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Conservation Biology in Sub-Saharan Africa
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Index

|Ai-|Ais/Richtersveld TFCA (Southern Africa) 465466

abalone (Haliotis spp.) 273

abiotic environment 6971

acidification, of oceans 186

acid rain 213

Addo Elephant National Park (South Africa) 278, 389

Adeso (Horn of Africa) 361

aesthetic values 114115

African Parks 43, 444, 446447, 498

agriculture. See also crops; See  also crops

biological control 107, 109

climate change 190

habitat loss 142143, 525526

marginal lands 533

perverse subsidies 40

pollinators 103104

sustainable practices 526528, 530

traditional systems 142, 526

Aichi Biodiversity Targets 431, 478480

air pollution 212213

air quality, monitoring 106

albedo effect 99, 173

Albertine Rift (Central Africa) 79, 475476

algae

blooms 210

relationship with coral 187

Allee effect 282283, 388

alleles

genetic variation 65, 68

loss 277279

Alliance for Zero Extinction 471

alpha diversity 7980

amenity values 114115

amphibians

diseases 240241

ex situ conservation 411

translocation 407

Animal Demography Unit (ADU, South Africa) 572

animal welfare 408, 413

Anthropocene 258

APLORI (A.P. Leventis Ornithological Research Institute, Nigeria) 576579

aquaria. See  ex situ conservation

aquatic ecosystems. See also freshwater ecosystems, marine ecosystems; See  also freshwater ecosystems, marine ecosystems

biomagnification 204205

biomes 26

eutrophication 210

monitoring 6667, 105, 330, 332

overharvesting 220, 223

pollution 207211, 216

archaea, antibiotics 117

Arusha Manifesto 36

assisted colonisations/migrations 384, 405407

assisted reproductive technologies 414417

authoritarianism 3536, 46

avoidance costs 119

bacteria

plastic-degrading 237

species diversity 82

balance of nature 494

Bandiagara Escarpment (Mali) 327

baobab (Adansonia digitata) 91

bats

as biological control 106

overharvesting 315317

pollinators 101

behavioural ecology 378379

benefit sharing 498

bequest values 116

beta diversity 80

Big Five animals 2627

bilharzia/schistosomiasis 149, 242

binomial terms 6364

bioaccumulation. See  biomagnification

bioassays 330

bioblitzes 299

biochemical indicators 332

biocontrol. See  biological control

biodegradation 207

biodiversity

commercial rights 122123

definition 62

distribution 8285

indexes 64

informatics 64

inventories 299300, 302

laws 29, 3237, 428441, 448454

offsets 362, 558

Sub-Saharan Africa 2428

value 9294, 96123

Biodiversity Hotspots 472473

bioenergy 170172, 560561

biogeographic transition zones 85, 471

biologging devices. See  wildlife tracking

biological control 106107, 109, 346347

biological interactions

climate change 182183

co-extinction 275

coextinction 183

ecosystem engineers 97

extinction cascades 98

keystone species 9798

maintenance 341

pollination 101, 105

seed dispersal 102

biomagnification 204205, 207

biomes 2426, 70

biomimicry 113

biomonitoring 330332

biopiracy 123

bioprospecting 118, 122123

bioregional management 493

biosorption 106

biosphere reserves 486, 491

biotic attrition 182

biotic environment 7071

BirdLife South Africa 221222, 406

birds

climate change 179181

ecotourism 114, 568

migrations 150152

primary threats 328

black markets 567

botanical gardens. See  ex situ conservation

breeding back (de-extinction) 285, 288

buffer zones. See  zoning

bushmeat crisis 9495, 218220

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Uganda) 23, 463

bycatch 220223

calendar, environmental 613614

camera traps 309

CAMPFIRE (Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources, Zimbabwe) 537, 539

canine distemper virus 241

captive breeding. See  also ex situ conservation

databases 408

pre-release training 392

risk of inbreeding 281

translocations 391393

carbon cycle 99

carbon dioxide

Africa’s emissions 170

greenhouse gas 168, 170, 172173

photosynthesis 99100

sequestration 99100, 363364

carbon trading 363

carrying capacity 388, 391

censuses, population 302306

certification

of origin 432, 438

sustainability 452, 530, 532

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 434

chronosequence studies 382

cichlid fishes 29, 73, 268

circadian rhythms 215

CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) 432, 451

citizen science 569, 571573

climate. See also temperature, precipitation

corridors 405

refuges 405

regulation (ecosystem service) 99100

climate change

agriculture 190

assisted colonisations 405407

beneficiaries 189190, 192

bioenergy 170172

biological interactions 182183

biotic attrition 182

deserts 179181

drivers 168, 170, 172173

ecosystem restoration 363364

forecasting 173175

freshwater ecosystems 184185

historical 175176

human-wildlife conflict 189

impact on people 176177, 192193

interaction with habitat loss 188192

islands 182183

malaria 190192

marine ecosystems 185188

mitigation 404407, 564

Paris Agreement 434435

protected areas 502

range-shift gaps 188189

refugees 176

reptiles 184

sea-level rise 176, 187

terrestrial ecosystems 178179, 181184

cloning 287, 415

cocoa, shade-grown 527528, 530

coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) 81

coextinction 183, 275

coffee

African origin 28

climate change 190

shade-grown 527

collaborators, working with 573574

COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation, Zambia) 534535

co-managed protected areas 465466

co-management 37

communities, biological 6971

community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) 535536

community conserved areas 464

compensation payments 540

competing interests 52

conflict, environmental degradation 47, 92

conflicting priorities 449

confounding factors 332

connectivity. See also dispersal; See  also dispersal

climate change 405

definition 395

drawbacks 403404

loss 139140, 148149, 188189

maintenance 396397, 401403, 533

protected areas 492493

conservation

advocacy 9

agriculture 526527

categories. See  IUCN Red Lists

corridors. See  connectivity

fortress 4, 35

history 29, 3237, 4243

partnerships 573574

refugees 36

conservation biologists, roles 7, 9

conservation biology

aims 35, 7

crisis discipline 9, 556

ethical principles 16

interdisciplinary approach 910

normative discipline 3

science 3, 911

societies 4

conservation categories, IUCN Red Lists 272273, 312

Conservation International (CI) 472

Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH) 57

consumers (trophic levels) 99

consumption. See also human population growth

globalisation 158

population growth 156159

wealth 2, 157159

consumptive use values 94

contingent valuation 119

contractual parks 465466

Convention

Concerning the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage 432

on Biological Diversity (CBD) 431

on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 432, 451

on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals 432

on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (African) 36, 433

on the marine environment 433

Ramsar Wetlands 433

cooperative breeding 282283, 388

coral reefs

bleaching 187188

climate change 186

restoration 362

species diversity 84

corridors. See  connectivity

cost-benefit analysis 122, 385

course-filter assessments 274

crops. See also agriculture; See  also agriculture

genetic diversity in wild 28, 68

human-wildlife conflict 541

originated in Africa 28

cross-fostering 392

crowding

diseases 241

private protected areas 41

cryopreservation 413

cryptic species 7274, 81

cultural services 112117

customary laws 29, 435

cycads 267, 441

cycads (Encephalartos spp.) 28, 259

dams

climate change 560

environmental impacts 148149, 216, 269270

removal 402

data reliability 319

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 204205, 207

debt-for-nature swaps 563

decision support tools 476, 478

decomposers (trophic levels) 99

deep ecology 117

de-extinction 285, 287288

deforestation. See  forests

Demographic Species Knowledge Index 318, 407

demographic stochasticity 281282

demographic studies 306308. See  also population viability analysis (PVA)

deoxygenation, of oceans 188

desertification 153, 156, 360361

deserts, climate change 179181

development corridors 532

direct use values 9394

diseases

use in biocontrol 347

diseases (and pathogens)

anthroponotic 241

gorillas 5, 7

keystone species 98

threat to biodiversity 238, 240242

zoonotic 230, 241

dispersal. See also connectivity; See  also connectivity

barriers 139140, 149

climate change 182183

seed 102, 140

distance sampling 302

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

barcoding 441

environmental (eDNA) 6667

genetic diversity 65, 68

dogs

law enforcement 448

use in human-wildlife conflict 540541

drones. See  unmanned aerial vehicles

Dzanga-Sangha Project (Central African Republic) 487, 489

early warning systems 106

Earth observation satellites 333338, 381

Earth Summit 431

Ebola virus 241

eco-colonialism 35, 465

ecological

footprint 158159

restoration. See  restoration

succession. See  succession

traps 386

ecologically

extinct 259

naïve 276

relevant 388

economic development 557

economic growth 556

ecosystem

complexity 339, 405

connectivity 395397, 401404

definition 70

diversity 62, 6971

engineers 9798

healthy 328

management 337350

monitoring 328338

processes 338343

productivity 99

resistance/resilience 328

restoration 354357, 359364

stability 83, 9698, 185

transient 395

ecosystem services

definition 92

mangroves 152, 360361

material contributions 9395

nonmaterial contributions 112117

option values 117118

payments for 563

regulating services 96102, 104106, 109

valuation 118123

wetlands 149

ecotones. See  biogeographic transition zone

ecotourism

ethics 115

risks 498499

value 114115

edge effects

habitat fragmentation 140142

protected areas 484

Edith Stephens Nature Reserve (South Africa) 523525

educational values 112113

effective population size (Ne) 313314

electronic waste/e-waste 214

elephants

combatting trade 4851

conservation 444, 446447

ecosystem engineers 97

genetic drift 278

globalisation 429

ivory burning 427

mitigating conflict 379, 541

population declines 34, 227229

taxonomic status 73

Embryo Plus (South Africa) 414417

emergence of conservation 565567

empty forest syndrome 220

Endangered Widlife Trust (EWT, South Africa) 286287

energy cycle 99, 340341

energy pathways 340341

entomology, forensic 442443

environmental

awareness 112

crimes. See  laws

DNA (eDNA) 6667

economics 118123

education 44, 574580

governance 351353

impact assessments (EIAs) 437

justice 13

monitors 105, 330331

stochasticity 282283

environmentalism 3

erosion

desertification 153

prevention 101

estuaries. See  wetlands

ethics

conservation biology 16, 18

de-extinction 288

ecotourism 115

environmental 1213

Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS) 153155

ethnobotany 146147

eutrophication 210, 332

evolution 16

evolutionary significant units (ESU) 269270, 380

exclusive economic zones (EEZ) 433

existence values 116117

exotic species. See  invasive species

experiments 382

ex situ conservation

challenges 411, 413

diseases 242

importance 406408

types of facilities 409410

externalities 121122

extinction

area effects 134135

cascades 98

committed to 261

debt 261

declaring 260261

definition 259

estimating risk 309314, 317319

history of African 263, 266268, 271

locations 268

mass 258, 268

multiple drivers 257

rates 259

rates in African 260

risk in small populations 277285

species threatened with 271276

time lag to 261262

vortex 284

extirpation, definition 259

extractive industries, working with 530532

extractive reserves 466

facial recognition technologies 309

factor income 119

family planning 5, 7, 158159

Fauna & Flora International (FFI) 136, 138

fences

beehives 379, 541

conservation tool 397

crop raiding 541

dispersal barriers 139140

pastoralism 521

predator-proof 540

removal 397

strategic gaps 533

fertilisers

eutrophication 236

microdosing 526

overuse 525

field stations 466468

fieldwork

challenges 6466, 73, 77, 381382

importance 337, 381, 574

filter feeders, pollution monitoring 105

fire

edge effects 142

habitat loss 142143

management 341343

fish

biomagnification 207

diversity 2829

ecotourism 114115

primary threats 328

translocation 269270

fisheries

climate change 188

declining 220

ghost fishing 220, 223

perverse subsidies 121

seabirds 221222

sea turtles 303, 305

sustainable. See  Marine Stewardship Council

threatened species 219

unregulated 449

zoning 490

flagship species 471

flooding

climate change 176177, 186

dams 148149

prevention 100101

flufftail, white-winged (Sarothrura ayresi) 155

focal species 471

food chains/webs

biomagnification 204205, 207

energy pathways 340341

importance of plants 413

microplastics 210

forensics, environmental 441443

forestry. See  logging

forests

edge effects 140142

loss 145, 148

mapping 338

market value 120

regulating water/soil quality 101102

restoration 357, 359360

speed of regeneration 105

value 145

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) 452, 530

fortress conservation 4, 35

fossil fuels

air pollution 212213

alternatives 560561

climate change 170, 172173

hydrological fracturing 211

perverse subsidies 121, 564

founder effects 281, 285

four Rs 482

fracking. See  hydrological fracturing

Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) 52, 297

free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) 520

freshwater ecosystems

climate change 184185

connectivity 148, 402

invasive species 236

laws 433

loss 148149

Freshwater Research Centre (South Africa) 269270

frog, Hewitt’s ghost (Heleophryne hewetti) 257

funding

carbon trading 363364, 564

debt-for-nature swaps 563

effectiveness 564565, 567568

ex situ facilities 411, 413

multilateral organisations 562

NGOs 562

payments for ecosystem services (PES) 563

protected areas 501

tips 607610

trophy hunting 46

fungi

chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) 240241

lists 64

malaria-killing 237

plastic-eating 106

Gaia hypothesis 96

Gambella National Park (Ethiopia) 144

gamma diversity 7980

gap analysis 334, 474

Garamba National Park (DRC) 440, 498

gazelle, Speke’s (Gazella spekei) 281

general circulation models (GCM) 173, 175

genetic

drift 277279

pollution 236

recombination 68

genetically modified organisms (GMO) 237238

genetic diversity

definition 62, 65, 68

loss 277281

maintenance 410, 413

wild crops 28

genome resource bank 413

genotype 65

geospatial analysis 332338, 381383, 404

ghost fishing 220, 223

giraffes, taxonomic status 72

Global 200 ecoregions 471

Global Environment Facility (GEF) 562

globalisation

consumption 158

environmental crime 428429

global warming. See  climate change

golden moles (Chrysochloridae) 7475, 77

gorillas

diseases 5, 7

Ebola virus 241

ecotourism 114

hunting of 47

inbreeding 280

reintroduction 388

threat status 61

Gorongosa National Park (Mozambique) 300, 302

Green Belt Movement (Kenya) 355

greenhouse effect 168

greenhouse gases. See also carbon dioxide; See  also carbon dioxide

definition 168

methane 172

nitrous oxide 173

regulation 434435

green infrastructure 521522

greenwashing 558

gross domestic product (GDP) 556

groundwater pollution 211

habitat

carrying capacity 388, 391

corridors. See  connectivity

definition 134

degradation 135, 139142

islands 135

matrix 135, 401

stepping stone 401

habitat fragmentation

definition 138

dispersal 139

edge effects 140142

fences 139140

patch size 138

roads 472

seed dispersal 140

habitat loss

agriculture 142143, 525526

area effects 134135

bird migrations 150152

definition 134135

edge effects 140142

ground-nesting birds 153155

interaction with climate change 188192

land grabbing 143144, 171172

parasites and diseases 240

protected areas 497

roads 138, 144145, 472

threatened species 328

habituated animals 392

hand-held devices 74, 558, 569

hard releases 393

hazard detection 105106

head-starting 393

heavy metals

biomagnification 207

pollution 207

removal 106

hedonic pricing 119

HeroRATs 106

heterosis 278

hidden costs 121122

hippopotamus, pygmy (Choeropsis liberiensis) 136, 138

hirola (Beatragus hunteri) 521

honeybees

conservation 238240

elephant deterrent 379, 541

hotspots of biodiversity 472473

human population growth. See also consumption

consumption 156159

extinctions 258

Sub-Saharan Africa 2

human-wildlife conflict

climate change 189

crop-raiding 541

IUCN Task Force 542

predators 397, 540541

hunting

bans 226, 451

overharvesting 218220

quotas 314317

regulation 3334, 436

research 9495

roads 144

threatened species 219

trophy 46, 567

hyacinth, water (Eichhornia crassipes) 236, 349

hybridisation

ex situ conservation 411

genetically modified organisms (GMO) 237

in small populations 280

invasive species 236

outbreeding depression 280

threat to biodiversity 73

hybrid vigour 73, 280

hydrocarbons 212

hydrological fracturing 211, 560

hydrology 152, 359

hydropower. See  dams

illegal wildlife trade. See also laws; See  also laws

elephants. See  elephants

magnitude 448

overharvesting 226, 230

stimulation 567

Image Based Ecological Information System (IBEIS) 468

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) 472

iNaturalist 569

inbreeding (and inbreeding depression) 278, 280281

indicator species 105, 330331

indirect use values 96102, 104106, 109, 112117

industrialisation 158159

Industrial Revolution 258

informal economies, law enforcement 450451

infrastructure

green 521522

habitat loss 144145

unsustainable development 532

wildlife-friendly 533534

in situ conservation 406

integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP) 10, 534536

integrated pest management (IPM) 348

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 174

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) 92, 123

intermediate disturbance hypothesis 298

international agreements. See  laws, international

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) 107

international waters 433

introductions. See  translocations

invasive species

benefits 348349

characteristics 231

control 107, 109, 344348

definition 231

edge effects 141142

global register 344345

impact 235236, 268

islands 233235

laws regulating 438

monitoring 67

spread 231232

threatened species 328

inventories 299300, 302

IPAT equation 158

islands

climate change 176, 182183

extinctions 134135

habitats as 135

invasive species 233235

IUCN

Conservation Planning Specialist Group (CPSG) 408

Green List of Protected Areas 499

Human-Wildlife Conflict Task Force 542

protected areas classification 466, 469

Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) 274, 471

Red List of Threatened Species 271273, 312

ivory trade. See  elephants

Kakum National Park (Ghana) 563

Kavango-Zambezi TFCA (Southern Africa) 398400

Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) 472

keystone species 9798

Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens (South Africa) 579

Kruger National Park (South Africa) 34, 148, 302

Kyoto Protocol 434

lake burping 282283

Lake Chad, shrinking 212

Lake Victoria, extinctions 268

land degradation, economic losses 120

land grabbing 143144, 171172, 567

landmines, detection 106

landscape connectivity. See  connectivity

landslides, deforestation 105, 283

land sparing/sharing 525526

lark, Liben (Heteromirafra archeri) 154155

laws

customary 29, 435

enforcement 439444, 446448

history 29, 3237, 4243

international 430434

legislative prioritities 428429

limits 226, 448452

multi-level cooperation 452454

national and local 435438

Lazarus species 28, 260261

legal title 520

lichens

air pollution 106

biosorption 106

light pollution 215

Lilongwe Wildlife Trust (Malawi) 4851

limiting resources

definition 71

fluctuations 71

provisioning 380, 385, 494

literature reviews 380

livestock

guarding animals 540541

human-wildlife conflict 540541

wildlife 467

living fossils 81

Living Planet Index 556

local adaptations 380, 388, 404

locally extinct, definition 259

local people, working with 496498, 569, 572

logging

habitat loss 145, 148

overharvesting 226

sustainable practices 530, 532

threatened species 219

long-term studies 382

lungs of the planet 100

Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya) 140

macroinvertebrates 330

malaria

climate change 190192

control 204205, 237

management. See also populations, ecosystems, protected areas; See  also populations, ecosystems, protected areas

adaptive 349350

bioregional 493

co- 37

fire 341343

privately protected areas 41

threatened species 376, 378, 380382, 384386, 388, 391396, 398399, 401411, 413, 415417

water 101102

mangroves. See also wetlands; See  also wetlands

mangrove swamps. See also wetlands

loss 152

restoration 360361

value 152, 360

marine ecosystems

climate change 185188

connectivity 402

laws 433

marine protected areas (MPAs) 480482, 490

marine protected areas (MPAs) 479

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) 221222, 452

market failures 121122

mark-recapture surveys 302, 307

Marxan (conservation software) 441, 476, 478

mass extinctions 258

material contributions (ecosystem services) 9394

matrix habitat 135, 401

Mau Forest Complex (Kenya) 101102, 120

maximum sustainable yield 314

Mediterranean-type ecosystems 84

megafauna 2627

mesopredator release 540

metapopulations

definition 395

ex situ conservation 411

management 286287

microclimate 140142

microloans 52

microplastics 210

migrations

assisted 405407

climate change 182183

laws 432

loss 139140, 150152, 533

recovery 397

refueling sites 150152, 401

wildebeest 140

Millennium Seed Bank (UK) 410

minimum dynamic area (MDA) 313

minimum viable population (MVP) 311314, 318

mining

perverse subsidies 121, 564

protected areas 502

working with 531

minnow, Maloti (Pseudobarbus quathlambae) 269270

miombo 24, 178

mite, varroa (Varroa destructor) 238240

mixed-use zoning 486, 490491

Miyawaki method (restoration) 359

model reliability 319

mollusks

pollution monitoring 105

primary threats 328

monitoring

aquatic ecosystems 6667, 105, 330, 332

design principles 319

distributions 570572

ecosystems 328330, 332338

invasive species 67

long-term 318, 394

populations 297299, 302309, 318319

protected areas 485, 495497

quadrat surveys 306

restoration projects 357

translocations 394

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 434

morphospecies 6465

mountain-top extinctions 178

Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (West Africa) 133

movies, contribution to conservation 112

Mpala Conservancy (Kenya) 467468

mussel, Mediterranean (Mytilus galloprovincialis) 235

mutations, genetic diversity 65, 68

mutualistic relationships. See  biological interactions

Nagoya Protocol 123

Namaqua National Park (South Africa) 116

Namibia, natural resource management 536

National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) 333

national parks. See  protected areas

natural

regeneration. See restoration

resources. See  material contributions

selection 278

natural history

definition 376

importance 380

museums 62

study 380383

naturalists 381

natural regeneration. See  restoration

natural resources. See  material contributions

nature deficit disorder 575

nature’s contributions to people (NCP). See  ecosystem services

neglected taxa 413, 417

neocolonialism 143, 219

nested enterprises 566

Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Tanzania) 342, 450

niche models. See  species distribution models (SDM)

non-consumptive use values 96102, 104106, 109, 112117

non-governmental organisations (NGO) 43, 562

non-invasive techniques 308309

nonmaterial contributions (ecosystem services) 112117

normative discipline 3

no-take zones 486, 491

nuclear power 561

nutrients

cycling 339

loss in soil 340

pollution 210

obstructive mindsets 46

oceans

acidification 186

carbon absorption 186

deoxygenation 188

warming 185, 187188

oil pollution 208209

okapi (Okapia johnstoni) 14, 16

Ol Pejeta Conservancy (Kenya) 414417

open-access resources 121122

option values 117118

outbreeding depression 280, 404

overharvesting 9495, 218220, 222226, 230, 328

ozone

atmospheric 434

formation 212

palm oil 170172, 396, 452

palustrine ecosystems 148

Pan-African Association for Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZA) 408

pangolins 112, 428, 575

smuggling 440

traditional medicine 223

paper parks 43, 463

parasites

as biological control 107, 109

honeybees 238240

threat to biodiversity 238, 240242

parasitic wasp (Anagyrus lopezi) 107, 109

Paris Agreement 434435

parrots

Cape (Poicephalus robustus) 7879

pet trade 224225

passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags 448

pastoralism 520521, 540

pathogens. See  diseases

payment for ecosystem services (PES) 563

Peace Parks Foundation 493

penguin, African (Spheniscus demersus) 209, 309, 405406

perch, Nile (Lates niloticus) 268

persecution 219, 230

persistent organic pollutants (POP) 207

perverse subsidies 121122, 363364, 564

pesticides

biomagnification 204205, 207

drift 206

persisting in environment 207

pollution 204207

pest species. See  invasive species

petroleum products. See  fossil fuels

phenological mismatch 182183

phenotype 65

phenotypic plasticity 277

photochemical smog 212

photosynthesis 99100

plants

blindness 413

climate regulation 99100

ecosystem productivity 99

ecotourism 116

IUCN evaluations 273

lungs of the planet 99100

nutrient cycle 339

overharvesting 146147, 219, 226

regulating water/soil quality 101102

water cycle 339

plastic

micro- 210

pollution 208

reduced use 556

Pleistocene extinctions 263

poaching 453, 454. See also illegal wildlife trade; See  also illegal wildlife trade

poisoning. See also pesticides; See  also pesticides

invasive species 235

retaliatory 230

secondary 206, 540

vultures 110111

policies. See  laws

pollinators

agriculture 103104

market values 120

value 101, 105

pollution

air 212213

biomagnification 204205

genetic 236

groundwater 211

heavy metal 207

laws 438

light 214215

microplastics 210

monitoring 105106, 332

noise 216

nutrient 210

oil 208209

persisting in environment 207

pesticide 204207

plastic 208

removal 100, 106

soil 213214

thermal 216217

threatened species 328

threat to humans 205206

water 207211

population and habitat viability analysis (PHVA) 313

population, health, and environment (PHE) 57

populations

bottlenecks 281

decline 556

definition 65

effective size of (Ne) 313314, 317

estimating extinction risk 309314, 317318

management of small 286287

meta- 395, 411

minimum viable (MVP) 311313, 318

monitoring 297299, 302309, 318319

persistence of small 285

role of keystone species 9798

source/sink 395

threats to small 277284

translocations 384388, 391394

population viability analysis (PVA) 309314, 317319

poverty, consequences 44

poverty, threats 46

precipitation

biomes 70

climate change 175

Lake Chad 212

predators

as biological control 106

biomagnification 207

energy limitations 340341

exclusion zones 397

human-wildlife conflict 540541

invasive species as 268

keystone species 9798

meso-predator release 540

metapopulation management 286287

translocation 389390

prescribed burns 342343

primary producers (trophic levels) 99

primates

bushmeat 218

extinction debt 261

seed dispersal 102

threats 171172

prioritisation

ecosystem approach 471

gap analysis approach 334, 474

hotspot approach 472

optimisation approach 476, 478

species approach 471

wilderness approach 472

privately protected areas 4042, 464465

problem animals. See  human-wildlife conflict

productive use values 94

protected areas

accommodating visitors 498499

achievements 4243

African network 479

Aichi targets 478480

classification 463466, 469

climate change 502

definition 462463

design 480, 482, 484

downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADD) 502

fragmentation 484

funding 501

habitat loss 497

history 29, 3236

largest 492

management 494495

marine (MPAs) 480482, 490

monitoring 485, 495497

networks 492493

optimal size 483485, 493

paper parks 43

selection 469, 471472, 474476, 478

urban 523525

value of small 493

working with local people 496498

zoning 486, 490491

protests 51, 450

provisioning services 9394

publication, importance of 11, 394

public outreach 11, 574575, 578579

pygmy Rwandan water lily (Nymphaea thermarum) 406

quadrat surveys 306

quagga (Equus quagga quagga) 32, 285, 288

racing stripe darkling beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) 113

Rainforest Alliance 452

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 433

range-shift gaps 188189

rapid biodiversity assessments (RAP) 299

reconciliation ecology 522

Red Lists. See  IUCN Red Lists

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) 564

reference sites 337, 357, 362

refugee

climate 176

conservation 36

species 386

regulating services (ecosystem services) 96102, 104106, 109

regulations. See  laws

rehabilitation

ecosystem. See  restoration

wildlife 209, 242, 385

reintroductions. See  translocations

religion, conservation 12

remote sensing 333338, 381382, 497

renewable energy 560561

replacement costs 101, 119120

reptiles

climate change 184

sex determination 281

reserves. See  protected areas

reservoirs. See  dams

restocking. See  translocations

restoration

adaptive 357

approaches 355356

climate change 363364

connectivity 396

coral reefs 362

definition 354355

forests 359

mangrove swamps 360361

monitoring 357

planning 356

rivers 402

seasonal drylands 360361

urban areas 357, 359

wetlands 359

resurrection biology. See  de-extinction

retaliatory killings 540. See  persecution; See also persecution

rhinoceros

-botfly relationship 275

dehorning of 203

dispersal 379

extinct subspecies 223, 268

globalisation 428

northern white (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) 414417

population declines 230

southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) 285, 379

rinderpest virus 98

Rio Summit 431

riparian zones, connectivity 396397

rivers, restoration 402

rivet-popper hypothesis 96

roads

habitat fragmentation 138, 472

habitat loss 144145

sustainable development 533

wildlife crossings 533534

robust conservation 565567

rock art 13

Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) 452

sacred spaces (and sacred species) 3032, 146147

Sahel ungulates, decline of 261

sandfish, Clanwilliam (Labeo seeberi) 386387

Sapo National Park (Liberia) 136, 138

scavengers, value 109112

schistosomiasis/bilharzia 149, 242

scientific values 112113

scuba diving 114115

seabirds

bycatch 221222

invasive species 233235

seahorse, Knysna (Hippocampus capensis) 186

sea level rise 176, 187

seascape connectivity. See  connectivity

seasonal drylands

loss 153, 156

restoration 360361

sea turtles

bycatch 317

conservation 303, 305

head-starting 393

seed banks

depletion of natural 153, 343

ex situ conservation 410

seed dispersal 102, 140

seed scarification 102

self-organised actions 565567

sensitivity analysis 317

sentinel species 106

Serengeti Ecosystem (Tanzania) 351353

sex ratios 184, 192, 281

shade-grown crops 527528, 530

Shamwari Private Game Reserve (South Africa) 41

sharks, value 115

shifting baseline syndrome 337

shifting cultivation 142

shipping

invasive species 232

oil pollution 208209

whale collisions 402, 533

sink populations 395

skills shortages 5152

slash-and-burn agriculture 142143

SLOSS (Single Large Or Several Small) debate 484

SMART (conservation software) 448

SMART goals 1011

snail, Aldabra banded (Rhachistia aldabrae) 182183

social

justice 5, 13, 524

media 573

organisation (in wildlife) 388

Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) 4, 573574

Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) 362

soft releases 392

soil

conserving quality 100

organisms 101, 339

pollution 213214

quality regulation 101

solar power 381, 555, 560561

source populations 395

speciation 26, 6465, 7273

species

-area relationship 134135

definition 64

distribution 82, 85

distribution models (SDM) 382383, 404

diversity 6265, 7980, 8384

identifications 7274, 77, 81

lists 64

naming 6263

number 8182

redundancy 9697

richness 80

spiritual ecology 12

stepping stone habitats 401

stochasticity

demographic 281282

environmental 282283

stop-over sites (migrations) 401

studbooks 411

sublethal impacts 181, 205, 340

Sub-Saharan Africa, definition xxvii

subsidies

conservation 438

perverse 121122, 564

sustainable agriculture 526, 531

substitute species 383

succession 71

superorganism 96

supplemental feeding 380, 385

surveys. See  monitoring

sustainable agricultural intensification 526527

sustainable development 533536, 556558

symbiotic relationships. See  biological interactions

systematic conservation planning 474476, 478

Table Mountain National Park MPA (South Africa) 461

Tana River Delta (Kenya) 151

tax incentives 438

taxonomic databases 64

taxonomists 62

temperature. See also climate change; See  also climate change

biomes 70

climate change 174175

lapse rates 178

species distributions 69

termites

ecosystem engineers 97

traditional ecological knoweldge (TEK) 381

terrestrial ecosystems

biomes 2425

climate change 178179, 181184

connectivity 396397, 401, 403

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 563

theory of island biogeography 134135, 483

thermal shock 216

threat assessments. See  IUCN Red Lists

threatened species

assessment gaps 273274

characteristics 274275

definition 271272

management 376, 378, 380388, 390398, 400413, 415417

primary threats 328

trade. See  CITES

toad, Kihansi spray (Nectophrynoides asperginis) 407

traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) 381, 436

traditional medicine

impact 223

traditional peoples. See also customary laws; See  also customary laws

rights 37, 436

working with 516520

tragedy of the commons 121

transfrontier conservation areas (TFCA) 3840, 398400, 493

transient ecosystems 395

translocations

amphibians 407

approaches 384

considerations 384388, 391394

failed 388, 394

fish 269270

need 384

predators 286287, 389390

treaties. See  laws, international

tribal peoples. See  traditional peoples

trophic

asyncrony 182183

cascades 98

levels 99, 340341

trophy hunting 46, 567

Tsitsikamma forest (South Africa) 33

turtle excluder devices (TED) 305

umbrella species 471

United Nations

Climate Change Conference 167

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 432433

Environmental Programme (UNEP) 430, 432, 562

unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 558559

unsustainable development 532533, 556

urban areas

conservation 521522

ecosystem restoration 357, 359

protected areas 523525

urban heat island effect 217

Virunga National Park (DRC) 7, 28, 34

voluntary transactions 121

volunteer-based ecotourism 115

volunteers. See  citizen science

vultures

poisoning 230

population declines 110112

supplemental feeding 380, 385

value 109

W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) Complex (West Africa) 486

water

conserving quality 100101

cycling 338339

management 101102

pollution 207211

weak governance/institutions 47

wealth, consumption 2, 157159

weather forecasting 173

welwitschia (Welwitschia mirabilis) 3435

wetlands

conserving water/soil quality 100

laws 433

loss 149

pollution 208

restoration 359, 402

value 149

whales

ecotourism 375

southern right (Eubalaena australis) 375

threats 402, 533

whistle-blowing 450

wilderness areas

conservation priority 472

traditional people 516

wildlife

corridors. See  connectivity

crossings 533534

farming 451, 565

tracking 336337, 381382

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) 303, 305, 475476

Wildlife Direct (Kenya) 450

wildlife trade. See also illegal wildlife trade

elephants. See  elephants

globalisation 428429

illegal . See  illegal wildlife trade

live animals 224225

sanctions 451

sustainable 452

threatened species. See  CITES

traditional medicine 223

wildlife trade . See  also illegal wildlife trade

wilful ignorance 574

wind power 560561

W National Park (West Africa) 493

Working for Water (South Africa) 346

Working on Fire (South Africa) 342343

World Bank 562

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) 432

World Heritage Sites 432433

World Parks Congress 37, 40

World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) 487, 489

Zakouma National Park (Chad) 444, 446, 447

zoning 486, 490, 491

Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) 408

Zoological Society of London (ZSL, UK) 575

zoos. See  ex situ conservation