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Conservation Biology in Sub-Saharan Africa
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Contents

List of Boxes xix

Foreword xxv

Preface xxvii

Scope xxvii

Taxonomy and the IUCN Red List categories xxviii

Organisation of the book xxix

Bibliography xxx

Acknowledgements xxxi

List of Acronyms xxxiii

1. What is Conservation Biology?

1.1. Conservation Biology is Still Evolving 3

1.2 The Role of Conservation Biologists 7

1.3 The Value of Scientific Methods 9

1.4 Environmental Ethics 12

1.4.1 Conservation biology’s ethical principles 16

1.5 Summary 18

1.6 Topics for Discussion 19

1.7 Suggested Readings 19

Bibliography 20

2. Introduction to Sub-Saharan Africa

2.1 Sub-Saharan Africa’s Natural Environment 24

2.2 History of Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa 29

2.2.1 The 1800s and launching of formal conservation efforts 33

2.2.2 Conservation efforts after colonialism 36

2.3 Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa Today 37

2.4 Ongoing Conservation Challenges 44

2.4.1 Persistent poverty 44

2.4.2 Obstructive mindsets 46

2.4.3 Weak governance/institutional structures 47

2.4.4 Skills shortages 51

2.4.5 Competing interests 52

2.5 Conclusion 53

2.6 Summary 53

2.7 Topics for Discussion 54

2.8 Suggested Readings 54

Bibliography 55

3. What is Biodiversity?

3.1 Species Diversity 62

3.1.1 What is a species? 64

3.2 Genetic Diversity 65

3.3 Ecosystem Diversity 69

3.4 Patterns of Biodiversity 71

3.4.1 Challenging species identifications 72

3.4.2 Implications of challenging species identifications 73

3.4.3 Measuring species diversity 79

3.4.4 How many species exist? 81

3.4.5 Where are most species found? 82

3.5 Summary 85

3.6 Topics for Discussion 86

3.7 Suggested Readings 86

Bibliography 87

4. Why Should We Protect Biodiversity?

4.1 Material Contributions 93

4.2 Regulating Services 96

4.2.1 Maintaining ecosystem stability 96

4.2.2 Maintaining ecosystem productivity 99

4.2.3 Climate regulation 99

4.2.4 Conserving soil and water quality 100

4.2.5 Pollination and seed dispersal 101

4.2.6 Hazard detection and mitigation 105

4.2.7 Pest and disease control 106

4.3 Nonmaterial Contributions 112

4.3.1 Inspiration and learning support 112

4.3.2 Supporting psychological and physical experiences 114

4.3.3 Supporting individual and group identities 116

4.4 The Long-Term View: Option Values 117

4.5 Environmental Economics 118

4.5.1 Placing a price on the natural world 119

4.5.2 Environmental economics’ biggest contributions 120

4.5.3 Environmental economics’ biggest challenges 121

Accounting for negative externalities 121

Determining ownership 122

A more inclusive approach 123

4.6 Summary 124

4.7 Topics for Discussion 124

4.8 Suggested Readings 125

Bibliography 126

5. The Scramble for Space

5.1 What is Habitat Loss? 134

5.1.1 What is habitat fragmentation? 138

5.1.2 What are edge effects? 140

5.2 Drivers of Habitat Loss and Fragmentation 142

5.3 Habitat Loss’ Impact on Africa’s Ecosystems 145

5.3.1 Tropical forests 145

5.3.2 Rivers and deltas 148

5.3.3 Wetlands 149

5.3.4 Seasonal drylands 153

5.4 Population Growth and Consumption? 156

5.5 Concluding Remarks 159

5.6 Summary 160

5.7 Topics for Discussion 160

5.8 Suggested Readings 161

Bibliography 161

6. Our Warming World

6.1 Drivers of Climate Change 168

6.2 Predicting Earth’s Future Climate 173

6.3 The Impact of Climate Change 175

6.3.1 Climate change’s impact on people 176

6.3.2 Climate change’s impact on terrestrial ecosystems 178

Climate change on mountains 178

Climate change in the lowlands 178

Climate change and dispersal limitations 182

Climate change and biological interactions 182

Climate change and reptiles 184

6.3.3 Climate change’s impact on freshwater ecosystems 184

Warmer rivers and streams 184

Changing flow regimes 185

6.3.4 Climate change’s impact on marine ecosystems 185

Ocean acidification 186

Sea level rise 187

Coral bleaching 187

Ocean deoxygenation 188

6.3.5 Climate change interacts with habitat loss 188

6.4 Beneficiaries of Climate Change 189

6.5 The Overall Impact of Climate Change 192

6.6 Summary 193

6.7 Topics for Discussion 194

6.8 Suggested Readings 194

Bibliography 195

7. Pollution, Overharvesting, Invasive Species, and Disease

7.1 Pollution in Its Many Forms 204

7.1.1 Water pollution 207

7.1.2 Air pollution 212

7.1.3 Soil pollution 213

7.1.4 Light pollution 214

7.1.5 Noise pollution 216

7.1.6 Thermal pollution 216

7.2 Overharvesting 218

7.2.1 The Bushmeat Crisis 218

7.2.2 Overfishing 220

7.2.3 The impact of traditional medicine 223

7.2.4 The impact of live animal trade 224

7.2.5 Overharvesting of plant products 226

7.2.6 Challenges in managing overharvesting 226

7.3 Persecution 230

7.4 Invasive Species 231

7.4.1 Spread of invasive species 231

7.4.2 Impact of invasive species 235

7.4.3 Genetically modified organisms 237

7.6 Parasites and Diseases 238

7.7 Summary 242

7.8 Topics for Discussion 243

7.9 Suggested Readings 244

Bibliography 244

8. Extinction Is Forever

8.1 What is Extinction? 259

8.2 Rates of Extinction 259

8.3 When is a Species Extinct? 260

8.4 History of Extinctions in Sub-Saharan Africa 263

8.5 Which Species are at Risk of Extinction? 271

8.5.1 Course-filter assessments 274

8.6 Characteristics of Threatened Species 274

8.7 Problems of Small Populations 277

8.7.1 Loss of genetic diversity 277

Genetic drift 277

Inbreeding depression 278

Outbreeding depression 280

Population bottlenecks 281

8.7.2 Demographic stochasticity 281

8.7.3 Environmental stochasticity and catastrophes 282

8.7.4 The extinction vortex 284

8.7.5 Is there any hope for small populations? 285

8.8 Is De-extinction a Solution? 285

8.9 Summary 289

8.10 Topics for Discussion 289

8.11 Suggested Readings 290

Bibliography 291

9. Applied Population Biology

9.1 Monitoring Population Size 299

9.1.1 Biodiversity inventories 299

9.1.2 Population censuses 302

9.1.3 Demographic studies 306

9.1.4 Recent progress in collecting survey data 308

9.2 Estimating Extinction Risk 309

9.2.1 A word of warning 310

9.2.2 Probability of extinction 310

9.2.3 Minimum viable population 311

9.2.4 Effective population size 313

9.2.5 Maximum sustainable yield 314

9.2.6 Sensitivity analysis 317

9.3 Challenges to PVA Implementation 318

9.3.1 Lack of adequate data 318

9.3.2 Data reliability 319

9.3.3 Model reliability 319

9.4 Summary 320

9.5 Topics for Discussion 320

9.6 Suggested Readings 321

Bibliography 322

10. Conserving Ecosystems

10.1 Ecosystem Monitoring 328

10.1.1 Monitoring ecosystems with geospatial analysis 332

10.2 Maintaining Complex and Adaptive Ecosystems 337

10.2.1 Maintaining critical ecosystem processes 338

The water cycle 338

The nutrient cycle 339

The energy cycle 340

Community dynamics 341

Fire Dynamics 341

10.2.2 Minimising external threats 343

Controlling invasive species 344

10.2.3 Adaptive management 349

10.2.4 Being minimally intrusive 353

10.3 Restoring Damaged Ecosystems 354

10.3.1 Ecological restoration approaches 355

10.3.2 Major restoration targets 357

10.3.3 The future of ecological restoration 362

10.4 Combatting Climate Change Through Ecosystem Conservation 363

10.5 Summary 364

10.6 Topics for Discussion 365

10.7 Suggested Readings 366

Bibliography 366

11. Preventing Extinctions

11.1 Studying Species and Populations 376

11.1.1 Obtaining natural history data 380

11.2 Saving Species Through Translocations 384

11.2.1 Important considerations for translocations 384

Determining need and feasibility 385

Support from local stakeholders 385

Identifying suitable habitat 386

Considering genetics and behaviour 388

How many individuals to release 388

Preparing individuals for release 391

Post-release monitoring 394

Helping other translocation projects 394

11.3 Managing and Facilitating Movement Dynamics 395

11.3.1 Connectivity in terrestrial ecosystems 396

11.3.2 Connectivity in freshwater ecosystems 402

11.3.3 Connectivity in marine ecosystems 402

11.3.4 Mimicking connectivity 403

11.3.5 Management considerations in connectivity conservation 403

11.4 Managing Species Sensitive to Climate Change 404

11.5 Ex Situ Conservation Strategies 406

11.5.1 Types of ex situ facilities 409

11.5.2 Challenges facing ex situ facilities 411

11.6 Thoughts on Neglected Taxa 413

11.7 Summary 417

11.8 Topics for Discussion 418

11.9 Suggested Readings 418

Bibliography 419

12. Biodiversity and the Law

12.1 Identifying Legislative Priorities 428

12.2 Environmental Laws and Policies 430

12.2.1 International agreements 430

12.2.2 National and local laws 435

12.3 Environmental Law Enforcement 439

12.3.1 New technologies in environmental law enforcement 440

12.4 The Limits of Environmental Laws and Regulations 448

12.4.1 Lack of capacity 449

12.4.2 Conflicting government priorities 449

12.4.3 Informal economies, traditional activities, and the law 450

12.4.4 Trade embargoes and sanctions 451

12.5 Conclusion 452

12.6 Summary 455

12.7 Topics for Discussion 455

12.8 Suggested Readings 456

Bibliography 457

13. The Importance of Protected Areas

13.1 Establishing Protected Areas 462

13.1.1 Government protected areas 463

13.1.2 Community conserved areas 464

13.1.3 Privately protected areas 464

13.1.4 Co-managed protected areas 465

13.1.5 Field stations and marine laboratories 466

13.2 Classification of Protected Areas 466

13.3 Prioritisation: What Should be Protected? 469

13.3.1 Species approach 471

13.3.2 Ecosystem approach 471

13.3.3 Wilderness approach 472

13.3.4 Hotspot approach 472

13.3.5 Gap analysis approach 474

13.3.6 Optimisation approach 478

13.4 How Much Land Should We Protect? 478

13.4.1 A neglected system: marine protected areas 480

13.5 Designing Protected Areas 480

13.5.1 What size should a protected area be? 483

13.5.2 Zoning as a solution to conflicting demands 486

13.5.3 Connectivity among protected areas 492

13.5.4 What about small isolated reserves? 493

13.6 Managing Protected Areas 494

13.6.1 The importance of monitoring 495

13.6.2 The importance of working with local people 496

13.6.3 The importance of accommodating visitors 498

13.6.4 The IUCN Green List of Protected Areas 499

13.7 Challenges for Protected Areas 500

13.7.1 Funding limitations 501

13.7.2 Planning for climate change 502

13.7.3 Facing degazettement 502

13.8 Summary 503

13.9 Topics for Discussion 504

13.10 Suggested Readings 504

Bibliography 505

14. Conservation on Unprotected Lands

14.1 Human-Dominated Landscapes 516

14.1.1 The impact of agriculture 525

14.1.2 The impact of logging, mining, and other extractive industries 530

14.2 Smart Development Outside Conservation Areas 532

14.3 Linking Conservation to Socio-Economic Development 534

14.4 Confronting Human-Wildlife Conflict 539

14.4.1 Dealing with predators 540

14.4.2 Dealing with crop raiders 541

14.4.3 Concluding thoughts on human-wildlife conflict 542

14.5 Summary 542

14.6 Topics for Discussion 543

14.7 Suggested Readings 544

Bibliography 545

15. An Agenda for the Future

15.1 Achieving Sustainable Development 556

15.2 Dealing with Technological Advances 558

15.3 Funding Conservation Activities 562

15.3.1 How effective is conservation funding? 564

15.4 Building Lasting Partnerships 568

15.4.1 Partnerships with local people 569

15.4.2 Partnerships among conservation professionals 573

15.5 Environmental Education and Leadership 574

15.6 Summary 579

15.7 Topics for Discussion 580

15.8 Suggested Readings 580

Bibliography 581

Appendix A 589

Selected Sources of Information

Appendix B 593

Selected Environmental Organisations

Appendix C 607

Obtaining Conservation Funding

Appendix D 613

Environmental Calendar

Glossary 615

Index 645