Ethics for A-Level

Ethics for A-Level Mark Dimmock and Andrew Fisher
Paperback ISBN: 978-1-78374-388-9 £18.95
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Tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies.

What does pleasure have to do with morality? What role, if any, should intuition have in the formation of moral theory? If something is ‘simulated’, can it be immoral?

This accessible and wide-ranging textbook explores these questions and many more. Key ideas in the fields of normative ethics, metaethics and applied ethics are explained rigorously and systematically, with a vivid writing style that enlivens the topics with energy and wit. Individual theories are discussed in detail in the first part of the book, before these positions are applied to a wide range of contemporary situations including business ethics, sexual ethics, and the acceptability of eating animals. A wealth of real-life examples, set out with depth and care, illuminate the complexities of different ethical approaches while conveying their modern-day relevance.

This concise and highly engaging resource is tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies, with a clear and practical layout that includes end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, and common mistakes to avoid. It should also be of practical use for those studying Philosophy as part of the International Baccalaureate or an introductory Philosophy course at university.

 

Ethics for A-Level is of particular value to students and teachers, but Fisher and Dimmock’s precise and scholarly approach will appeal to anyone seeking a rigorous and lively introduction to the challenging subject of ethics.



Ethics for A-Level

Mark Dimmock and Andrew Fisher | July 2017
262 | 14 colour illustrations | 7" x 10" (178 x 254 mm)
ISBN Paperback: 9781783743889
ISBN Hardback: 9781783743896
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781783743902
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781783743919
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781783743926
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0125
BIC and BISAC categories: HPQ (Ethics and moral Philosophy), HPC (History of Western Philosophy), YQZ (Educational: study and revision guides); PHI005000 (Philosophy / Ethics & Moral Philosophy), PHI031000 (Philosophy / Movements / General), EDU040000 (Education / Philosophy, Theory & Social Aspects)


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PREFACE
1. Exam Specification Details
2. Book Structure
References

INTRODUCTION
1. Philosophy, Ethics and Thinking
2. Respecting Ethics
3. The A-Level Student
4. Doing Ethics Well: Legality versus Morality
5. Doing Ethics Well: Prudential Reasons versus Moral Reasons
6. Doing Ethics Well: Prescriptive versus Descriptive Claims
7. Doing Ethics Well: Thought-Experiments
8. Doing Ethics Well: Understanding Disagreement
Summary
Questions and Tasks
References

PART I - NORMATIVE ETHICS
CHAPTER 1: UTILITARIANISM
1. Utilitarianism: An Introduction
2. Hedonism
3. Nozick’s Experience Machine
4. The Foundations of Bentham’s Utilitarianism
5. The Structure of Bentham’s Utilitarianism
6. Hedonic Calculus
7. Problems with Bentham’s Utilitarianism
8. Mill’s Utilitarian Proof
9. Mill’s Qualitative Utilitarianism
10. Mill’s Rule Utilitarianism versus Bentham’s Act Utilitarianism
11. Strong versus Weak Rule Utilitarianism
12. Comparing the Classical Utilitarians
13. Non-Hedonistic Contemporary Utilitarianism: Peter Singer and Preference Utilitarianism
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 2: KANTIAN ETHICS
1. An Introduction to Kantian Ethics
2. Some Key Ideas
3. Acting for the Sake of Duty and Acting in Accordance with Duty
4. Categorical and Hypothetical Imperatives
5. The First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative
6. Perfect and Imperfect Duties
7. Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative
8. The Third Formulation of the Categorical Imperative and Summary
9. Kant on Suicide
10. Problems and Responses: Conflicting Duties
11. Problems and Responses: The Role of Intuitions
12. Problem and Responses: Categorical Imperatives and Etiquette
13. Problems and Responses: The Domain of Morality
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 3: ARISTOTELIAN VIRTUE ETHICS
1. Aristotelian Virtue Ethics Introduction
2. The Function Argument
3. Aristotelian Goodness
4. Eudaimonia and Virtue
5. Developing the Virtues
6. Practical Wisdom (Phronesis)
7. Voluntary Actions, Involuntary Actions and Moral Responsibility
8. Objection: Unclear Guidance
9. Objection: Clashing Virtues
10. Objection: Circularity
11. Objection: Contribution to Eudaimonia
12. Moral Good and Individual Good
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 4: AQUINAS’S NATURAL LAW THEORY
1. Introduction to Aquinas
2. Motivating Natural Law Theory: The Euthyphro Dilemma and Divine Command Theory
3. Natural Law Theory
4. Summary of Aquinas’s Natural Law Theory
5. Putting this into Practice: The Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE)
6. Some Thoughts about Natural Law Theory
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 5: FLETCHER’S SITUATION ETHICS
1. Situation Ethics Introduction
2. Fletcher’s Overall Framework
3. The Four Working Principles of Situationism
4. How to Work out What to Do: Conscience as a Verb not a Noun
5. The Six Propositions of Situation Ethics
6. Problems with Fletcher’s Situationism
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

PART II - METAETHICS
CHAPTER 6: METAETHICAL THEORIES
1. Metaethics: Introduction
2. The Value of Metaethics
3. Cognitivism versus Non-Cognitivism
4. Realism versus Anti-Realism
5. The Metaethical Map
6. Cognitivist and Realist Theory One: Naturalism
7. Objections to Naturalism
8. Cognitivist and Realist Theory Two: Non-Naturalism
9. Objections to Intuitionism
10. Cognitivist and Anti-Realist Theory One: Moral Error Theory
11. Objections to Moral Error Theory
12. Non-Cognitivism
13. Non-Cognitivist and Anti-Realist Theory One: Emotivism
14. Objections to Emotivism
15. Non-Cognitivist and Anti-Realist Theory Two: Prescriptivism
16. Objections to Prescriptivism
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

PART III - APPLIED ETHICS
CHAPTER 7: EUTHANASIA
1. Euthanasia Introduction
2. Key Terms
3. Case One: Persistent Vegetative State
4. Case Two: Incurable and Terminal Illness
5. Pro-Euthanasia: Argument One
6. Pro-Euthanasia: Argument Two
7. Pro-Euthanasia: Argument Three
8. Anti-Euthanasia: Argument One
9. Anti-Euthanasia: Argument Two
10. Anti-Euthanasia: Argument Three
11. Anti-Euthanasia: Argument Four
12. Allowing versus Doing
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 8: BUSINESS ETHICS
1. Introduction to Business Ethics
2. Employers and Employees
3. Businesses and Customers
4. A Business and the Environment
5. Business and Globalization
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 9: CONSCIENCE
1. Introduction
2. The History of Conscience
3. Aquinas on Conscience
4. Freud and the Conscience
5. Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 10: SEXUAL ETHICS
1. Philosophy of Sex Introduction
2. What Is It to "Have Sex”?
3. Natural Law and Sex
4. Kant and Sex
5. Sex and Utilitarianism
6. Sex and the Virtue Theory
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 11: STEALING
1. Stealing: Introduction
2. Defining Stealing
3. Kantian Ethics on Stealing
4. Act and Preference Utilitarianism on Stealing
5. Rule Utilitarianism on Stealing
6. Virtue Ethics on Stealing
7. Metaethics and Stealing
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 12: SIMULATED KILLING
1. Introduction
2. Utilitarianism and Simulated Killing
3. The Kantian and the Virtue Ethics Approach
4. Films and Plays
5. The Paradox of Tragedy (or More Correctly the Paradox of "Negative Emotions”)
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 13: TELLING LIES
1. Introduction
2. What Is It to Lie?
3. Utilitarianism
4. The Kantian and Lying
5. Some Final Thoughts about the Political Context
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

CHAPTER 14: EATING ANIMALS
1. Eating Animals Introduction
2. Justifying Meat Eating
3. Act Utilitarianism
4. Challenges to Bentham
5. Utilitarian Reasons for Eating Animals
6. Kantian Ethics and Eating Animals
7. Virtue Ethics and Eating Animals
8. Cora Diamond
Summary
Common Student Mistakes
Issues to Consider
Key Terminology
References

GLOSSARY


Mark Dimmock
graduated with a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Nottingham, defending the theories of Moral Error Theory and Moral Abolitionism. He now works as a Philosophy Teacher at Torquay Boys' Grammar School.

Andrew Fisher is Associate Professor at the University of Nottingham and has been lecturing philosophy for fifteen years. He has published in metaethics, philosophy of education, philosophy of sport, philosophy of religion, philosophy for children and how to use technology in teaching. He is a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and teaches philosophy to local primary school children.