

Stoddard Martin
is a writer, lecturer, and publisher. His books include Wagner to the Waste Land, Orthodox Heresy and The Great Expatriate Writers, published by Macmillan. He edited anthologies of Byron, Nietzsche, and D. H. Lawrence in the Duckworth ‘Sayings of’ series, which he helped to devise, and has contributed chapters to many other anthologies, including on George Moore and Ezra Pound. He has taught at Harvard, Oxford, Łódź and Warsaw universities and was for many years an associate fellow of the Institute of English Studies, University of London. He writes short fiction under the name Chip Martin.

Emilie Morin
is at the University of York, where she teaches modern British and Irish literature, theatre history, European modernism and the avant-garde. She has a particular interest in the history of radio broadcasting. Her books include Beckett’s Political Imagination (2017) and Samuel Beckett and the Problem of Irishness (2009), and the edited collections Theatre and Human Rights after 1945: Things Unspeakable (2015) and Theatre and Ghosts: Materiality, Performance and Modernity (2014), co-edited with Mary Luckhurst.

William O’Donnell
is Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Memphis. He edited Yeats’s unfinished novel The Speckled Bird (1974, 1977, and 2003), Prefaces and Introductions (1989), Later Essays (which included On the Boiler) (1994), Autobiographies (co-editor, 1999), and Responsibilities: Manuscript Materials (2003). He is author of A Guide to the Prose Fiction to W. B. Yeats (1983) and The Poetry of William Butler Yeats: An Introduction (1986). He has compiled a catalogue raisonné of the art that Yeats owned.

Catherine E. Paul
is Professor Emerita at Clemson University. She is author of Poetry in the Museums of Modernism: Yeats, Pound, Moore, Stein (2002) and Fascist Directive: Ezra Pound and Italian Cultural Nationalism (2016). With Margaret Mills Harper, she edited W. B. Yeats’s A Vision: The Original 1925 Version (2008) and A Vision: The Revised 1937 Version (2015), both for Scribner’s Collected Works Series. She presently works as a textile artist at the Greenville Center for Creative Arts in South Carolina.

James Pethica
teaches at Williams College, Massachusetts. He has published editions of Lady Gregory’s Diaries 1892–1902 (1996), and Last Poems: Manuscript Materials in the Cornell Yeats series (1997). His Lady Gregory’s Early Irish Writings, 1883–1893, the 16th vol. in The Collected Works of Lady Gregory (gen. editor and publisher, Colin Smythe) including ‘An Emigrant’s Note Book’, the Angus Grey Stories, and ‘A Phantom’s Pilgrimage’, will be out this year. He is currently working on the authorized biography of Lady Gregory.

Hannah Sullivan
is an Associate Professor of English at New College, Oxford. Her first book, The Work of Revision (2013), was a comparative study of modernist writers’ practices of writing and redrafting, with a particular focus on the use of typescript. She was awarded a Leverhulme Prize in 2013 to write a book on the theory, polemic, and practice of free verse from Wordsworth to the present. In fact, as this article on Yeats (written at the beginning of research for the book) begins to suggest, the equation between freedom and prosodic irregularity is not always as simple as it may seem. Her debut poetry collection, Three Poems, will be published by Faber & Faber in 2018.

Deirdre Toomey
is editor of Yeats and Women: Yeats Annual No. 9 (1991), revised and augmented as Yeats and Women (1997). She is co-editor of The Collected Letters of W. B. Yeats, Volume II, 1896–1900 (1997) and Mythologies (2005). She is working with Warwick Gould on a complete revision of A. Norman Jeffares’s A New Commentary on the Poems of Yeats and is Research Editor of Yeats Annual.

Stanley van der Ziel
lectures in British and Irish literature at Maynooth University. His work on modern and contemporary Irish literature has been published in various books and journals. He is the author of John McGahern and the Imagination of Tradition (2016), and the editor of two of McGahern’s works—Love of the World: Essays (2009) and The Rockingham Shoot and Other Dramatic Writings (2018), both published by Faber & Faber.

"Yeats’s Legacies” Yeats Annual No. 21: A Special Issue a Review by Declan J Foley, the editor of The Only Art of Jack B. Yeats (2007) and Yeats 150 (2016) Lilliput Press Dublin and convener of the W B Yeats Society of Victoria, Australia


"Would you like to review this book?” is a request I receive now, and again. When invited to review the 21st Yeats Annual, I agreed, but after a few pages, it was became a somewhat overwhelming task, in that one, could almost write a short novel about this terrific issue of the Yeats Annual.

Each and every Yeats Annual is, indeed, a must read, if not obtain for your library, for any person with an interest in the life, and work, of William Butler Yeats. As wine improves with age, so does the work of Yeats, and those who write about him, improve our insights, as do scholars of Shakespear, Chaucer et al.

The front cover is a beautiful Vignette of a Hawk, as Warwick explains to his readers: "The hawk is taken from the top-board of Responsibilities and Other Poems (London: Macmillan, 1916), Private Coll., London, Image Warwick Gould. The design is by Thomas Sturge Moore, showing Yeats’s change of livery when he moved his books to Macmillan as his principal trade publisher. The book was published on 10 October 1916, the same day as that firm, issued his Reveries over Childhood and Youth, also with a Sturge Moore cover-design.”

Of course, when it comes to the book plates of W. B. Yeats, Warwick Gould’s deep interest, and, knowledge is unpreceded, as any reader of my own Yeats 150 will be more than aware. The cover of a book about any artist, is a generally a good indicator of the contents – to me personally at any rate—and as much care should be taken in the creation of a book plate, as the contents, especially when that book, concerns the life and work of William Butler Yeats.

In 1948, George Yeats told Richard Ellman, ‘…it would have taken her husband a hundred years to complete his work.’  Indeed, as one who has been reading on the life of W B Yeats for nigh on thirty years, I am of the opinion that Frank O’Connor’s warning at the graveside in Drumcliff in August 1965, (‘In two hundred years from now, if there are people standing around this grave, as we are today, and if they know Yeats, for what we know him, then we will have failed in our duty.’) has been heeded, and this has been proved by the tremendous scholarship that has been, and continues to be published, and one could say encouraged, by the Annual International Yeats Summer School, and the Yeats Societies worldwide, and by The Yeats Annual.

Yeats Annual No.1 (1982, 259 pages) edited by Richard J. Finneran (1943-2005), then Professor of English at Newcomb College, Turlane University, New Orleans, informs readers:

The Yeats Annual has been founded to provide a forum for criticism and scholarship on W. B. Yeats. The first volume includes a critical edition by Steve L. Adams and George Mills Harper of an important unpublished manuscript, "Leo Africanus”. Six distinguished Yeatsians have contributed essays: George Bornstein, Edward Engelberg, Ian Fletcher, Daniel A. Harris, Phillip L. Marcus and Thomas Parkinson. Recent books on Yeats are reviewed by Cleanth Brooks, James F. Kilroy, Patricia Mc Fate, James Olney, Edward Partridge, Ronal Schuchard and Donald E. Stanford. The Yeats Annual also provides the full text of Yeats items from the 1980 Dissertation Abstracts International.

Here we are in 2018, with Yeats Annual No. 21 totalling 686 pages. Yet it contains much new information on the life of W. B. Yeats, his wife, and, his contemporaries. The changes, and challenges, in publishing are indeed greater today, than they were in 1982: from the internet, to CD’s, the poems of Yeats, have been set to music. The ease of instant communication via email, and the many social media, available online, yet thankfully scholarship is still important to print.

Warwick Gould deserves our sincere thanks, and congratulations for his continual research into new media, and ensuring the provision of the Yeats Annual to as wide a readership as possible. Warwick has taken the Yeats Annual to new heights in cooperation with Open Book Publishers. With options to purchase a paperback; hardback; epub or mobi,or download a free pdf copy. (https://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/724).

Open Book Publishers provide an important service to literature, learning and thereby erudition. I have personal experienced demands from publishers for ridiculous sums to reproduce short passages from books. In one case, the demand was for $1,155. 00 to reproduce a chapter. A tax on knowledge, to say the least.

"Abbreviations” of the titles of books, and, other manuscripts, referred to throughout The Annual (p.p XIX – VVX ) runs to seven pages, a veritable mini library of publications, by, and about W B Yeats. Some, I have read, some occupy shelves in my little library, others are a must read, for any scholar or student of the life and work of W. B. Yeats. Including 42 illustrations, relevant to the text.

The "Editorial Board” is in itself, a "Who’s Who” of Yeatsian studies, authors, and publishers for many years, on Irish Literature, and Anglo-Irish Literature. The combined knowledge of the board, of their subject would be impossible, for a human to calculate.  All of which adds to Yeatsian studies, boding well for the future of those studies.

The essayists are well regarded internationally having contributed much, to Yeats studies through various Yeats forums, including the Sligo Annual Yeats Summer School.
Warwick Gould’s "Introduction” is a gem with a full report of the auctions of Yeats memorabilia in 2017, includes photos and reproductions of some of the material auctioned by the descendants of "The Father of the Yeatssss,” (Ezra Pound) and "Willy and Lily and Lolly and Jack” (G.K. Chesterton).

In a footnote WG, mentions the begrudgery of some in Ireland over these sales. The fact is that many, including myself, feared these items could be lost to scholarship, if purchased by one of the many billionaires, who imagine acquiring art, makes them artistic connoisseurs. Many were of the opinion, rightly, or wrongly, that these artifacts proper place is in Ireland, with public access to them. As a Sligoman, I was most disappointed the children of Michael B. Yeats removed the Nobel Medallion from the County Sligo Museum, for no other reason than to reduce their tax bill – that is indeed begrudgery.
 After much personal wrangling on how to limit the review from becoming a small book, I have decided to tease the reader with the following excerpts, and end by mentioning the remaining essays etc.

Hannah Sullivan’s How Yeats Learned to Scan a most interesting essay on the format of the poetry of W B, with comparisons of other poets’ work. Sullivan gives a short history of free verse, and explains some of the myths about it, valuable to any upcoming poet. Her explanation of the mechanics of poetry used by W B is indeed invaluable information for all who study the poems seriously.

An interesting note on the first page is: "Note—Further information may have been gathered since this article was prepared for publication. If you would like to find out if any further information has been discovered that may help your own research, why not write to the author at hannah.sullivan@new.ox.ac.uk.  Quite apart from anything else, feedback is always welcomed.” This is what makes the Yeats Annual one of the best Yeats publications.

Denis Donoghue provides, as usual, a forensic essay on Easter 1916, opening with:
 In the days before the Easter Rising there were three possibilities before the initiates: one, that a Rising would not take place at all, or would be indefinitely postponed; two, that it would take place on Easter Sunday; three, that it would take place on Easter Monday. Of these, the third came to pass, ousting the other two. That third one is not to be thought away. John Bruton and others wish that it had not come to pass; but that is a different matter, their sentiment belongs to the subjunctive mood of desire.”

Recently reading Declan Kiberd’s Irish Classics (Harvard U.P, 2001), I was impressed by the history of English disdain for the Irish people, to realise that the Insurrectionist of Easter 1916, were indeed quite right in their assessment, and action, of that week.

The essay begins with a letter of January 7, 1915 by Yeats to Lennox Robinson, about a play of Robinsons titled The Dreamers which The Abbey had accepted. The play was about the aborted 1804 Rising led by Robert Emmet. Yeats ended the letter: "I believe your play will be the making of us in Dublin this Spring. I imagine it will have many revivals. And with Pierce and McNiel flirting with the gallows tree, will be almost topical.”  [Yeats was a notoriously poor speller]

We then get a ‘history’ of the origin of the 1916 events, followed by the ‘history’ of the British/English politics of the Home Rule saga, for modern readers, this is a more than beneficial summary, and the names of the politicians involved, were always on the lips of those Irish people with a continued interest in Anglo-Irish affairs, in the 20th century, and will be in ‘the coming days.’

Donoghue’s essay could well be used as an introduction to the entire "Home Rule” question, and the many failed resolutions that were brought to a head by the Insurrection of Easter 1916. The references to publications, by people with deep knowledge, is also, and will always be, beneficial to any student of Irish history, and in particular the events leading to the decision of Pearse and Connolly et al, to go out on that Easter Monday and take action.

Then there is a discussion on the Yeats Poem itself, the following which is an excerpt:

"I concede that a simpler explanation of the transition in Yeats’s poem is its movement from the comedy of social appearance to the sublime. Edmund Burke says, in his Philosophical Enquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful, that ‘whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime’.16 The main quality of the sublime is that it is not answerable to the standard criteria of reason, it cannot be held accountable, indeed it makes reason feel ashamed of itself. We can witness its signs, but we cannot domesticate them or subject them to a normative judgment.”

Donoghue ends his essay on a personal note, and I am more than pleased Denis, was there to witness the centenary commemoration of Eater 1916.

Anita Feldman in her essay The Invisible Hypnotist: Myth and Spectre in Some Post-1926 Poems and Plays by W. B. Yeats.

A sentence in the opening paragraph, gives a clue to the path followed: "From The Dreaming of the Bones (1919) to The Man and the Echo (1938), Yeats’s plays and poems continued, throughout his life, to reflect his response to the rebellion and its aftermath.”

Yeats’s poem Easter 1916 is possibly among the most read, and studied poems by W. B. Yeats, it resonates to this day, and as Anita in her opening lines in a quote, ". . . it is not politically acceptable to question the ethics or wisdom of the 1916 leaders’,.”

And more than likely, knowing Irish people, it will remain so, for generations to come, and will be included in Irish mythology for ever and a day, as will the executed men, be eternally linked to Cuchullain. That new essays on the poetry and life of W. B. Yeats appear on a regular basis, shows the depth of his life’s work, as George Yeats, said to Richard Ellman, "He would have needed to live to be a hundred years old to complete his work.”  (Not exact quote).

The essay, as with most good essays, on W. B is wide ranging, covering the politics, people, plays and poetry of Yeats, in the years between the Eater Rising of 1916 and his death in 1939.

Warwick Gould the inveterate Yeatsian, scholar, academic, publisher and educator, provides yet another historical and important essay on the early years of the Irish Free State, in his interesting essay Satan, Smut & Co’: Yeats and the Suppression of Evil Literature in the Early Years of the Irish Free State.

Opening with a story of the public burning of the 1925 issue of Pears’ Annual this is a riveting historical essay for anyone with an interest in Irish history, in particular the years after the creation of the Irish Free State, in December 1922: well described by Warwick as ".... the Free State’s bitter fissiparity.”  (p.124). (known only too well in my childhood, alas, fortunate to have broad-minded family, and friends, in those days).

As a boy in Sligo, I had many oral stories of, of the period 1922 onward, but sadly much of the factual history was not published. I was fortunate to have a mentor in my youth, and early adult life, who had been a Captain in the Irish Free State Army, he had a role in the Civil War, and became an ordained member of The Marist Order in the mid-1920s. He told me that on the morning following the signing of "The Treaty” the then, Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin John Gregg, sent a letter by hand to the Roman Catholic Archbishop Edward Byrne, offering the R.C hierarchy the choice of St. Patrick’s Cathedral or Christ Church, as the National R.C Cathedral: the offer was refused!

A minor error by Warwick (p.128) he states, "The Irish Civil War (28 June 1922-24 May 1923) . . . split [W.T.] Cosgrave’s Sinn Fein from Republican Purists.” It was Arthur Griffith who was President at the time of the split. Griffith, like Yeats, could see how events would unfold, said to Collins, shortly before the outbreak, "Let them have their war, they need to get it out of them.”

Yeats correctly, pointed out at the time, [Collected Works p. 481.] "Some of these ecclesiastics are of an incredible ignorance. A Christian Brother publicly burnt an English magazine because it contained the Cherry Tree Carol, the lovely celebration of Mary’s sanctity and her Child’s divinity, a glory of the mediaeval church as popular in Gaelic as in English, because, scandalized by its naïveté, he believed it the work of some irreligious modern poet; and this man is so confident in the support of an ignorance even greater than his own, that a year after his exposure in the Press, he permitted, or directed his society to base an appeal form public support, which filled the front page of a principal Dublin newspaper, upon the destruction of this ‘infamous poem.” (p.125.)  WG, treats the reader of this essay with a reproduction of the "Centre fold of Pear’s Annual, 1925, showing the illuminate design for ‘The Cherry Tree’: an English Carol by Cecil J. Sharp . . .”

Interestingly, "The Cherry-Tree Carol, had been published in A Broadside for December 1909, with an illustration by Jack B. Yeats. (P.183.). Note 131, (ibid) states:  In The Bookman, October 1895 Yeats had recommended that The Religious Songs of Connaught ‘be added . . . . to Hyde’s Love Songs of Connacht.

We get an overview of the short lived (two issues) review TO-MORROW, of 1924, planned by Iseult and Francis Stuart, et al. contributors included Lennox Robinson; Liam O’Flaherty and W. B. Yeats.  Any cultural/political involvement by Yeats was a red rag to the editor of The Catholic Bulletin edited by Fr. Timothy Corcoran, SJ, a professor of education at UCD, and To-morrow was in that bulls-eye!

Immediately attacked by Corcoran, it included: "Every last drop of political significance was squeezed out of To-morrow, down to the names and addresses of its printers Whiteley and Wright ‘appropriate name)’ in Blackfriars Street ‘(a choicely ironical address)’ Manchester and of its publication (from 13 Fleet St., Dublin)”

And: "The new literary cesspool of the clique of aesthetes, prize-winners or laurel-bearers at the recent [Tailteann], blazons under its titles: ‘Contributors include W. B. Yeats, Lennox Robinson’. The former contributes a ‘poem’ [Led and The Swan] which exhibits Senator Pollexfen Yeats in open rivalry with the ‘bestial genius’ which Senator Yeats has recently championed. For bestial is the precise and fitting word for this outburst of ‘poetry’.
As many of my elders in Sligo, oft remarked, of some of the R.C clergy, male and female, ‘Great Catholics, but very poor Christians.

Above all, this essay of Warwick’s includes tremendously detailed foot notes, in my opinion a most important part of any book.

My sincere apologies the following essayists in Yeats Annual 21 who have penned great and interesting essays, as always invaluable to any reader, student of the life and work of William Butler Yeats
James Pethica: Uttering, mastering it? Yeats’s Tower. Lady Gregory’s Ballylee, and the Eviction of 1888.
Lauren Arrington: Fighting Spirits: W. B. Yeats, Ezra Pound, and the Ghosts of The Winding Stair (1929).
Catherine E. Paul: W. B. Yeats and the Problem of Belief (with an Afterword, ‘The Centaur and the Daimon’ by Warwick Gould)
Grevel Lindop: Charles Williams and W. B. Yeats
Stanley Van Der Ziel: Shakespeare in Purgatory: A Scene of Tragic Intensity
William H. O’Donnell: The Textual History of Yeats’s 'On the Boiler'
There are research updates, review essays and reviews, from distinguished Yeatsians: Deirdre Toomey; Richard Allen Cave; John Kelly; Grevel Lindop; R.A. Gilbert; Jad Adams; Emilie Morin; Stoddard Martin, and a record of publications received since the previous Yeats Annual.