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Conservation Biology in Sub-Saharan Africa
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Appendix A

Selected Sources of Information

Searchable databases provide a convenient way to find information on species, places, and topics. With the help of citizen scientists, these databases are rapidly expanding. Below are a few online databases that are free to use. Many also allow users to contribute their own data.

Biodiversity A-Z

http://www.biodiversitya-z.org

A thesaurus for biodiversity terminology.

Conservation Training

https://www.conservationtraining.org

Free conservation-based training materials, provided by TNC.

Copenhagen databases of African vertebrates

https://macroecology.ku.dk/resources/african-vertebrates

Distribution maps for Africa’s mammals, birds, snakes, and amphibians.

eBird

http://ebird.org

Citizen science platform for the global birding community.

Encyclopaedia of Life

http://www.eol.org

Developing resource documenting the biology of all species known to science.

Evidensia

https://www.evidensia.eco

Comprehensive information on sustainability standards.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility

http://www.gbif.org

Free and open access to biodiversity data.

Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS)

http://www.griis.org

Information about invasive species.

iNaturalist

http://www.inaturalist.org

A citizen science project that collects distribution data on all species.

Learning for Nature

https://learningfornature.org

e-Learning resource by the UNDP.

Mongabay

https://news.mongabay.com

A leading environmental news source.

Movebank

https://www.movebank.org

A free online database for animal tracking data

Protected Planet

https://www.protectedplanet.net

Comprehensive global spatial dataset on protected areas.

PADD tracker

http://www.padddtracker.org

Monitors protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement.

Species+

https://www.speciesplus.net

Provides information on species covered by multilateral environmental agreements.

Vital Signs

http://vitalsigns.org

Collects and integrates data on agriculture, ecosystems, and human well-being.

Appendix B

Selected Environmental Organisations

Online search engines such as Google provide powerful tools to obtain information about conservation topics and opportunities. While much of the information obtained in this way is valuable, the growing popularity of the Internet has also allowed the rapid distribution of false and misleading information. You should, thus, carefully consider the source of the information you obtain online.

Similarly, it is also important to thoroughly research any conservation organisations with whom you are interested in working with. This task is particularly difficult in Africa, where most organisations have not yet been assessed for their effectiveness in carrying out conservation activities. As a starting point, you can see whether the organisation that interests you is a member of an international affiliate body, such as the IUCN or World Association for Zoos and Aquariums, which sets strict standards for organisational memberships. Online databases such as GuideStar (https://www.guidestar.org), Charity Navigator (https://www.charitynavigator.org), Better Business Bureau (https://www.bbb.org), and Great Nonprofits (https://greatnonprofits.org) are also good options for organisation vetting.

Below is a partial list of credible conservation organisations active on a regional scale in Africa.

Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group (ABCG)

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.abcg.org

Tackles conservation challenges by strengthening collaborations.

African Conservation Foundation (ACF)

Nairobi, Kenya and Yaoundé, Cameroon

https://www.africanconservation.org

Saves Africa’s endangered wildlife by building local capacity.

African World Heritage Fund

Midrand, South Africa

https://awhf.net

Works to protect Africa’s World Heritage Sites.

African Parks

Johannesburg, South Africa

https://www.african-parks.org

Manages protected areas in collaboration with governments and communities.

African Wildlife Foundation (AWF)

Nairobi, Kenya

http://www.awf.org

Works to ensure that wildlife and wild lands thrive.

Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS)

Kampala, Uganda

http://www.arcosnetwork.org

Promotes biodiversity conservation in the Albertine Rift region.

Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC)

Lawrence, KS, USA

http://tropicalbiology.org

Fosters scientific understanding and conservation of tropical environments.

BirdLife International

Nairobi, Kenya and Accra, Ghana

http://www.birdlife.org/africa

Strives to conserve birds and their habitats, with national partners across Africa.

Born Free Foundation

Horsham, UK

http://www.bornfree.org.uk

Protects threatened species in the wild.

Botanical Gardens Conservation International (BGCI)

Nairobi, Kenya

http://www.bgci.org

Guides, encourages, and supports botanical gardens.

Cambridge Conservation Initiative (CCI)

Cambridge, UK

http://www.cambridgeconservation.org

A partnership of conservation leaders working towards a sustainable future.

Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

Yaoundé, Cameroon and Nairobi, Kenya

https://www.cifor.org

Conducts research on forests and landscape management.

CGIAR (formerly Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research)

Montpellier, France

http://www.cgiar.org

The world’s largest agricultural innovation network.

CITES Secretariat of Wild Fauna and Flora

Geneva, Switzerland

https://cites.org

The official UN body tasked with regulating the global trade in endangered species.

Conservation International (CI)

Arlington, VA, USA

http://www.conservation.org

Saves nature through science, policy, and partnerships.

Conservation Leadership Programme

Cambridge, UK

http://www.conservationleadershipprogramme.org

Supports leadership development of early career conservationists.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat

Montreal, Canada

https://www.cbd.int

The official UN body tasked with promoting the goals of the CBD.

Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF)

Arlington, VA, USA

http://www.cepf.net

Provides financial and technical support to conserve critical ecosystems.

Darwin Initiative

London, UK

http://www.darwininitiative.org.uk

Assists developing countries implement biodiversity convention commitments.

Earthwatch Institute

Boston, MA, USA

http://earthwatch.org

Helps citizen scientists contribute to field conservation projects.

East African Wild Life Society (EAWLS)

Nairobi, Kenya

https://eawildlife.org

Promotes conservation and sustainable use of the environment.

EcoHealth Alliance

New York, NY, USA

https://www.ecohealthalliance.org

Studies connections between humans, wildlife, and ecosystems.

The Environmental Foundation for Africa (EFA)

Freetown, Sierra Leone

http://www.efasl.org

Protects and restores the environment in West Africa.

Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA)

London, UK

https://eia-international.org

Activist organisation focussed on exposing environmental crimes.

Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW)

Eugene, OR, USA

http://elaw.org

Helps partners gain skills and build strong conservation organisations.

Fauna & Flora International (FFI)

Cambridge, UK

http://www.fauna-flora.org

Africa’s first conservation society; has been protecting African wildlife since 1903.

FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology

Cape Town, South Africa

http://www.fitzpatrick.uct.ac.za

Promotes and undertakes scientific studies on African birds.

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

Washington. DC

http://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org

Assist countries with their REDD+ preparations to reduce emissions from forest loss.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

Bonn, Germany

https://ic.fsc.org

Sets the standards for responsibly managed forests.

Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS)

Frankfurt, Germany

https://fzs.org

Maintains wilderness areas and biodiversity.

Future for Nature

Arnhem, The Netherlands

http://futurefornature.org

Provides mentoring and other assistance to young conservationists.

Game Rangers Association of Africa (GRAA)

Johannesburg, South Africa

http://www.gameranger.org

Provides support, networks, and representation for rangers.

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.thegef.org

Provide grants for biodiversity and sustainable development projects.

Global Forest Watch (GFW)

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.globalforestwatch.org

Empower people to better protect forests.

Global Wildlife Conservation (GWC)

Austin, TX, USA

https://www.globalwildlife.org

Protects species and habitats through science-based field action.

Goldman Environmental Foundation

San Francisco, CA, USA

http://www.goldmanprize.org

Recognises environmental activists who have made an impact.

Greenpeace Africa

Johannesburg, South Africa

http://www.greenpeace.org/africa

Activist organisation known for protests against environmental crime

High Seas Alliance

Washington, DC, USA

http://highseasalliance.org

Facilitates cooperation for protection of high seas.

ICLEI Africa

Cape Town, South Africa

http://africa.iclei.org

A network of governments committed to sustainable urban development.

International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)

Nairobi, Kenya and Cape Town, South Africa

http://www.ifaw.org/africa

Rescues and protects animals around the world.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Geneva, Switzerland

http://www.ipcc.ch

The UN’s authority on climate change.

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

Bonn, Germany

https://www.ipbes.net

The UN’s authority on nature’s contributions to people (NCP), or ecosystem services.

The International Ecotourism Society (TIES)

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.ecotourism.org

Promotes responsible tourism practices.

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

London, UK

https://www.iied.org

Promotes sustainable development to protect the environment.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Ibadan, Nigeria

http://www.iita.org

Works to enhance crop quality and productivity.

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)

Yokohama, Japan

http://www.itto.int

Promotes sustainable management of tropical forest resources.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Gland, Switzerland

https://www.iucn.org

Coordinates international conservation efforts and produces Red Lists.

International Criminal Police Organisation (INTERPOL)

Lyon, France

https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime

Facilitate prosecution of international environmental crimes.

iSeal

London, UK

https://www.isealalliance.org

A membership organisation for sustainability standards.

Jane Goodall Institute

Vienna, VA, USA

http://www.janegoodall.org

Inspiring people to conserve the natural world.

Leadership for Conservation in Africa (LCA)

Pretoria, South Africa

http://lcafrica.org

Influences business leaders to support investment in conservation.

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)

London, UK

https://www.msc.org

Promotes sustainable fishing practices.

National Geographic Society (NGS)

Washington, DC, USA

https://www.nationalgeographic.org

One of the world’s largest scientific and educational institutions.

Natural Capital Coalition

London, UK

https://naturalcapitalcoalition.org

Collaboration of the global natural capital community.

The Nature Conservancy (TNC)

Arlington, VA, USA

https://www.nature.org

Conserves threatened species and their habitats, emphasising land preservation.

Oxpeckers Centre for Investigative Environmental Journalism

Johannesburg, South Africa

https://oxpeckers.org

Investigative journalists focusing on African environmental issues.

Pan-African Association of Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZA)

Johannesburg, South Africa

http://www.zoosafrica.com

Guides and accredits African Zoos and Aquaria.

Peace Parks Foundation

Stellenbosch, South Africa

http://www.peaceparks.org

Facilitates the establishment of transfrontier conservation areas.

The Pew Charitable Trusts

London, UK

http://www.pewtrusts.org

Advances scientific understanding of environmental problems.

Project Aware

Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA

https://www.projectaware.org

A movement of scuba divers protecting the planet’s oceans.

Rainforest Alliance

New York, NY, USA

http://www.rainforest-alliance.org

Advances sustainable forestry, agriculture, and ecotourism.

Rainforest Trust

London, UK

https://www.rainforesttrust.org

Protecting forests by aquiring land for conservation.

Rapid Response Facility (RRF)

Cambridge, UK

http://www.rapid-response.org

Provides emergency support to natural World Heritage sites.

Regional Partnership for Coastal and Marine Conservation (PRCM)

Dakar, Senegal

http://www.prcmarine.org

Working on marine conservation in West Africa.

Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

http://www.rspo.org

Advances sustainable palm oil production.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Richmond, Surrey, UK

https://www.kew.org

A leading botanical research institute with an enormous plant collection.

Rufford Foundation

London, UK

https://www.rufford.org/

Funds conservation projects across the developing world.

Sahara Conservation Fund

St. Louis, MO, USA

https://www.saharaconservation.org

Conserves biodiversity of the Sahara Desert and bordering Sahelian grasslands.

SEED

Berlin, Germany

https://www.seed.uno

A global partnership that promotes sustainable development.

Society for Conservation Biology (SCB)

Arlington, VA, USA

http://conbio.org

The leading scientific society for conservation biology.

Society for Ecological Restoration (SER)

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.ser.org

Scientific society that promotes ecological restoration.

Species360 (formerly International Species Information System)

Bloomington, MN, USA

https://www.species360.org

Gathers and shares information about animals kept in zoos and aquaria.

Tropical Biology Association

Nairobi, Kenya

http://www.tropical-biology.org

Help scientists manage and conserve natural resources in tropical regions.

Tusk

New York, NY, USA

http://www.tusk.org

Supports and connects conservation initiatives and expertise.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Nairobi, Kenya

http://www.unep.org

Coordinates the UN’s environmental activities.

West Africa Biodiversity and Climate Change (WA BiCC)

Accra, Ghana

https://www.wabicc.org

Improve conservation and climate-resilient growth across West Africa.

Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA)

Zanzibar, Tanzania

http://www.wiomsa.org

Scientific society that promotes marine sciences.

Wetlands International

Dakar, Senegal

http://africa.wetlands.org

Dedicated to the conservation and restoration of wetlands.

Whiteley Fund for Nature

London, UK

http://whitleyaward.org

Funds conservation leaders and projects in developing countries.

WildAid

San Francisco, CA, USA

http://wildaid.org

Working to end the illegal wildlife trade.

WILDLABS

Cambridge, UK

https://www.wildlabs.net

Platform that promotes technology-enabled conservation.

WildLeaks

Los Angeles, CA, USA

https://wildleaks.org

An online whistleblower platform for biodiversity crimes.

Wildlife Conservation Network (WCN)

San Francisco, CA, USA

https://wildnet.org

Supports community-based conservation projects.

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)

Bronx, NY, USA

http://www.wcs.org

One of the world’s leaders in biodiversity conservation and research.

Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network (TRAFFIC)

Cambridge, UK

http://www.traffic.org

Promotes sustainable wildlife trade and combats wildlife crime.

World Bank

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.worldbank.org

Provides loans to developing countries for economic development.

Worldwatch Institute

Washington DC, USA

http://www.worldwatch.org

Highlights links between the economy and environment.

World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA)

Gland, Switzerland

http://www.waza.org

Guides, encourages, and supports zoos and aquaria.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)

Cambridge, UK

https://www.unep-wcmc.org

An UN agency that supports biodiversity assessments and policy.

World Resources Institute (WRI)

Washington, DC, USA

http://www.wri.org

Promotes sustainable development with sound environmental management.

World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF)

Gland, Switzerland

https://www.panda.org

One of the world’s largest conservation organisations.

Zoological Society of London (ZSL)

London, UK

https://www.zsl.org

Manages several projects to protect threatened species and ecosystems.

Appendix C

Obtaining Conservation Funding

Funding limitations often hamper conservation activities. Because conservation funding is limited, there is much competition for the few options available. Below are 15 tips to make the writing of funding proposals less tedious, time-consuming, and depressing. The list is not meant to be exhaustive, and by no means a guarantee for funding—no tip can ever do that. But these generalities should give early-career conservationists a better chance for success.

  1. Start early. Obtaining funding is a highly competitive endeavour, one you are more likely to fail in with a rushed job. It generally takes several months to put together a proposal that can convince assessors that your proposed work is well planned and feasible, and that your team is up to the task. To get there, you need to allow for enough time to put together a well-functioning team, develop and refine all your ideas, design a well-polished proposal, adapt it to specific grant requirements, conduct pilot studies, obtain external advice, address comments and concerns, and navigate institutional bureaucracy.
  2. Be a team player. Assembling a good team is perhaps your most important decision towards funding success. Remember, your team will be your main support network during this process. They will brainstorm with you, look for funding opportunities, and help develop, edit, and critique your proposal. Make sure you assemble a team willing to contribute to these tasks—it is no fun doing the work alone, only for others to claim the funds and fame. Second, a carefully selected team confers reputation. As unfair as it may seem, funders invest in projects that maximise returns with minimal risk. They do this by funding established experts with a track record of successful grant management. This poses a significant barrier to early-career conservationists—how can you obtain funding without a track record, and vice versa? The best way to overcome this barrier is to assemble a team that includes reputable collaborators where each member provides a different set of skills to assure success. (Note that established researchers are also increasingly relying on collaborations due to the interdisciplinary nature of conservation.) Make sure you state somewhere in your proposal (generally in a personnel section) why your team is the best to do this work, and how each team member’s skills complement the others. Instead of viewing this as an impediment, see this requirement as an opportunity to learn from and network with experts—your project will most likely also be better off as a result.
  3. Focus on the funder’s priorities. Funders will have set priorities from which they will not deviate. Thus, while you and your colleagues may believe that your idea is truly ground-breaking, trying to convince funders to adapt their priorities to fit your grand idea simply will not happen. Instead, either find a funder whose priorities align with yours, or adapt your proposal to fit within the funder’s stated priorities. In some cases, funders require that you state how your priorities align with theirs—make sure you do it, using the exact wording the funders used in their call for proposals.
  4. Your assessor is not an expert. Funders usually appoint a small panel of assessors with a general understanding of the funder’s priorities to quickly and efficiently adjudicate and rank funding proposals against each other. Having assessments done by non-experts has implications for how a proposal is written. First, do not assume that the assessor has specific knowledge of your field, or that s/he will just “get” the value of your project. Your proposal needs to clearly explain your plan in simple terms so that a lay person on the street will also care. Second, while technical terms (i.e. jargon) may be fine in specialist journals, they should be avoided at all costs in funding proposals. That also includes abbreviations, which can frustrate an assessor who needs to remind him/herself of the abbreviation’s meaning.
  5. Follow the guidelines. Before starting to write the proposal, read through the guidelines. While doing this, draw up a checklist documenting every requirement (e.g. budgets, timelines, margin sizes, fonts) that needs to be addressed and adhered to. Follow this checklist while writing the proposal. Then, when you are done, go over the guidelines again to make sure you did not miss a “hidden” requirement. While it may be tempting to make a small tweak, say to fit within the page limit, even minor deviations to the guidelines will stand out to assessors who look at hundreds of proposals in quick succession.
  6. Keep it simple. As mentioned earlier, funders like to invest in projects that maximum returns for minimum risk. One way to meet this requirement is to have a carefully selected team of collaborators in place. Equally important is to propose projects that are realistic, with simple and obtainable goals. Remember, most grants run on one-year cycles, and there is only so much one can accomplish in that timeframe. While you may think your overly ambitious project will impress assessors, more likely it will be viewed as a money drain and too risky to fund.
  7. Be exciting. A grant is a reward for promising exciting work. Getting that award letter is undeniably an exciting moment in anyone’s career. But before that excitement, you are going to have to think hard about ways to first make the assessors excited. This is difficult, because there are many constraints to proposals. Foremost is the challenge of finding a balance between simplicity and excitement. It is also difficult to excite an anonymous assessor with a limited understand of your work. But this situation is hardly unique: businesses all over the world constantly work on strategies to impress anonymous customers who are also considering competitor products. Remember, you, as the salesman, have only one opportunity to sell your project—through that piece of paper your proposal is printed on. While a proposal should remain formal, a marketing strategy that includes a memorable title that provokes curiosity, and an attractive layout that shows thoughtfulness and organisation, can do wonders for making your proposal stand out.
  8. Get to the point. Another way to provoke excitement is to make sure you keep the assessor’s attention from the start. Because you have only seconds to make an impression, this effort starts with a memorable title. Also, do not start the proposal like a journal article with a long background overview. Instead, use those first few sentences to immediately draw the assessor’s attention to the significance of your work. As a good rule of thumb, use that first paragraph to point out what major societal problem you are addressing, why addressing it now is essential, and how you are proposing to solve it. Putting the most thought-provoking information upfront shows your assessor that you are confident and organised.
  9. Develop testable hypotheses. You have a much better chance of success if your aims/objectives are immediately visible. So write them in bold text, in their own line. They also need to be written in a way to show they are objectively testable. Consider the aim of solving pesticide pollution. How would you define “solved”? Nobody using pesticides anymore? Nobody getting sick from pesticides? You see, lofty and ill-defined aims provide opportunities for confusion, a risk of appearing unrealistic, and probably a funding denial. To give the assessor assurance that your conclusions will be valid, there is an expectation (especially among assessors who are scientists) for applicants to state their main aims as testable hypotheses, followed by likely testable outcomes. It may require some thinking to frame an objective in an exciting way.
  10. Be exact and specific. Science and research are about discovering objective facts and testable outcomes. It is important for you to show assessors that you grasp these concepts. Use your methods section to address each of your hypotheses, one at a time. As you do this, detail exactly how you will collect data free from bias, and what models/statistics you will use to ensure your results are reliable. To show clarity and understanding, either spell out potentially subjective and context-specific terms such as “larger”, “amazing”, and “plenty”, or better yet, avoid them altogether. Also avoid vague throw-away statements like “we will model the population”; those will only hurt your cause. Instead, use that space to describe in detail how you will model the population.
  11. State your impact. Some of the greatest discoveries of our time originated from pure scientific studies (i.e. those without obvious and immediate practical benefits). Even so, funders and scientists are increasingly debating the merits of funding pure over applied scientific studies (i.e. studies that directly and immediately benefit the public). While there is undoubtedly a need for better balance in funding allocations, there currently seems to be a strong bias towards funding applied research. Hence, unless grant guidelines explicitly state not to mention it, you should use some space to explain how your work will benefit society at large. It is important to note that the assessors may not share your background or values. Thus, do not assume the value of your work is self-evident—you really need to spell it out.
  12. State your outreach strategy. While funding agencies generally support the cause they fund, they also want to attach their name to that cause and be recognised for their contributions. Funding agencies attached to governments in turn want tax-funded projects to be publicly accessible rather than restricted to the collective memories of specialists. A good outreach campaign also prevents the public from feeling detached from science and conservation. It is thus becoming increasingly important (and sometimes mandated) to state what steps you will take to communicate your project’s results to the broader public.
  13. You are not alone. As discussed in point 1, you should have a team of collaborators willing to help you. Do not be shy asking them for help; after all, they will also benefit from the funding and fame. It is also worth talking to co-workers who were previously successful getting the funds you target, as there are often unwritten nuances in how proposals should be framed. BUT you should also remember that your proposal is not the only one being assessed. There are likely hundreds of others. They will be ranked, and the most exciting proposals will be funded. You should think very carefully, every step of the way, how to make your proposal stand out from the crowd.
  14. Call on external help. Once you and your team finished writing the proposal, ask friends and family who are not part of your team to read and comment on it. First prize is if you can get input from lay people who are not familiar with your work. Ask them if the proposed work excites them, and which parts they do not understand. If your proposal bores or confuses them, then you have more work to do to avoid boring and confusing the assessors. Every extra person willing to read your proposal provides an extra opportunity to test your message and improve your work.
  15. Do not give up. Obtaining funding is not easy. It is increasingly the case that funding cuts forces more conservationists to compete for the same, if not smaller, pot of money. Funding success also depends on factors out of your control (e.g. quality and number of other proposals), leaving the chance of success to an element of luck. That does not mean applying for funding is a waste of time. Foremost, you will not succeed if you do not try. Funders may also provide comments on proposals, which enables you to improve it for the next round. Lastly, obtaining funding really is a numbers game. Do not put all your eggs in one basket by submitting your proposal to only one funder. Rather, identify several potential funders, tweak your proposal to fit their guidelines and priorities, and submit to every one of them. If you have a worthy idea, and you use every failure as an opportunity to refine your message, you will eventually achieve success.

Appendix D

Environmental Calendar

Several decades ago, the UN initiated a global outreach effort to mark the anniversary dates of key environmental treaties as an opportunity for us to pause and reflect on the natural environment’s importance in our lives. Following this example, some environmental organisations has started devoting additional days to celebrate environmental issues not pertinently covered by UN treaties. Perhaps the most well-known being WWF’s Earth Hour, held every year or 29 March, during which businesses and the public turn off non-essential lights for one hour, from 8:30–9:30pm, as a symbol of their commitment to the environment. These celebrations have become an important tool to help raise public awareness of the plight of the natural world, and many organisations are taking actions to promote environmental issues through newspaper articles, radio interviews, festivals, important announcements, seminars, and guided walks. Below is a list of some prominent celebrations in the annual environmental calendar. You, your friends, and your organisation may celebrate only some of these days, or all of them; it’s all up to personal choices.

Celebration

Date

Inaugural year

International Zebra Day

31 January

2016

World Wetlands Day

2 February

1997

World Pangolin Day

Third Saturday in February

2012

*World Wildlife Day

3 March

2014

International Day of Action for Rivers

14 March

1997

World Frog Day

20 March

2014?

*International Day of Forests

21 March

2013

*World Water Day

22 March

1993

Earth Hour

29 March

2008

Earth Day

22 April

1970

World Penguin Day

25 April

Unclear

*World Migratory Bird Day

Second Saturday in May

2006

*International Day for Biological Diversity

22 May

2000

World Turtle Day

23 May

2000

*World Environmental Day

5 June

1974

*World Oceans Day

8 June

1992

World Sea Turtle Day

16 June

2005

*World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought

17 June

1995

World Albatross Day

19 June

2020

World Giraffe Day

21 June

2014

*World Population Day

11 July

1989

World Chimpanzee Day

14 July

2018

World Snake Day

16 July

2013

World Ranger Day

31 July

2007

World Lion Day

10 August

2013

World Elephant Day

12 August

2012

World Lizard Day

14 August

Unclear

International Vulture Awareness Day

First Saturday in Sept.

2009

*International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer

16 September

1995

World Rhino Day

22 September

2010

World Gorilla Day

24 September

2017

World Environmental Health Day

26 September

2011

World Animal Day

4 October

1925

*International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict

6 November

2002

World Fisheries Day

21 November

1998

International Cheetah Day

4 December

2011

*World Soil Day

5 December

2014

*International Mountain Day

11 December

2003

*Officially celebrated by the UN