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The DARPA Model for Transformative Technologies: Perspectives on the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
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Contents

Notes on Contributors

xi

Acknowledgements

xix

1.

Introduction: DARPA—The Innovation Icon

1

Patrick Windham and Richard Van Atta

DARPA’s Historical Mission and Organization

2

DARPA’s Organization and Budget

9

Important Features of the DARPA Model

12

The Remainder of this Book

24

References

25

PART I: PERSPECTIVES ON DARPA

27

2.

Fifty Years of Innovation and Discovery

29

Richard Van Atta

The “DARPA Model”

30

DARPA’s Origins: Strategic Challenges ~1958

31

DARPA Roles

37

Key Elements of DARPA’s Success

37

Tension Between DARPA Roles

39

DARPA’s Successes

39

DARPA’s Role in Creating a Revolution in Military Affairs

41

Sustaining the DARPA Vision

42

References

43

3.

NSF and DARPA as Models for Research Funding: An Institutional Analysis

45

Michael J. Piore, Phech Colatat, and Elisabeth Beck Reynolds

I. Methodology and Research Approach

47

II. Basic Findings

48

III. Interpretation

67

Conclusions

72

References

75

4.

The Connected Science Model for Innovation—The DARPA Model

77

William B. Bonvillian

Introduction: Fundamentals of Defense Technology Development

77

Innovation Systems at the Personal Level: Great Groups

88

DARPA as a Unique Model—Combining Institutional Connectedness and Great Groups

93

Elements of the DARPA Model

98

Summary

112

References

113

5.

The Value of Vision in Radical Technological Innovation

119

Tamara L. Carleton

The Value of Vision in Radical Technological Innovation

119

Conclusion

135

References

136

6.

ARPA Does Windows: The Defense Underpinning of the PC Revolution

145

Glenn R. Fong

Introduction

145

PARC and HCI

147

Alto’s Offspring

151

The Rest of the Story

158

Xerox’s ARPA Brats

164

Windows on the Future

171

Conclusions

173

References

175

7.

Rethinking the Role of the State in Technology Development: DARPA and the Case for Embedded Network Governance

179

Erica R. H. Fuchs

1. Introduction

179

2. The Developmental Network State

183

3. The Changing Faces of DARPA

189

4. Methods

198

5. Results and Discussion

200

6. Discussion: the DARPA Program Manager—Embedded Network Agent

219

7. Conclusions

222

Acknowledgements

223

References

224

8.

DARPA’s Process for Creating New Programs

229

David W. Cheney and Richard Van Atta

Introduction

229

General Framework and Typical Patterns of Program Development

233

Case Studies of the Development of DARPA Programs

236

Have Blue (Stealth)

237

Assault Breaker (Standoff Precision Strike)

244

Amber/Predator (High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs)

249

Optoelectronics Program

256

High Definition Systems

262

Spintronics (Quantum Computing)

268

Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL)

272

Topological Data Analysis

276

Revolutionizing Prosthetics

279

Findings, Conclusions, and Key Observations

282

Concluding Thoughts

286

References

287

9.

Some Questions about the DARPA Model

289

Patrick Windham

References

297

PART II: THE ROLE OF DARPA PROGRAM MANAGERS

301

10.

DARPA—Enabling Technical Innovation

303

Jinendra Ranka

The Role of DARPA

303

DARPA and Innovation?

304

Developing and Running DARPA Programs

306

Important Questions to Ask

310

Timelines

311

Additional Thoughts on Why DARPA is Needed

312

A Flexible and Supportive Agency

314

11.

Program Management at DARPA: A Personal Perspective

315

Larry Jackel

Getting New Programs Approved

316

Soliciting and Reviewing Proposals

316

Managing Programs

317

Independence, Responsibility, and Accomplishments

318

PART III: APPLYING THE DARPA MODEL IN OTHER SITUATIONS

321

12.

Lessons from DARPA for Innovating in Defense Legacy Sectors

323

William B. Bonvillian

Conclusion: Innovation in the Defense Legacy Sector

354

References

357

13.

ARPA-E and DARPA: Applying the DARPA Model to Energy Innovation

361

William B. Bonvillian and Richard Van Atta

Overview

361

I. The DARPA Model

365

II. ARPA-E—A New R&D Model for the Department of Energy

383

III. The Remaining Technology Implementation Challenge for DARPA and ARPA-E

409

IV. Conclusion—Brief Summary of Key Points

426

References

428

14.

IARPA: A Modified DARPA Innovation Model

435

William B. Bonvillian

The DARPA Model in the Context of Innovation Policy

436

The IARPA Model

441

Two Challenges to DARPA and its Clones—Manufacturing and Scaling up Startups

447

Conclusion

449

References

450

15.

Does NIH need a DARPA?

453

Robert Cook-Deegan

Biomedical Success

455

PART IV: CONCLUSIONS

461

16.

Lessons from DARPA’s Experience

463

Richard Van Atta, Patrick Windham and William B. Bonvillian

Important Features

464

Creating New Technical Communities

466

DARPA and the Future

467

Further Reading

471

DARPA Documents

471

General Histories of DARPA

471

Histories of DARPA’s Contributions to Information Technology

472

List of Illustrations and Tables

473

Index

475