The Idea of Europe: Enlightenment Perspectives

The Idea of Europe: Enlightenment Perspectives Catriona Seth and Rotraud von Kulessa (eds.)
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In view of the challenges—many of which are political—that different European countries are currently facing, scholars who work on the eighteenth century have compiled this anthology which includes earlier recognitions of common values and past considerations of questions which often remain pertinent nowadays. During the Enlightenment, many men and women of letters envisaged the continent’s future in particular when stressing their hope that peace could be secured in Europe. The texts gathered here, and signed by major thinkers of the time (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Kant, Hume or Staël for instance), as well as by writers history has forgotten, present the reflections, with a couple of chronological extensions (from Sully to Victor Hugo) of authors from the long eighteenth century—the French Empire and the fall of Napoleon generated numerous upheavals—on Europe, its history, its diversity, but also on what the nations, which, in all their diversity, make up a geographical unit, have in common. They show the historical origins of the project of a European union, the desire to consolidate the continent’s ties to the Maghreb or to Turkey, the importance granted to commerce and the worries engendered by history’s convulsions, but also the hope vested in future generations.

The Idea of Europe follows its sister edition in French, L’idée de l’Europe au Siècle des Lumières, also published by Open Book.

The Société française d’étude du XVIIIe siècle, Augsburg University and the University of Oxford have generously contributed towards the publication of this volume.


The Idea of Europe: Enlightenment Perspectives
Texts selected by Catriona Seth and Rotraud von Kulessa. Translated by Catriona Seth et al. | June 2017
Open Book Classics Series, vol. 7 | ISSN: 2054-216X (Print); 2054-2178 (Online)
178 | 63 colour illustrations | 6.14" x 9.21" (234 x 156 mm)
ISBN Paperback: 9781783743780
ISBN Hardback: 9781783743797
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781783743803
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781783743810
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781783743827
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0123
BIC and BISAC categories: DQ (Anthologies) | HP (Philosophy) | HPS (Social and political philosophy) | 1QFE (European Union) | LCO008000 (LITERARY COLLECTIONS / European) | PHI034000 (PHILOSOPHY / Social) | PHI019000 (PHILOSOPHY / Political) | HIS010000 (HISTORY / Europe)


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Preface

1. Friedrich Schiller, ‘Ode to Joy’
A Hymn for Europe

2. Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully, Memoirs
Henry IV of France’s Great Design

3. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
Europe: A Project for Peace

4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, A Lasting Peace through the Federation of Europe
A Study of Abbé de Saint-Pierre’s Suggestions

5. Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace
Universal Peace

6. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
What Size should Europe Be?

7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Judgment on Perpetual Peace
The European Union: An Unrealistic Project?

8. Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Seeing Beyond Borders

9. Louis de Jaucourt, ‘Europe’ in Diderot and D’Alembert’s Encyclopédie
Europe in the Encyclopédie

10. Diego de Torres Villarroel, The Fantastic Voyage of the Great Piscátor of Salamanca
The Geography of Europe

11. Anonymous, ‘Academy of History’ in Supplement to the Encyclopédie
History and Political Interests

12. Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, Memoirs
A Prototype for the European Parliament?

13. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
Europe and Islam

14. Voltaire, Essay on the Mores and the Spirit of the Nations
Europe’s True Wealth is its Cultural Heritage

15. Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat de Condorcet, Outlines of an Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind
Making Rules to Bring About Peace

16. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
Our Russian Neighbour

17. Voltaire, The Century of Louis XIV
Christian Europe as a Great Republic?

18. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
Unity in Diversity

19. Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws
European Commerce

20. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
Religious Toleration

21. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
The Riches of European Cuisine

22. Montesquieu, Persian Letters
Europe through Persian Eyes

23. Germaine de Staël, On Literature Considered in Relation to Social Institutions
Literature from the North to the South

24. François-Ignace d’Espiard de La Borde, The Spirit of Nations
Of National Characters

25. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
Linguistic Diversity in Europe

26. August Wilhem Schlegel, Outline of the European Conditions of German Literature
The Role of Germany in European Culture

27. Gabriel-François Coyer, Voyage Through Italy and Holland
The Rape of Europa

28. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
An Economic Union

29. Charles de Villers, Constitutions of the Three Free-Hanseatic Towns, Lubeck, Bremen and Hambourg, with a Memorandum on the Rank these Towns should Occupy in Europe’s Commercial Organisation
A Common European Market

30. Stanislas Leszczynski, Conversation Between a European and an Islander from the Kingdom of Dumocala
The Empire of Reason

31. Tomás de Iriarte, Literary Fables
The Circulation of Riches

32. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
European Sociability

33. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
The Safety of Europe’s Borders

34. Marie Leprince de Beaumont, The Young Ladies’ Magazine, Or Dialogues Between a Discreet Governess and Several Young Ladies of the First Rank Under Her Education
Colonial Europe

35. Louis-Jules Barbon Mancini-Mazarini-Nivernois, Duke of Nevers, Fables
Another Vision of Education

36. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
The Importance of Trade

37. Johann Gottfried Herder, Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Humanity
The Diversity and Unity of Europe

38. Françoise de Graffigny, Letters of a Peruvian Princess
A Critique of European Mores

39. David Hume, Political Discourses
European Civilisation

40. Louis-Antoine Muratori, Treatise on Public Happiness
The Progress of Justice in Europe

41. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
Bringing Europeans together

42. Germaine de Staël, Corinne, or Italy
Italy and the Origins of European Culture

43. Marie-Anne du Boccage, Letters about England, Holland and Italy
Europe and French Fashion

44. Friedrich Schlegel, Journey to France
Europe Between Decline and Renewal

45. Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint Pierre, Project for Perpetual Peace in Europe
The Linguistic Wealth of Europe

46. Novalis, Christianity, or Europe
Spiritual Advent

47. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
The Café: The European Place for Socialising

48. Johann Gottfried Herder, Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Humanity
Happiness in Europe

49. Germaine de Staël, Germany
The Origins of European Unity

50. José Cadalso, Moroccan Letters
European Diversity Through the Foreign Gaze

51. William Robertson, The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V. With a View of the Progress of Society in Europe, from the Subversion of the Roman Empire, to the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century
Navigation and Commercial Exchanges

52. Johann Gottfried Herder, Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Humanity
Europe and its Long History of Migration

53. William Robertson, The History of the Reign of Emperor Charles V
Union in Diversity

54. Diego de Torres Villarroel, ‘Sonnet’, in The Muse’s Distractions
Europe, A Political Whole

55. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Amusing and Moral Letters
What are Europeans like?

56. James Boswell, Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides
To Be Cosmopolitan

57. Louis-Antoine Caraccioli, Paris, the Model of Foreign Nations, or French Europe
French Style in Europe

58. David Hume, ‘Essay VII. Of the Balance of Power’
The Balance of Power and Future Peace


59. José Cadalso, Moroccan Letters
A Republic of the Wise

60. Jean-Charles-Léonard Simonde de Sismondi, Historical View of the Literature of the South of Europe
Europe’s Future in the Slow Lane

61. Germaine de Staël, Germany
The Union of Philosophers

62. Louis-Antoine-Léon de Saint-Just, Speech, 3 March 1794
A New Idea in Europe


63. Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat de Condorcet, Outlines of an Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind
A Humanitarian Vision

64. Jean-François Melon, Political Essay on Commerce
Towards the Balance of Powers

65. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Considerations on the Government of Poland
Towards Cultural Uniformity

66. José Cadalso, Moroccan Letters
Europe and Africa

67. Emmanuel Kant, Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View
Fulfilling Nature’s Aims

68. Napoleon Bonaparte, quoted by Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonné-Marius de Las Cases, Memorial of Saint-Helena
Governing Europe?

69. Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat de Condorcet, Outlines of an Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind
Know the World and Make it a Better Place

70. Benjamin Constant, On the Spirit of Conquest and Usurpation in Respect of European Civilisation
An End to Wars in Europe?

71. Napoleon Bonaparte, quoted by Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonné-Marius de Las Cases, Memorial of Saint-Helena
Visions of the Future

72. José Cadalso, Letter from José Cadalso to Tomás de Iriarte
A Critique of Eurocentrism

73. Napoleon Bonaparte, quoted by Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonné-Marius de Las Cases, Memorial of Saint Helena
Political Hegemony and European Union

74. Alexandre-Frédéric-Jacques de Masson de Pezay, Helvetic, Alsatian and Franc-Comtois Vigils
Europe without Frontiers

75. Jean-Charles-Léonard Simonde de Sismondi, Historical View of the Literature of the South of Europe
Multiple Influences

76. Jean de Müller, ‘Letter 80’ (January 1778)
What Future for Europe?


77. Benjamin Constant, The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns
The Character of Modern Exchanges

78. Pierre-Simon Laplace, An Exposition of the System of the World
Unity through Measures

79. Victor Hugo, The Rhine
The Franco-German Couple as the Pillars of Peace in Europe

Bibliography


Catriona Seth, FBA, is Marshal Foch Professor of French Literature at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of All Souls. Her research focuses on French literature of the long eighteenth century, and her books include a biography of Évariste Parny, Évariste Parny (1753-1814). Créole, révolutionnaire, académicien, and La Fabrique de l’intime. Mémoires et journaux de femmes du XVIIIe siècle. She is the editor, in Gallimard’s prestigious Pléiade series, of Laclos’ Liaisons dangereuses and, most recently, of works by Germaine de Staël. She was a lecturer at the University of Rouen and a professor at the University of Lorraine. From 2013 to 2014 she was a World Leading Researcher at Queen's University, Belfast.
Rotraud von Kulessa is Chair of French and Italian Literature at the University of Augsburg. She is the author of Démocratisation et diversification - Les littératures d'éducation au siècle des Lumières and Entre la reconnaissance et l’exclusion. La position de l’autrice dans le champ littéraire en France et en Italie à l’Epoque 1900. She has written widely about French, Italian and Spanish literature from the eighteenth century to the present. In 2016/2017 she was Visiting Professor at the University of Lorraine (Nancy) specialising in eighteenth-century French literature and in 2016 she was made an Officer of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques.