What Works in Conservation 2018

What Works in Conservation 2018 William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Nancy Ockendon, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith (eds.)
Paperback ISBN: 978-1-78374-428-2 £24.95
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For public land managers, policy-makers, natural resource specialists, farmers, ranchers and others in the business of protecting and renewing the world’s diverse ecosystems, it’s easy to get lost in a sea of studies and strategies. How does a person determine which solutions will yield the best results in any given situation? What Works in Conservation 2017, a free online book just published by University of Cambridge conservation specialists, aims to help conservation workers navigate that sea. With the guidance of an international team of experts, the book summarizes, organizes and evaluates the outcomes of specific conservation practices reported in more than 150 scientific journals as well as in unpublished reports and other literature from around the world.
—Haley Madderom, Ensia, Jaunary 18, 2017

This book provides a quick reference guide to the latest and most relevant scientific studies into many different types of conservation management techniques and interventions. It aims not to make recommendations but to assist land managers and conservationists to make informed decisions about conservation policy or management decisions. [...] This book successfully collates the pros and cons of a wide range of conservation techniques based on available scientific evidence.
—Chris Gregory, BTO News: 318

The volume "What works in conservation" is an original, useful and practical tool for conservationists, managers, activists of non-governmental organizations and also for amphibian ecologists. All of them will obtain relevant informatinon about conservation actions to be realized or eventually to be avoided, this latter information almost never discussed in classic conservation textbooks. The book should always be consulted before (and I stress the word "before") planning any kind of conservation intervention to correctly evaluate, not only possible outcomes but, also non desired and collateral harmful effects.
—Sebastiano Salvidio, Acta Herpetologica (2016) 11(2): 233-234 (Review of 1st edition)

What are the best means of reducing illegal hunting of primates?
Does changing the type of livestock benefit heathland vegetation?
Does removing the upper layer of peat enhance peatland restoration?
Is flame treatment effective for dealing with invasive floating pennywort?

What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 1277 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2018 edition contains new chapters covering practical global conservation of primates, peatlands, shrublands and heathlands, management of captive animals as well as an extended chapter on control of freshwater invasive species. Other chapters cover the global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.

Funded by Arcadia, DEFRA, ESRC, MAVA Foundation, NERC, Natural England, Robert Bosch Stiftung, Synchronicity Earth, South West Water and Waitrose Ltd. have generously contributed towards the publication of this volume.


What Works in Conservation 2018
Edited by William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Nancy Ockendon, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith | May 2018
660 | 1 colour illustration | 6.14" x 9.21" (234 x 156 mm)
What Works in Conservation Series | ISSN: 2059-4232 (Print); 2059-4240 (Online)
ISBN Paperback: 9781783744282
ISBN Hardback: 9781783744299
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781783744305
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781783744312
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781783744329
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0131
Subject Codes, BIC: RNKC (Conservation of the environment), RNKH (Conservation of wildlife and habitats), RND (Environmental policy and protocols); BISAC: NAT010000 (Ecology), NAT011000 (Environmental Conservation & Protection), SCI026000 (Environmental Science)



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Introduction
   Who is What Works in Conservation for?
   The Conservation Evidence project
   Which conservation interventions are included?
   How we review the literature
   What does What Works in Conservation include?
   Expert assessment of the evidence
   Categorization of interventions
   How to use What Works in Conservation

1. AMPHIBIAN CONSERVATION
   1.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   1.2 Threat: Agriculture
   1.3 Threat: Energy production and mining
   1.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors
   1.5 Threat: Biological resource use
   1.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance
   1.7 Threat: Natural system modifications
   1.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species
   1.9 Threat: Pollution
   1.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather
   1.11 Habitat protection
   1.12 Habitat restoration and creation
   1.13 Species management
   1.14 Education and awareness raising

2. BAT CONSERVATION
   2.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   2.2 Threat: Agriculture
   2.3 Threat: Energy production – wind turbines
   2.4 Threat: Energy production – mining
   2.5 Threat: Transportation and service corridors
   2.6 Threat: Biological resource use
   2.7 Threat: Human disturbance – caving and tourism
   2.8 Threat: Natural system modification – natural fire and fire suppression
   2.9 Threat: Invasive species
   2.10 Threat: Pollution
   2.11 Providing artificial roost structures for bats
   2.12 Education and awareness raising

3. BIRD CONSERVATION
   3.1 Habitat protection
   3.2 Education and awareness raising
   3.3 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   3.4 Threat: Agriculture
   3.5 Threat: Energy production and mining
   3.6 Threat: Transportation and service corridors
   3.7 Threat: Biological resource use
   3.8 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance
   3.9 Threat: Natural system modifications
   3.10 Habitat restoration and creation
   3.11 Threat: Invasive alien and other problematic species
   3.12 Threat: Pollution
   3.13 Threat: Climate change, extreme weather and geological events
   3.14 General responses to small/ declining populations
   3.15 Captive breeding, rearing and releases (ex situ conservation)

4. FARMLAND CONSERVATION
   4.1 All farming systems
   4.2 Arable farming
   4.3 Perennial (non-timber) crops
   4.4 Livestock farming
   4.5 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   4.6 Threat: Agri-chemicals
   4.7 Threat: Transport and service corridors
   4.8 Threat: Hunting and trapping (for pest control, food or sport)
   4.9 Threat: Natural system modification
   4.10 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species
   4.11 Threat: Education and awareness

5. FOREST CONSERVATION
   5.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   5.2 Threat: Agriculture
   5.3 Threat: Transport and service corridors
   5.4 Threat: Biological resource use
   5.5 Habitat protection
   5.6 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species
   5.7 Threat: Pollution
   5.8 Threat: Climate change and severe weather
   5.9 Habitat protection
   5.10 Habitat restoration and creation
   5.11 Actions to improve survival and growth rate of planted trees
   5.12 Education and awareness raising

6. PEATLAND CONSERVATION
   6.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   6.2 Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture
   6.3 Threat: Energy production and mining
   6.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors
   6.5 Threat: Biological resource use
   6.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance
   6.7 Threat: Natural system modifications
   6.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species
   6.9 Threat: Pollution
   6.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather
   6.11 Habitat creation and restoration
   6.12 Actions to complement planting
   6.13 Habitat protection
   6.14 Education and awareness

7. PRIMATE CONSERVATION
   7.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   7.2 Threat: Agriculture
   7.3 Threat: Energy production and mining
   7.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors
   7.5 Threat: Biological resource use
   7.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance
   7.7 Threat: Natural system modifications
   7.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species and genes
   7.9 Threat: Pollution
   7.10 Education and Awareness
   7.11 Habitat protection
   7.12 Species management
   7.13 Livelihood; economic and other incentives

8. SHRUBLAND AND HEATHLAND CONSERVATION
   8.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development
   8.2 Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture
   8.3 Threat: Energy production and mining
   8.4 Threat: Biological resource use
   8.5 Threat: Transportation and service corridors
   8.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance
   8.7 Threat: Natural system modifications
   8.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species
   8.9 Threat: Pollution
   8.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather
   8.11 Threat: Habitat protection
   8.12 Habitat restoration and creation
   8.13 Actions to benefit introduced vegetation
   8.14 Education and awareness

9. MANAGEMENT OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS
   9.1 Ex-situ conservation – breeding amphibians
   9.2 Promoting health and welfare in captive carnivores (felids, canids and ursids) through feeding practices
   9.3 Promoting natural feeding behaviours in primates in captivity

10. SOME ASPECTS OF CONTROL OF FRESHWATER INVASIVE SPECIES
   10.1 Threat: Invasive plants
   10.2 Threat: Invasive molluscs
   10.3 Threat: Invasive crustaceans
   10.4 Threat: Invasive fish
   10.5 Threat: Invasive reptiles
   10.6 Threat: Invasive amphibians

11. SOME ASPECTS OF ENHANCING NATURAL PEST CONTROL
   11.1 Reducing agricultural pollution
   11.2 All farming systems
   11.3 Arable farming
   11.4 Perennial farming
   11.5 Livestock farming and pasture

12. ENHANCING SOIL FERTILITY
   12.1 Reducing agricultural pollution
   12.2 All farming systems
   12.3 Arable farming
   12.4 Livestock and pasture farming


William Sutherland
holds the Miriam Rothschild Chair in Conservation Biology in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge. He is president of the British Ecological Society. His previous twelve books include: Managing Habitats for Conservation (1995), Ecological Census Techniques (2006), The Conservation Handbook: Research, Management and Policy Techniques (2000). He is heavily involved in linking science and policy including through the effective use of evidence.

Lynn Dicks is a Research Fellow funded by the Natural Environment Research Council under the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Sustainability Programme (2013-2016). She works on how to use scientific evidence in policy and practice, developing methods to compile and synthesize ecological evidence and make it useful for decision-making. All her work is focused on insect pollinator conservation and ecosystem services in farmland, but the methods are widely applicable. She is a Co-ordinating Lead Author of the IPBES Thematic Assessment of Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production, due to be published in 2016. She has a degree from Oxford University in Biological Sciences (1995) and a PhD from Cambridge University (2002) on the ecology of flower-visiting insects. From 2002-2009, she worked as a science writer and science communications adviser.

Nancy Ockendon is the Miriam Rothschild Conservation Coordinator and works in the Conservation Science Group of the Zoology Department of the University of Cambridge. She is managing editor of the journal Conservation Evidence, and helps run the annual horizon scan of global conservation issues, as well as being involved in a range of projects as part of the Conservation Evidence group. Prior to this Nancy worked as a researcher in several conservation NGOs, mainly looking at the causes of changes in bird populations. She holds a degree in Zoology from Cambridge University and a PhD in ecological genetics of house sparrows from the University of Sheffield. 

Silviu Petrovan is a Research Associate in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK. He is part of the Conservation Evidence team at the University of Cambridge, a co-author of the Primate Conservation and Captive Management synopses and currently updating the Bird Conservation book. In 2018 he is co-editor of a special issue on amphibians in the journal Biological Conservation. He is a trustee at Froglife where he worked for 5 years as Conservation Coordinator (2011-2016) and undertook numerous research and practical conservation projects for amphibians, reptiles and wetland habitats, incorporating large-scale citizen science elements, automated monitoring hardware and software for ecological road mitigation and wildlife disease surveillance.

Rebecca K. Smith is a Research Associate in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK. She holds degrees in the ecology and conservation of European hares (PhD, University of Bristol), Applied Ecology and Conservation (MSc, University of East Anglia) and Biology (BSc with Honours,University of Bristol). Dr Smith is part of the Conservation Evidence group at the University of Cambridge, which focuses on summarizing and disseminating scientific evidence about the effects of conservation interventions for habitats and species. She is an author of the Amphibian Conservation and Farmland Conservation synopses and has undertaken systematic reviews on the effectiveness of conservation management for birds. Prior to this work Dr Smith undertook projects developing monitoring and management strategies for high conservation priority mammal species. Her current role with Conservation Evidence includes facilitating the development and expert assessment of further synopses including reptile and forest conservation and invasive species management.