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© I. Gildenhard and J. Henderson, CC BY 4.0

11.1–4: The Morning After

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit:

Aeneas, quamquam et sociis dare tempus humandis

praecipitant curae turbataque funere mens est,

vota deum primo victor solvebat Eoo.

Study Questions

  • How does the et after quamquam (2) fit into the sentence?
  • What is the accusative object of praecipitant (3)?
  • Parse deum and explain its case (4).
  • Identify and explain the tense of solvebat (4).
  • Why does Eoo (4) scan the way it does, i.e. short – long – long?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Why is the placement in the verse (and the word order) of praecipitant curae agreeably clever?
  • How does the rhetorical and syntactical design of line 4 obliquely advertise Aeneas’ unusual pietas?

Discussion Points

  • The adverb interea (1) correlates different actions in time: it gestures back to what we have just been told and sets up a new development. Here it bridges the gap between Aeneid 10 and 11 – asking you (who may have started reading at Aeneid 11.1…) to browse back: what has happened at the end of Aeneid 10?
  • Who is Aurora (1) and what is her story (or myth)? Does it resonate here?
  • Line 11.1 is identical to line 4.129: what might this repetition mean?
  • What is the conflict Aeneas experiences in 2–4, how does he resolve it, and what does both the conflict and its resolution tell us about his character?

Oceanus, -i, m.

Ocean (in mythology, the son of Uranus and Ge)

interea (adv.)


surgo, -rgere, -rrexi, -rrectum

to get up; emerge, rise

Aurora, -ae, f.

dawn, Dawn, Aurora

humo, -are, -avi, -atum

to bury, inter

praecipito, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause to fall headlong, drive headlong

funus, -eris, n.

funeral rites; corpse; death,

turbo, -are, -avi, -atum

to agitate, disturb, stir up, confound

vota solvere

to fulfil vows (after the prayer has been answered)

Eous, -a, -um (adj.)

- here used as a noun: Eous, i, m.

of the morning, eastern, of the dawn

the morning star, dawn

11.5–11: Epic DIY, or: How to Build a Victory Trophy

ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis


constituit tumulo fulgentiaque induit arma,

Mezenti ducis exuvias, tibi, magne, tropaeum,

bellipotens; aptat rorantis sanguine cristas

telaque trunca viri, et bis sex thoraca petitum

perfossumque locis, clipeumque ex aere sinistrae


subligat atque ensem collo suspendit eburnum.

Study Questions

  • What construction is decisis undique ramis (5)?
  • How do exuvias and tropaeum (7) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse magne (7).
  • Parse rorantis (8).
  • What noun does the phrase bis sex (9) modify? (What case is the (indeclinable) numeral sex?)
  • Parse thoraca (9) – and draw a thorax.

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Lines 5–11 are strikingly ‘paratactic’, featuring a sequence of main clauses (constituit – induit – aptat – subligat – suspendit) with no subordinate clause in sight. Why might Virgil have opted for syntactical simplicity – and how does he nevertheless generate stylistic variety?
  • What is the rhetorical effect of Virgil’s direct address to Mars (7–8)?

Discussion Points

  • What are the standout qualities of Aeneas that Virgil emphasizes in 5–11? How does he do so? And how does the glimpse into his mental state we get in 2–4 compare to what he does in 5–11?
  • At the end of Aeneid 10, Mezentius pleads with Aeneas for a proper burial. But the only follow-up we get is the passage here, with Aeneas constructing a victory monument. Some scholars argue that Aeneas not only hangs up the armour he stripped from his foe, but also his actual body, brutally mutilated. What do you think? (Justify your argument with reference to the text.)
  • Draw Aeneas’ tropaeum.
  • Discuss the phrase tela … trunca viri (9) as one of the Aeneid’s most paradoxical variants on its title phrase Arma virumque (1.1).
  • How do modern societies deal with war casualties and military victories? Compare and contrast with what Aeneas is doing here.

ingens, -tis

of immoderate size, full-grown, enormous; great

quercus, -us, f.

oak, oak-tree

dēcīdo, dēcīdere, decīdi, decīsum

to cut off, cut away

undique (adv.)

from all parts, sides, or places,
from every quarter, on all sides, everywhere

ramus, -i, m.

branch, bough, twig

tumulus, -i, m.

a heap of earth, mound

fulgeo, -gere, -si

to shine brightly, flash, glitter, gleam

induo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to put on, don, dress in

exuviae, -arum, f.

armour taken off a defeated enemy, spoils

tropaeum, -i, n.

a ‘trophy’ set up to mark the rout of an enemy

bellipotens, -ntis

powerful in war (here used substantivally referring to Mars)

apto, -are, -avi, -atum

to fit on, fix; to put on, fasten

roro, -are, -avi, -atum

to drizzle, drip (e.g. blood or dew)

crista, -ae, f.

crest, plume (attached to the top of a helmet)

trunco, -are, -avi, -atum

to maim, mutilate, break apart, dismember

thorax, -acis, m.


peto, -ere, -ivi/ii, -itum

to move towards, attack, go after, seek to attain

perfodio, -odere, -odi, -ossum

to dig through, pierce, perforate

clipeus, -i, m.

a round shield

aes, aeris, n.

copper, bronze, brass

subligo, -are, -avi, -atum

to tie up, fasten (one thing to another)

collum, -i, n.

neck (both with and without the head)

suspendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to hang, suspend

eburnus, -a, -um

made of/decorated with ivory

11.12–16: Sic Semper Tyrannis @TakeNoteTurnus

tum socios (namque omnis eum stipata tegebat

turba ducum) sic incipiens hortatur ovantis:

‘maxima res effecta, viri; timor omnis abesto,

quod superest; haec sunt spolia et de rege superbo


primitiae manibusque meis Mezentius hic est.

Study Questions

  • Parse ovantis (12). What noun does the participle modify?
  • maxima res effecta, viri (14): what word needs to be supplied to complete the sentence?
  • Parse viri (14).
  • Parse abesto (14).
  • How is the phrase de rege superbo (15) to be construed? Who is the king and what does his superbia consist in? Is the echo of superest in superbo (15) a mere sound-effect?
  • What are primitiae (16)? And what is their meaning here?
  • What kind of ablative is manibus meis (16)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does Virgil’s word order in 12–13 reflect the relationship between Aeneas and his allies?
  • Discuss the effect of the deictic pronouns haec (15) and hic (16).
  • How would you characterize the rhetorical register that Aeneas adopts at the opening of his speech? How does he interact with his audience? What message is he trying to convey?

Discussion Points

  • In the opening section of Aeneid 11, Aeneas appeared to be all alone. Now we suddenly learn that he operates surrounded by a bustling crowd of allies (tum socios…). What is the ideological effect of showing Aeneas first in seemingly splendid isolation and then in the midst of a larger grouping?
  • What is peculiar about the formulation turba ducum (13)? Why did Virgil use it?
  • How does Aeneas portray the relationship between himself and ‘his’ Mezentius? (Relate Mezentius hic est back to tela … trunca viri (9).)

stipo, -are, -avi, -atum

to compress, surround; crowd, throng

tego, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to cover, shield, protect

ovo, -are, -avi, -atum

to celebrate, exult, rejoice

efficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to construct, bring about, accomplish

supersum, -esse, -fui

to remain (to be dealt with)

spolium, -ii, n.

(usu. in pl.) spoils of war

superbus, -a, -um (adj.)

- with abl.

proud, haughty, disdainful, arrogant

exultant, glorying in

primitiae, -arum, f. pl.

the first fruits; a first offering

11.17–21: Going (Again) for the Jugular…

nunc iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos.

arma parate, animis et spe praesumite bellum,

ne qua mora ignaros, ubi primum vellere signa

adnuerint superi pubemque educere castris,


impediat segnisve metu sententia tardet.

Study Questions

  • nunc iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos (17): what is the verb of this sentence? How is nobis to be construed?
  • In line 18, should we put a comma after parate – or, put differently, does the et link parate and praesumite or animis and spe?
  • What are the subjects and what the verbs of the ne-clause (19–21)?
  • What does the –que after pubem link?
  • Is segnis (21) nominative singular or accusative plural?
  • What kind of ablative is metu (21)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Throughout the speech, and in this segment in particular (regem–murosque, arma–bellum, parate–praesumite, animis–spe, ignaros–segnis, vellere signa–educere castris), Aeneas uses a series of near-synonymous words or expressions: what is the rhetorical effect?

Discussion Points

  • ad regem (17): who is the king here – and what city is referred to in murosque Latinos?
  • What are we to make of Aeneas’ refusal to set out for war before the gods have given their assent (by nodding…) (19–20)? How would you characterize the system of religious thought that informs his attitude?

praesumo, -ere, -(p)si, -ptum

to take upon oneself beforehand, anticipate

mora, -ae, f.


ignarus, -a, -um

having no knowledge, ignorant, unaware

ubi primum

as soon as, the moment that

vello, -ere, -i/vulsi, vulsum

signa vellere

to pull out, pluck

to pull up the standards (a signal of departure)

adnuo, -ere, -ui, -utum

to make signs, nod (assent), permit; (of the gods) to grant their favour or support

superus, -a, -um

superi, -orum, m.

situated above, upper

those who dwell above, i.e. the gods

pubes, -is, f.

adult population, manpower

educo, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to lead forth, bring out, draw out

impedio, -ire, -ivi/ii, -itum

to restrict, hinder, obstruct

segnis, -is, -e

slothful, inactive, sluggish

sententia, -ae, f.

way of thinking, opinion; decision, decree

tardo, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause to slow down, delay, hold back

11.22–28: …But not Before Tending to the Dead

interea socios inhumataque corpora terrae

mandemus, qui solus honos Acheronte sub imo est.

ite’, ait ‘egregias animas, quae sanguine nobis

hanc patriam peperere suo, decorate supremis


muneribus, maestamque Evandri primus ad urbem

mittatur Pallas, quem non virtutis egentem

abstulit atra dies et funere mersit acerbo.’

Study Questions

  • Parse mandemus (23).
  • Explain the gender of the relative pronoun qui (23).
  • Parse peperere (25)
  • What does the –que after maestam (26) link?
  • What is the urbs of Evander (26)?
  • Parse mittatur (27).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • socios inhumataque corpora (22) is a hendiadys (= inhumata corpora sociorum): what might be the rhetorical rationale behind this figure of speech here?
  • Discuss the rhetorical design of the relative clause in lines 24–25 (quae … suo) and comment on the phrase patriam peperere.
  • What is the effect of the anastrophe + hyperbaton in the phrase maestam … ad urbem (26)?
  • How does the phrasing of Pallas, quem non virtutis egentem etc. (27–28) stress Pallas as special among the egregias animas etc. (24–25)?

Discussion Points

  • What notions about the dead (and the afterlife) does Aeneas bring into play here? What are their cultural origins?
  • What is the patria that Aeneas mentions in line 25?
  • What religious thinking informs the notion of atra dies (28)?
  • What does Aeneas’ discourse tell us about his relationship with Pallas?
  • Looking back over the speech, analyze its overall structure: what are the main topics covered? How much verse-time does he give to each? In what order are they arranged – and is it significant? Are there changes in stylistic registers? Which components do you find particularly effective (and which ones – if any – fall flat for you)?
  • What does this speech tell us about Aeneas as public orator – and as a person? (And are these two aspects necessarily the same?)

mando, -are, -avi, -atum

to hand over, deliver, entrust, commit

Acheron, -ontis, m.

Acheron (an underworld river); underworld

imus, -a, -um

lowest, deepest, innermost

egregius, -ia, -ium

outstanding, excellent, pre-eminent

pario, -ere, peperi, -tum

to give birth, bring forth, produce, procure

decoro, -are, -avi, -atum

to embellish, adorn; glorify, honour

munus, -eris, n.

munera suprema

task, duty; public show; present, gift

the last duties owed to a person: funeral rites

egens, -ntis

needy, indigent, lacking in

aufero, -rre, abstuli, ablatum

to carry away, take away; remove, destroy

ater, atra, atrum

black, ill-omened

mergo, -gere, -si, -sum

to plunge, immerse, drown; engulf

11.29–41: Necrophilia, Anyone?

Sic ait inlacrimans, recipitque ad limina gressum

corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acoetes


servabat senior, qui Parrhasio Evandro

armiger ante fuit, sed non felicibus aeque

tum comes auspiciis caro datus ibat alumno.

circum omnis famulumque manus Troianaque turba

et maestum Iliades crinem de more solutae.


ut vero Aeneas foribus sese intulit altis

ingentem gemitum tunsis ad sidera tollunt

pectoribus, maestoque immugit regia luctu.

ipse caput nivei fultum Pallantis et ora

ut vidit levique patens in pectore vulnus


cuspidis Ausoniae, lacrimis ita fatur obortis:

Study Questions

  • Which words does the –que after recipit (29) link?
  • Scan line 31, taking into account various metrical peculiarities.
  • What is the main verb of the sentence starting with circum (34)?
  • How does circum (34) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse famulum (34).
  • Can hair be sad (cf. maestum crinem: 35)?
  • Who are the Iliades (35)? And why does Virgil put such emphasis on Troy (cf. also Troianaque turba in 34) here?
  • Explain the grammar of solutae (35).
  • What construction is tunsis … pectoribus (37–38)?
  • What is the main clause of the sentence that starts in 39 (ipse caput…)?
  • What does the –que after levi (40) link?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • In what sense is the word order and verse design of the ubi-clause in 30–1 (corpus … senior) and the ut-clause in 39–41 expressive of their contents – and how do they mirror each other?
  • The passage features frequent use of hyperbaton: corpus … positum (30), felicibus … auspiciis (32–3), caro … alumno (33), maestum … crinem (35), foribus … altis (36), tunsis … pectoribus (38–9), maestoque … luctu (38), levique … in pectore (40), lacrimis … obortis (41). Are they expressive of anything?
  • Analyze the overall design of the passage. What are its constituent parts and how are they arranged?

Discussion Points

  • Catalogue the articulations of grief that Virgil mentions in this passage. How do they compare with modern practices?
  • The passage contains various references to architecture (29: ad limina; 36: foribus … altis; 38: regia): how does this square with the fact that we are in the middle of a battlefield?
  • The passage contains a range of geographical markers (31: Parrhasio; 34: Troiana; 35: Iliades; 41: Ausoniae). Identify their referents and discuss their significance.
  • This is the second time Aeneas wells up within the space of 13 verses (29: sic ait inlacrimans; 41: lacrimis ita fatur obortis): what’s the rep on heroes and tears?
  • Some scholars have felt that Virgil’s sensual description of Pallas’ corpse borders on the erotic. Do you? Can you spot the beautiful boy in the lifeless bo(d)y – in the sclerotic.
  • Can you identify the figures in Anne Louis Girodet-Trioson’s painting on the following page? (Note that the Latin text at the bottom of the painting is from 11.57–8 – it will help in identifying the boy in the foreground.)
  • Compare and contrast text and image: which one in your opinion evokes grief and pathos more powerfully – and why?

illacrimo, -are, -avi, -atum

to shed tears, weep

recipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to receive, accept, recover

limen, -inis, n.


gressus, -us, m. [gradior]

- gressum recipere

step, walk; pl. feet

to turn back, withdraw

exanimis, -is, -e

lifeless, dead

pono, ponere, posui, positum

to place, set, put; lay out



Parrhasius, -a, -um


armiger, -eri, m. [arma + -ger]


felix, -icis

lucky, auspicious, fortunate, prosperous

aeque (adv.)

to an equal degree, likewise, equally

comes, -itis, m. (f.)

companion, comrade; associate

auspicium, -(i)i, n.

augury, auspices; portent, omen; fortune, luck

carus, -a, -um

costly, dear; beloved

alumnus, -i, m.

son, child

famulus, -i, m.

servant, attendant

crinis, -is, m.


solvo, -vere, -vi, -utum

to loosen, untie, relax, unfasten

foris, -is, f.

door; (pl.) double door

infero, -re, intuli, illatum

to come in, enter; attack

altus, -a, -um

lofty, tall, high

gemitus, -us, m.

groaning, moaning

tundo, -ere, tutudi, tunsum

to strike, beat

immugio, -ire, -ivi/ii

to bellow, roar; resound

regia, -ae, f.

a royal residence, palace, court

luctus, -us, m.

grief, mourning

niveus, -a, -um


fulcio, -cire, -si, -tum

to hold up, support, prop up

os, oris, n.

mouth; face

lêvis, -is, -e

(as opposed to levis, -is, -e



pateo, -ere, -ui

to be open, be visible, show

cuspis, -idis, f.

tip (of a spear); spear, lance

Ausonius, -a, -um

Italian, Roman

oborior, -iri, -ortus

to rise up, arise

Fig. 2 NARRATIVE EPISODE TURNS INTO MORAL LESSON: LOOK WHAT WE LOSE. Anne Louis Girodet-Trioson, The Mourning of Pallas (ca.1790–93), Aeneid 11. 57–58. The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1996. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Public domain,

11.42–48: Of a Promise Broken

‘tene’, inquit ‘miserande puer, cum laeta veniret,

invidit Fortuna mihi, ne regna videres

nostra neque ad sedes victor veherere paternas?

non haec Evandro de te promissa parenti


discedens dederam, cum me complexus euntem

mitteret in magnum imperium metuensque moneret

acris esse viros, cum dura proelia gente.

Study Questions

  • Parse tene (42).
  • Parse miserande (42).
  • What is the sense of the conjunction cum (42) here and who is the subject of the cum-clause?
  • Parse veherere (44).
  • Parse dederam (46).
  • Who is the subject of the cum-clause (46–48)?
  • Parse euntem (46).
  • What construction does moneret (47) introduce?
  • Parse acris (48).
  • How does cum dura proelia gente (48) fit into the syntax of the sentence?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Comment on the use (and the placement) of the personal pronouns te and mihi in lines 42–43.
  • Identify and discuss the emotive tenor of the apostrophe miserande puer (42).
  • Is the repeated use of alliteration in lines 42–47 (veniret – (invidit) – videres victor veherere; promissa parenti; discedens dederam; mitteret (in) magnum (imperium) metuensque moneret) expressive or could only Virgil get away with it?
  • regna… | nostra (43–44): the hyperbaton, reinforced by enjambment, places a lot of emphasis on nostra — what insight into Aeneas’ mindset does this design afford us?
  • Analyze the design of non haec Evandro de te promissa parenti | discedens dederam (45–46).

Discussion Points

  • Explore Aeneas’ understanding of the goddess Fortuna – how can she be simultaneously laeta (‘smiling/supportive’) and feel envy (invidit)?
  • How would you characterize the relationships of Aeneas with Pallas and Evander?
  • Discuss how lines 42–45 explore the coincidence of triumph and tragedy.
  • In the departure scene in Aeneid 8, Aeneas makes no promises to Evander of the kind he ‘recalls’ here: how are we to explain this discrepancy?

miseror, -ari, -atus

to view with compassion, feel pity for

laetus, -a, -um

flourishing, cheerful, propitious, favourable

invideo, -idere, -idi, -isum

to be jealous of, begrudge

sedes, -is, f.

seat, dwelling, home

veho, -here, -xi, -ctum

to carry, transport, bring

promissum, -i, n.

promise, assurance

complector, -cti, -xus

to embrace, hug; grasp, comprehend

11.49–58: How Do I Break this to Dad? Well, at Least Pallas Wasn’t a Cold-Footed, Useless Swine!

et nunc ille quidem spe multum captus inani

fors et vota facit cumulatque altaria donis,


nos iuvenem exanimum et nil iam caelestibus ullis

debentem vano maesti comitamur honore.

infelix, nati funus crudele videbis!

hi nostri reditus exspectatique triumphi?

haec mea magna fides? at non, Evandre, pudendis


vulneribus pulsum aspicies, nec sospite dirum

optabis nato funus pater. ei mihi quantum

praesidium, Ausonia, et quantum tu perdis, Iule!’

Study Questions

  • What is the meaning of et (49)?
  • How does multum (49) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What noun does inani (49) modify?
  • Parse nos (51).
  • Who does nostri (54) refer to?
  • What verbs need to be supplied with the rhetorical questions in 54 and 55?
  • How are we to construe pulsum (56)?
  • What construction is sospite … nato (56–57)?
  • Parse Ausonia and Iule (58).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Discuss the rhetorical design of 49–52.
  • Scan line 53 and discuss Virgil’s use of metre.
  • How would you characterize the tone of the rhetorical questions in 54–55?

Discussion Points

  • Do you find Aeneas’ attempt at consolation in lines 55–57 compelling?
  • What do you make of the fact that Pallas, who has been killed by an ‘Ausonian spear’ (41: cuspidis Ausoniae), is here imagined as ‘Ausonia’s bulwark’ (57–58)?
  • Compare and contrast Aeneas’ situation with that of the ‘Brother Officer’ in Siegfried Sassoon’s ‘The Hero’.

quidem (particle)

certainly, indeed

inanis, -is, -e

empty, hollow, not to be fulfilled

fors (adv.)

perhaps, perchance; maybe

cumulo, -are, -avi, -atum

to pile up, heap

altaria, -ium, n. pl.

an altar (specifically: a fitting for burnt offerings); burnt offerings placed on an altar

exanimus (= exanimis)

dead, inanimate

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be under an obligation, owe

vanus, -a, -um

insubstantial, empty; illusory, groundless

comitor, -ari, -atus

to accompany, attend

reditus, -us, m.


triumphus, -i, m.

triumphal procession, triumph

fides, -ei, f.

trust, good faith; trustworthiness, promise, assurance

pudeo, -ere, -ui/puditum est

to fill with shame, make ashamed

pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum

to strike, beat, defeat, repel

aspicio, -icere, -exi, -ectum

to notice, observe, look at, behold

sospes, -itis

safe and sound, unscathed

dirus, -a, -um

dreadful, dire, frightful

ei (interjection)

aagh [exclamation of anguish]

praesidium, -(i)i, n.

defence, protection, stronghold, bulwark

Ausonia, -ae, f.


11.59–63: The Final Escort

Haec ubi deflevit, tolli miserabile corpus

imperat et toto lectos ex agmine mittit


mille viros, qui supremum comitentur honorem

intersintque patris lacrimis, solacia luctus

exigua ingentis, misero sed debita patri.

Study Questions

  • Parse tolli (59).
  • What is unusual about the construction governed by imperat (60)?
  • Identify and explain the mood of comitentur (61) and intersint (62).
  • Parse luctus (62).
  • What noun does the participle debita (63) modify?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Discuss the rhetorical impact of the word order in the clause toto lectos ex agmine mittit | mille viros (60–61).
  • What are the stylistic features that make the phrases solacia luctus | exigua ingentis (62–63) rhetorically powerful?

    Discussion Point

  • Quite a few words and phrases from the speeches Aeneas just gave recur in this passage: 60: mittit (~ 27: mittatur; 47: mitteret); 61: supremum honorem (~ 23: solus honos); 61: comitentur (~ 52: comitamur); 62: debita (~ 52: debentem). See also 64: haud segnes (~ 21: segnis) and 67: iuvenem … sublimem (~ 51: iuvenem exanimum). Was Virgil (i) ‘bored’ or ‘rushed’; (ii) intended to revise in due course; (iii) or used such repetition ‘to convey a unity of tone within a sad, slow, heavy movement of the action’? (These are the alternatives mooted by Horsfall 2003: 85. Can you think of others?)

defleo, -ere, -evi, -etum

to mourn, weep abundantly, deplore

lectus, -a, -um

carefully chosen, select

comitor, -ari, -atus

to accompany, attend

intersum, -esse, -fui

to lie between, intervene
to be present, attend
to make a difference

solacium, -(i)i, n.

solace, comfort, relief, consolation

exiguus, -a, -um

small, scanty, slight

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be under an obligation, owe

11.64–71: The Aesthetics of Death-floration

haud segnes alii crates et molle feretrum

arbuteis texunt virgis et vimine querno


exstructosque toros obtentu frondis inumbrant.

hic iuvenem agresti sublimem stramine ponunt,

qualem virgineo demessum pollice florem

seu mollis violae seu languentis hyacinthi,

cui neque fulgor adhuc nec dum sua forma recessit:


non iam mater alit tellus viresque ministrat.

Study Questions

  • What rhetorical figure does Virgil use in the phrase haud segnes (64)?
  • What do the et in 64, the et in 65, and the –que after exstructos (66) link, respectively?
  • What is the relationship between the temporal adverbs adhuc and dum (70) and non iam (71)?
  • How does mater (71) fit into the syntax of the sentence?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Virgil’s lexicon, resolutely grounded in the socio-political sphere in 59–63, branches out to the world of nature in 64–71: what is the effect of this ‘bucolic enrichment’?
  • What rhetorical figure do the phrases arbuteis virgis and vimine querno (65) form? Why might it be a particularly apt one to use here?
  • Analyze the word order of line 68 and ponder the significance of the phrase virgineo … pollice.
  • How does Virgil evoke the precarious nature of life and beauty (and the beauty of life) in this passage?

    Discussion Points

  • Analyze the design of 67 and explore the thematic implications of the interweaving of iuvenem … sublimem and agresti … stramine.
  • Explore the thematic nexus of flowers, virginity, and death in Virgil and in his predecessors (especially Homer and Catullus), with reference to the parallel passages cited in the Commentary.
  • Do you find Virgil’s aesthetics of ‘death-floration’ in good taste?

segnis, -is, -e

slothful, sluggish, slow-moving

cratis, -is, f.

wickerwork, basket, lattice

mollis, -is, -e

soft, tender, flexible, mild

feretrum, -i, n.


arbuteus, -a, -um

made of arbutus wood (the wild strawberry tree)

texo, -ere, -ui, -tum

to weave, plait, intertwine

virga, -ae, f.

twig, rod, wand

vimen, -inis, n.

(flexible) branch

quernus, -a, -um [quercus + -nus]

made of oak-wood

torus, i. m.

bolster; bed

obtentus, -us, m.

covering, cloaking, veiling

frons, -ndis, f.

foliage, leaf (used as bedding)

inumbro, -are, -avi, -atum

to shade

agrestis, -is, -e

rustic, rural, wild

sublimis, -is, -e

lofty, grand, sublime, exalted, noble

stramen, -inis, n. [sterno + -men]

straw; litter

virgineus, -a, -um


demeto, -tere, -ssui, -ssum

to mow, reap; pick, gather, pluck

pollex, -icis, m.


flos, -oris, m.

flower; blossom

viola, -ae, f.

a flower (used to cover graves and other funerary monuments)

langueo, -ere

to be sluggish, droop, wilt

hyacinthus, -i, m.

a flower, perhaps the lily

fulgor, -oris, m.

brightness, brilliance, radiance

adhuc (adv.)

as yet, so far, by now, further

nec dum (conj., adv.)

not yet either

recedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to draw back, withdraw, depart

vis, vis, f. [pl. vires, virium]

physical strength, power, violence

ministro, -are, -avi, -atum

to act as servant; hand out
furnish, provide, supply

11.72–84: The Return of the Dead & Dead Men Walking

tum geminas vestis auroque ostroque rigentis

extulit Aeneas, quas illi laeta laborum

ipsa suis quondam manibus Sidonia Dido

fecerat et tenui telas discreverat auro.


harum unam iuveni supremum maestus honorem

induit arsurasque comas obnubit amictu,

multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae

aggerat et longo praedam iubet ordine duci;

addit equos et tela quibus spoliaverat hostem.


vinxerat et post terga manus, quos mitteret umbris

inferias, caeso sparsurus sanguine flammas,

indutosque iubet truncos hostilibus armis

ipsos ferre duces inimicaque nomina figi.

Study Questions

  • Parse vestis (72).
  • Parse rigentis (72).
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quas (73)?
  • Who does the pronoun illi (73) refer to? What is its rhetorical force?
  • What noun does the adjective tenui (75) modify? What case is this noun-phrase in and why?
  • What kind of genitive is harum (76)? What does the demonstrative pronoun refer back to?
  • How does the phrase supremum … honorem (76) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse maestus (76).
  • Parse arsuras (77).
  • What is the etymology of obnubo (77)?
  • What construction does iubet (79) govern?
  • Parse duci (79).
  • Identify and explain the case of quibus (80). What is its antecedent? Who is the subject of the relative clause?
  • Parse manus (81).
  • What is the antecedent of quos (81)?
  • Identify and explain the mood of mitteret (81).
  • How does inferias (82) fit into the syntax of its clause?
  • What is the subject accusative of the indirect statement introduced by iubet (83)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does Virgil’s use of syntax and style in lines 72–75 reflect the fraught relationship between Aeneas and Dido?
  • What is the overall structure of this passage?
  • Identify verbal repetitions and the repeated use of striking imagery that endow this passage with thematic coherence.
  • In the last three lines Virgil uses three compact phrases: caeso … sanguine (82: literally ‘slaughtered blood’); hostilibus armis (83: lit. ‘hostile arms’); inimica nomina (84: lit. ‘hostile names’). What is the effect? What would the ‘de-compacted’ Latin look like?

Discussion Points

  • Why does Virgil recall Book 4 in Book 11 – and link Pallas to Dido?
  • Discuss Virgil’s play with colour in this passage, looking out for items that are bright yellow and dark red.
  • Virgil here continues to conflate elements of two Roman rituals: the triumph and the funeral parade. To what extent is this conflation programmatic of his worldview (as articulated in the Aeneid) more generally?
  • How does the announcement that Aeneas will sprinkle the blood of slaughtered captives upon Pallas’ funeral pyre (81–82) impact on your assessment of his character?
  • The picture on the next page illustrates the first encounter of Dido and Aeneas at Juno’s temple at Carthage (see Aeneid 1.441–642). Why is there a peacock lurking behind the statue in the middle? And can you make out what is depicted on the temple’s wall in the background (cf. Aeneid 1.474–8)?

ostrum, -i, n.

purple dye; material dyed purple

rigeo, -ere

to be stiff, rigid, unbending

tela, -ae, f.

cloth in the process of being woven; loom

discerno, -ernere, -revi, -retum

to separate, divide off, distinguish

induo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to put a garment (acc.) on a person (dat.)

ardeo, -dere, -si

to burn, be cremated, die by fire

obnubo, -ere

to veil, cover

amictus, -us, m.

upper garment, mantle, cloak

Laurens, -ntis, (adj.)

of or belonging to Laurentum

aggero, -are, -avi, -atum

to place, heap up over, pile up

spolio, -are, -avi, -atum

to strip (someone: acc.) of (something: abl.)

vincio, -cire, -xi, -ctum

- don’t confuse with:
vinco, -ere, vici, victum

to fasten, fetter, bind

to defeat, conquer

inferiae, -arum, f. pl.

offerings made to a dead person’s manes rites in honour of the dead

spargo, -gere, -si, -sum

to scatter, sprinkle, shower, spatter

truncus, -i, m.

body of a man, trunk, torso

figo, -gere, -xi, -xum

to drive in, insert, fix, attach, plant

Fig. 3 FRONTAL HE, PROFILE SHE – SEE, THEY COULD NEVER LAND ON THE SAME SQUARE. Wenceslas Hollar (1607-1677), Dido and Aeneas. Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto. Public domain,

11.85–93: The Grief Parade

ducitur infelix aevo confectus Acoetes,


pectora nunc foedans pugnis, nunc unguibus ora,

sternitur et toto proiectus corpore terrae;

ducunt et Rutulo perfusos sanguine currus.

post bellator equus positis insignibus Aethon

it lacrimans guttisque umectat grandibus ora.


hastam alii galeamque ferunt, nam cetera Turnus

victor habet. tum maesta phalanx Teucrique sequuntur

Tyrrhenique omnes et versis Arcades armis.

Study Questions

  • Identify and explain the case of aevo (85).
  • How are we to construe terrae (87)?
  • Who is the subject of ducunt (88)?
  • How does post (89) fit into its sentence?
  • What construction is positis insignibus (89)?
  • Parse it (90).
  • What construction is versis … armis (93)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What do you make of the tendency in lines 85–88 to have the verbs (85: ducitur; 87: sternitur; 88: ducunt) at the beginning of their respective clauses (against natural word order)?
  • Analyze the rhetorical design of line 86.
  • What is the effect of the enjambed phrase Turnus | victor (91–92)?

Discussion Points

  • What are the thematic implications of the correspondences (in sound, word choice and verse design) between lines 86 and 90?
  • Newman (1986: 165) notes that Acoetes’ enactment of his grief parallels that of Anna when she hears the news of Dido’s suicide (4.673: unguibus ora soror foedans et pectora pugnis: ‘a sister disfiguring her cheeks with her nails and her breast with her fists.’). He concludes: ‘Evidently the Aeneas who killed Dido in the service of his imperial ambitions has now killed Pallas.’ Do you get what he has in mind?

aevum, -i, n.

time, age, old age

conficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to do, perform, accomplish, complete
to consume, overwhelm

foedo, -are, -avi, -atum

to befoul, defile, disfigure, mangle, ravage

pugnus, -i, m.

(not to be confused with pugna



unguis, -is, m.

fingernail; claw, talon

os, oris, n.

mouth; face

sterno, -ere, stravi, stratum

- pass. in middle sense

to lay out on the ground, spread

to lie or throw oneself prostrate

proicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

- pf. ppl.

to throw or fling forth; lay low

lying outstretched or prone

perfundo, -undere, -udi, -usum

to wet, drench; flow over, wash

currus, -us, m.


bellator, -oris, m.

- as adj.

warrior, fighter

martial, warlike

bellator equus


insigne, -is, n.

sign of distinction; decoration, trappings

gutta, -ae, f.


umecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to make wet, moisten

grandis, -is, -e

big, large, ample; weighty, solemn

hasta, -ae, f.

spear, javelin

galea, -ae, f.


phalanx, -ngis (-ngos), f.


verto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to cause to revolve, turn (over), reverse

11.94–99: The Parting of the Ways

postquam omnis longe comitum praecesserat ordo,

substitit Aeneas gemituque haec addidit alto:


‘nos alias hinc ad lacrimas eadem horrida belli

fata vocant: salve aeternum mihi, maxime Palla,

aeternumque vale.’ nec plura effatus ad altos

tendebat muros gressumque in castra ferebat.

Study Questions

  • Parse comitum (94).
  • What is the meaning of alto (95), what of altos (98)? In what ways (if any) do the meanings play off each other?
  • Parse nos (96). How does it fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse maxime (97).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the expressive value of the hyperbata omnis … ordo (94) and gemitu … alto (95)?
  • Analyze the rhetorical force of nos (96).
  • What is the effect of the repetition of aeternum – and its chiastic correlation with the imperatives salve and vale (97–98)?
  • Explore the tone and connotations of the address maxime Palla (97).

Discussion Points

  • What does the phrase alias … ad lacrimas tell you about Aeneas’ outlook on life?
  • Discuss Aeneas’ relationship with the fata.

comes, -itis, m. (f.)

companion, comrade

praecedo, -edere, -essi, -essum

to go on ahead, precede

subsisto, -istere, -titi

to stand firm; to halt in one’s path, stop short
stay behind

gemitus, -us, m.

groaning, moaning

hinc (adv.)

from this place, hence, from here

horridus, -a, -um

rough, wild, rugged; harsh, grim; dreadful

salve (imperative)

(at parting) farewell!

valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

- vale/valeas

to be powerful, sound, well


tendo, -dere, tetendi, -tum/-sum

to extend, stretch; to direct one’s course (to), proceed

gressus, -us, m. [gradior + -tus]

step, pace, walk

11.100–7: Latin Oratory

Iamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina


velati ramis oleae veniamque rogantes:

corpora, per campos ferro quae fusa iacebant,

redderet ac tumulo sineret succedere terrae;

nullum cum victis certamen et aethere cassis;

parceret hospitibus quondam socerisque vocatis.


quos bonus Aeneas haud aspernanda precantis

prosequitur venia et verbis haec insuper addit:

Study Questions

  • What does the –que after veniam (101) link?
  • Parse quae (102).
  • What is odd about the mood of iacebant (102)? How would you explain it?
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of redderet (103), sineret (103) and parceret (105).
  • What is the verb of the sentence nullum … cassis (104)?
  • What does the et between certamen and aethere (104) link?
  • What kind of ablative is aethere (104)?
  • How does vocatis (105) fit into the syntax of its sentence?
  • Parse aspernanda (106), scanning the line first. How does it fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse precantis (106).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Why has Virgil chosen to render the plea of the Latins in indirect speech? Rewrite it in direct speech.
  • Analyze the design of the opening plea of the Latin envoys (102–3: corpora… | redderet).

Discussion Points

  • What exactly is it that the Latin envoys request from Aeneas: a temporary truce or a permanent peace?
  • What do the envoys mean when they say that Aeneas and his Trojans once called the Latins ‘hosts’ and ‘fathers-in-law’ (105)?
  • Paschalis (1997: 361) sees an oblique presence of Pallas in the scene: ‘The olive is an emblem of peace (cf. 110–11 “pacem … oratis”) and a tree sacred to the goddess “Pallas”; the scene follows immediately after Aeneas’ last farewell to the dead “Pallas”.’ Do you agree?

orator, oris, m.

envoy, ambassador, spokesman; public speaker, orator, advocate

velo, -are, -avi, -atum

to cover, clothe, decorate

ramus, -i, m.


olea, -ae, f.

olive, olive-tree, foliage from the olive

venia, -ae, f.

favour, kindness, pardon; relief, respite

fundo, -ere, fudi, fusum

- pass. of persons

to pour, send forth, emit

to be stretched out on the ground

reddo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to give back, restore

tumulus, -i, m.

a rounded hill; burial mound, grave

succedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum (+ dat.)

to move to a position below/in the shelter of

aether, -eris, m.

the ether, sky, air

cassus, -a, -um (+ abl. or gen.)

devoid of, lacking

parco, -cere, peperci (+ dat.)

to act sparingly, refrain from, spare
show consideration towards

hospes, -itis, m. (f.)

guest; host

quondam (adv.)

formerly; in ancient times; some day

socer, -eri, m.


haud (particle)


aspernor, -ari, -atus

to repel, scorn, spur, reject

precor, -ari, -atus

to pray or ask for; beg, beseech

prosequor, -qui, -cutus

to accompany (with), follow, to furnish/honour (with), bestow upon

insuper (adv.)

on top, above; in addition; besides

11.108–21: ‘No Hero in History Has Been Treated More Unfairly!’

‘quaenam vos tanto fortuna indigna, Latini,

implicuit bello, qui nos fugiatis amicos?

pacem me exanimis et Martis sorte peremptis


oratis? equidem et vivis concedere vellem.

nec veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent,

nec bellum cum gente gero; rex nostra reliquit

hospitia et Turni potius se credidit armis.

aequius huic Turnum fuerat se opponere morti.


si bellum finire manu, si pellere Teucros

apparat, his mecum decuit concurrere telis:

vixet cui vitam deus aut sua dextra dedisset.

nunc ite et miseris supponite civibus ignem.’

dixerat Aeneas. illi obstipuere silentes


conversique oculos inter se atque ora tenebant.

Study Questions

  • Who is the antecedent of the relative pronoun qui (109)?
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of fugiatis (109).
  • How does amicos (109) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What are the three constructions governed by oratis (111)?
  • Explain the tense and mood of vellem (111).
  • Parse – and explain – dedissent (112).
  • What noun does nostra (113) modify?
  • What construction does aequius … fuerat (115) govern?
  • What kind of conditional sequence do we get in 116–17 (si … telis)?
  • Who is the subject of apparat (117)?
  • Parse vixet (118).
  • Parse obstipuere (120).
  • What does the –que after conversi (121) link?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the expressive value of the hyperbaton tanto … bello (108–9)?
  • What are the connotations of pacem (110) – placed emphatically at the beginning of Aeneas’ rhetorical question?
  • What is the rhetorical force of the hyperbaton his … telis (117)?
  • With what rhetorical figure does Aeneas play in 118, with vixet and vitam?

Discussion Points

  • Outline the view of Aeneas’ character and his mission that underwrites the Latin embassy – and analyze how Aeneas, in his answer, tries to expose this view as mightily misconceived.
  • How can Aeneas, standing in the middle of a killing field littered with Latin corpses, claim that he is not at war with these people (113: nec bellum cum gente gero)?
  • What are the thematic implications of Aeneas’ tendency to use (unorthodox) conditional sequences and counterfactuals? (See 111: vellem; 112: nisi … dedissent; 116–17: si apparat, … decuit; 118: vixet, cui … dedisset.)
  • Why do the Latin envoys react to Aeneas’ speech the way they do (120–21)?
  • The picture on the following page illustrates the showdown between Aeneas and Turnus that concludes the poem. Why does it take so long for this moment to materialise? Who is watching the scene from above? (A fowl tip: what birds accompany the figures?)

quisnam, quaenam, quidnam

who/what/which, tell me?

indignus, -a, -um

not deserving, unmerited

implico, -are, -avi/-ui, -atum/-itum

to fold or twine;
entwine, enwrap, involve, embroil

fugio, -ere, fugi

to flee (from)

exanimus, -a, -um

deprived of life, dead, lifeless

sors, -rtis, f.

a lot, allocation, lot, fortune, destiny

perimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum

to destroy, annihilate, kill

oro, -are, -avi, -atum

+ double acc.: to pray to/supplicate someone for something

equidem (particle)

I for my part

et (111)

here: also

vivus, -a, -um

living, alive

concedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to withdraw, give way, defer (to)
to give in, submit, yield, agree, grant

sedes, -is, f.

(dwelling) place

hospitium, -(i)i, n.

(ties of) hospitality

relinquo, -inquere, -iqui, -ictum

to quit, forsake, leave

credo, -ere, -idi, -itum
(w. acc. and dat.)

to commit, entrust, confide

aeque (adv.); compar.: aequius

equitably, justly, fair

oppono, -onere, -osui, -ositum

to place in the way of, expose to

apparo, -are, -avi, -atum

to prepare, make ready, provide
to organize, plan, scheme

decet, -ere, decuit

to adorn, become
(impers.) it is right, proper, fitting

concurro, -rere, -ri, -sum

to hurry together;
to engage in battle, fight; collide

vivo, -vere, -xi, -ctum

to be alive, live

suppono, -onere, -osui, -ositum

to place under or beneath;
apply from below

obstipesco, -escere, -ui

to be struck dumb, be stunned, dazed

sileo, -ere, -ui

to be silent; accept in silence

converto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to cause to revolve, rotate, turn, invert

os, oris, n.


teneo, -ere, -ui, -tum

to hold, contain
to keep in check, restrain (from), keep

Fig. 4 THIS IS NOT THE END; THIS IS NOT THE BEGINNING OF THE END; AND THIS DOES NOT LOOK LIKE THE END OF THE BEGINNING? Wenceslas Hollar, The last fight of Aeneas and Turnus. Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto. Public domain,

11.122–32: Drances Lets Rip

Tum senior semperque odiis et crimine Drances

infensus iuveni Turno sic ore vicissim

orsa refert: ‘o fama ingens, ingentior armis,

vir Troiane, quibus caelo te laudibus aequem?


iustitiaene prius mirer belline laborum?

nos vero haec patriam grati referemus ad urbem

et te, si qua viam dederit Fortuna, Latino

iungemus regi. quaerat sibi foedera Turnus.

quin et fatalis murorum attollere moles


saxaque subvectare umeris Troiana iuvabit.’

dixerat haec unoque omnes eadem ore fremebant.

Study Questions

  • What does the –que after semper (122) link?
  • Parse orsa (124).
  • What kind of ablative is fama and armis (124)?
  • Parse vir Troiane (125).
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of aequem (125).
  • What kind of genitives are iustitiae and laborum? What kind of genitive is belli? (126)
  • Parse mirer (126).
  • Parse patriam (127).
  • What tense is referemus (127)?
  • What kind of conditional sequence does si (128) introduce?
  • Parse iungemus (129).
  • Explain the mood of quaerat (129).
  • What noun does fatalis (130) modify?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Analyze the design of the phrase fama ingens, ingentior armis (124).
  • How does the reference to Turnus (129: quaerat sibi foedera Turnus) fit into the speech as a whole?

Discussion Points

  • Who is Drances? What does he add to the Aeneid? Is there value in seeing him as (a prototype of) Cicero?
  • Explore the implications of the contrast in age between Drances (introduced as an old geezer: 122: senior) and Turnus, here programmatically called ‘a young man’ (123: iuveni Turno).
  • Whom do you tend to flatter? Why do you do so and what language do you use?
  • In the picture on the following page Drances has a go at Turnus in the upcoming council of Latinus. (Not part of the set text: the Latin quoted at the bottom comes from Aeneid 11.368–76. It is the end of Drances’ speech where he challenges Turnus to face up to Aeneas in a duel. Whom does Turnus prefer to face up to instead, drawing his sword?) Can you identify Drances, Latinus, and Turnus in the picture?

senior (comparative of senex)

older; a man of older years

odium, -(i)i, n.

hatred, dislike, antipathy

crimen, -inis, n.

indictment, charge, accusation; blame, reproach; misdeed, crime

infensus, -a, -um

hostile, threatening; harmful, adverse

os, oris, n.


vicissim (adv.)

in turn

orsa, -orum, n. pl.

[ppp. of ordior, -diri, -sus

words, utterances

to embark on, start, begin]

refero, -rre, rettuli, relatum

to bring back, carry home, report
here: to reply

ingens, -ntis (adj.)

huge, powerful, outstanding, heroic

aequo, -are, -avi, -atum

to make level, match, rival
here: to raise (to the skies)

prius (adv.)

previously, formerly; sooner, rather

miror, -ari, -atus (here w. gen.)

to be surprised/amazed at

patrius, -a, -um (adj.)

paternal, native

gratus, -a, -um (adj.)

grateful, thankful

iungo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to put (animals) in the yoke, join together;
to unite/attach (persons) as friends/allies

foedus, -eris, n.

formal agreement, treaty (of peace/alliance)

quin (et) (adv.)

and furthermore

fatalis, -is, -e (adj.)

fateful, ordained by fate, fated; fatal, deadly

murus, -i, m.

a wall

attollo, -ere

to raise, lift up, erect; exalt, elevate

moles, -is, f.

a large mass; massive structure or building;
burden, weight; trouble, effort

subvecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to convey upwards, to carry

umerus, -i, m.


iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum

to help, assist;
to give pleasure to, delight, gratify

fremo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to rumble, roar, hum; grumble, mutter, growl;
to demand with confused cries, clamour for

Fig. 5 HARD OR SOFT? PRIMITIVE POLITICS OR SAGE WISDOM? QUOT HOMINES, TOT SENTENTIAE? Wenceslas Hollar, King Latinus in council. Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto. Public domain,

11.133–38: An Epic Case of Peaceful Deforestation

bis senos pepigere dies, et pace sequestra

per silvas Teucri mixtique impune Latini

erravere iugis. ferro sonat alta bipenni


fraxinus, evertunt actas ad sidera pinus,

robora nec cuneis et olentem scindere cedrum

nec plaustris cessant vectare gementibus ornos.

Study Questions

  • Parse pepigere (133) and erravere (135).
  • What gender are fraxinus and pinus (136)? What cases are they in?
  • What does nec … nec… (137–38) coordinate?
  • What does the et in line 137 link?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Discuss the narrative effect of Virgil’s use of paratactic syntax in this passage.
  • Explore the aesthetic frisson caused by the topsy-turvy word order, the (mild) hyperbata (ferro … bipenni, alta … fraxinus), and the enjambment of fraxinus in 135–36 (ferro… | fraxinus).

Discussion Points

  • Explore the semantics of the term pax (cf. 133: pace sequestra: what, precisely, does this phrase mean?).
  • In what ways does the image of ‘ethnic mixing’ in 134 (Teucri mixtique impune Latini) interact with larger plot patterns within the poem?
  • Does Virgil enumerate the trees being felled (136: fraxinus, pinus; 137: robora, cedrum; 138: ornos) in any particular order? Botanists to the fore: are you able to identify each kind?
  • The passage here stands in allusive dialogue with other literary loggings (not least for funerary purposes) both in the Aeneid and by other authors. Explore Virgil’s variations on the theme and his dialogue with his predecessors, using the parallel passages given in the commentary.

bis (adv.)

twice; (with numerals) two times

seni, -ae, -a [sex + -nus]


pango, -ere, pepigi, pactum

to arrange, settle for, stipulate, conclude

sequester, -tra, -trum (noun)

mediator, intermediary, go-between;
guarantor, guarantee

misceo, -ere, -ui, mixtum

to mix, blend, unite, merge, join, intermingle

impune (adv.)

without punishment or retribution
safely, without harm

iugum, -i, n.

yoke; ridge

ferrum, -i, n.

iron, (here) axe

sono, -are, -ui, -itum

to make a noise, sound, resound

bipennis, -is, -e

having two wings; having two blades/edges

fraxinus, -i, f.

an ash-tree, ash

everto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to turn upside down, reverse, overturn,

pinus, -us, f.

pine-tree; pine-wood

ago, agere, egi, actum (of plants)

to put forth (roots), to send out (shoots)
(passive) to grow

robur, -oris, n.

an oak-tree; trunk

cuneus, -i, m.

a wedge

oleo, -ere, -ui

to give off a smell, to be redolent

scindo, -ere, scidi, scissum

to divide, cleave, split

cedrus, -i, f.


plaustrum, -i, n.

waggon, cart

cesso, -are, -avi, -atum

to hold back from, desist, rest, be inactive

vecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to transport, carry

gemo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to groan, moan; lament

ornus, -i, f.

(wild mountain-) ash

11.139–51: Mourning Becomes Evander

Et iam Fama volans, tanti praenuntia luctus,

Evandrum Evandrique domos et moenia replet,


quae modo victorem Latio Pallanta ferebat.

Arcades ad portas ruere et de more vetusto

funereas rapuere faces; lucet via longo

ordine flammarum et late discriminat agros.

contra turba Phrygum veniens plangentia iungit


agmina. quae postquam matres succedere tectis

viderunt, maestam incendunt clamoribus urbem.

at non Evandrum potis est vis ulla tenere,

sed venit in medios. feretro Pallante reposto

procubuit super atque haeret lacrimansque gemensque,


et via vix tandem voci laxata dolore est:

Study Questions

  • Parse volans (139).
  • How does praenuntia (139) fit into its sentence?
  • What case is luctus (139)?
  • What is the antecedent of quae (141)?
  • How are we to construe Latio (141)?
  • What is the force of the imperfect ferebat (141)?
  • Parse ruere (142) and rapuere (143).
  • Explain the syntax of quae (146).
  • Parse potis (148).
  • What construction is feretro … reposto (149)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the effect of the ‘gemination’ of Evander’s name in 140 (Evandrum Evandrique domos)?
  • What does the series of present participles (139: volans; 145: veniens; 145: plangentia; 150: lacrimansque gemensque) contribute to the overall design of the passage?
  • Discuss Virgil’s use of fire imagery in this passage.
  • Rewritten in more straightforward Latin, line 148 would read: at nulla vis Evandrum tenere potest. What does Virgil go for – and why?

Discussion Points

  • What is the role of Fama in this narrative sequence – and in the poem overall?
  • How does Virgil portray the Arcadians in this passage? And the Trojans? What accounts for the differences?

volo, -are, -avi, -atum

to fly

praenuntius, -a, -um

as noun: harbinger, herald

luctus, -us, m.

grief, mourning, sorrow

repleo, -ere, -evi, -etum

to fill again, fill up

modo (adv.)

just, only; only recently, just now

vetustus, -a, -um

ancient, old-established

luceo, lucere, luxi

to shine, sparkle, glitter

late (adv.)

over a large area, widely

discrimino, -are, -avi, -atum

to divide up, separate

Phryx, Phrygis

Phrygian; as noun: a Phrygian

plango, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to beat, strike; mourn for, bewail

succedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to move to position below/in the shelter of
to come after, take over

incendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to set on fire, light up; inflame, provoke

potis (indecl. adj.)

(w. inf.) having the power, able to

feretrum, -i, n.


repono, -onere, -osui,


to put back, replace

to lay (a body) to rest

procumbo, -mbere, -bui, -bitum

to bend forward, lean or fall over, stretch out

haereo, -rere, -si, -sum

to adhere, stick, cling; hold on tightly

gemo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to groan, moan, lament

laxo, -are, -avi, -atum

to make larger, widen, extend
to loosen, release, let go; relax, go slack

11.152–63: O Pallas, Ardent for Some Desperate Glory…

‘non haec, o Palla, dederas promissa parenti,

cautius ut saevo velles te credere Marti.

haud ignarus eram quantum nova gloria in armis

et praedulce decus primo certamine posset.


primitiae iuvenis miserae bellique propinqui

dura rudimenta, et nulli exaudita deorum

vota precesque meae! tuque, o sanctissima coniunx,

felix morte tua neque in hunc servata dolorem!

contra ego vivendo vici mea fata, superstes


restarem ut genitor. Troum socia arma secutum

obruerent Rutuli telis! animam ipse dedissem

atque haec pompa domum me, non Pallanta, referret!

Study Questions

  • Parse dederas (152).
  • What is the train of thought that links 152 to 153?
  • Parse cautius (153).
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of velles (153).
  • Identify and explain the tense and the mood of posset (155).
  • What case are primitiae (156), rudimenta (157), and vota precesque (158)?
  • Identify and explain the case of nulli (157).
  • What is the verb in the sentence tuque, o sanctissima coniunx, | felix morte tua neque in hunc servata dolorem! (158–59)?
  • Parse vivendo (160).
  • Parse Troum (161).
  • How does secutum (161) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of dedissem (162) and referret (163).
  • Why is domum (163) in the accusative?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How do the adjectives nova (154) and praedulce (155) inflect the nouns they modify (gloria and decus)?
  • Analyze the design of nova gloria in armis | et praedulce decus primo certamine (154–55).
  • What do you make of the fact that there is no finite verb in lines 156–59?

Discussion Points

  • Lines 152–53 closely mirror 11.45–46 (Aeneas speaking): non haec Evandro de te promissa parenti | discedens dederam. What are the thematic implications of this intratextual dialogue?
  • How does Evander interrelate (variants of) life and death here?

promissum, -i, n.

a promise, assurance

caute (adv.)

carefully; without risk or danger

credo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to commit, entrust; trust, rely on
to accept as true, believe

haud (particle)


praedulcis, -is, -e (adj.)

excessively/very sweet

decus, -oris, n.

high esteem, honour, glory

certamen, -inis, n.

competition, rivalry; fight, battle; dispute

primitiae, -arum f. pl.

the first-fruits, the beginnings

propinquus, -a, -um (adj.)

near, close, neighbouring

rudimentum, -i, n.

(esp. pl.) early training; first experience

exaudio, -ire, -ivi/ii, -itum

to hear; to listen to/attend to; to heed

votum, -i, n.

vow, votive offering, prayer

prex, precis, f.

entreaty, prayer, supplication

sanctus, -a, -um

sacrosanct, inviolate; holy, sacred, blessed
blameless, virtuous

coniunx, coniugis, m./f.

spouse; husband; wife

servo, -are, -avi, -atum

to watch over, keep, set aside, preserve

dolor, -oris, m.

physical pain; distress, anguish, grief

contra (adv.)

on the opposite side; against
on the other hand; conversely

vivo, -vere, -xi, -ctum

to be alive, live

vinco, -ere, vici, victum

to conquer, overcome, beat, defeat

superstes, -itis (adj.)

standing over; surviving

resto, -are, -iti (intr.)

to remain, linger; resist

genitor, -oris, m.


obruo, -ere, -i, -tum

to smother; cover up; bury
to crush, overwhelm; eclipse, conceal

pompa, -ae, f.


11.164–72: The Old Lie: dulce et decorum est pro patria mori

nec vos arguerim, Teucri, nec foedera nec quas

iunximus hospitio dextras: sors ista senectae


debita erat nostrae. quod si immatura manebat

mors gnatum, caesis Volscorum milibus ante

ducentem in Latium Teucros cecidisse iuvabit.

quin ego non alio digner te funere, Palla,

quam pius Aeneas et quam magni Phryges et quam


Tyrrhenique duces, Tyrrhenum exercitus omnis.

magna tropaea ferunt quos dat tua dextera leto;

Study Questions

  • Identify and explain the tense and mood of arguerim (164). What are the three accusative objects that the verb governs?
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quas (164)?
  • What case is senectae … nostrae (165–66)? What is the effect of the hyperbaton and postponement of pronominal adjective nostrae?
  • What construction is caesis Volscorum milibus (167)? Explain the genitive Volscorum.
  • Parse digner (169).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What are the stylistic devices Virgil uses to underscore Evander’s failure to endow Pallas’ death with meaning?

Discussion Points

  • How many foes did Pallas actually kill? (See Aeneid 10.362–438; hint: the death toll of Pallas’ killing spree recorded by Virgil doesn’t reach double figures.) What are we to make of the discrepancy between the narrative of the previous book and the ‘thousands of victims’ that Evander imagines?
  • What is the force of the epithet pius (170) here?

arguo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to show, reveal, demonstrate, prove
to accuse; prove guilty, convict
to find fault with, condemn, blame

sors, -rtis, f.

lot; share, portion

senecta, -ae, f.

period of old age, oldness

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be under an obligation, owe

quod si

but if

immaturus, -a, -um (adj.)

immature, unripe; untimely, premature

maneo, -ere, -si, -sum

(w. acc.) to wait for; be in store for, await

(g)natus, -i, m.


mille (indecl. noun and adj.)

- pl. milia (millia), -ium

a thousand

thousands; large numbers (of)

caedo, -dere, cecîdi, -sum

to strike, smite; slay, murder; cut, destroy

cado, -ere, cecidi, casum

to fall, drop; pass away, perish; happen

iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum

to help, assist
to give pleasure to, delight, gratify

quin (adv.)

and yes, indeed

dignor, -ari, -atus (w. abl.)

to consider worthy (of)

11.173–81: Vengeance is Yours!

tu quoque nunc stares immanis truncus in arvis,

esset par aetas et idem si robur ab annis,

Turne. sed infelix Teucros quid demoror armis?


vadite et haec memores regi mandata referte:

quod vitam moror invisam Pallante perempto

dextera causa tua est, Turnum gnatoque patrique

quam debere vides. meritis vacat hic tibi solus

fortunaeque locus. non vitae gaudia quaero,


nec fas, sed gnato manis perferre sub imos.’

Study Questions

  • What kind of conditional sequence does Virgil use in 173–74?
  • Parse regi (176).
  • What construction is Pallante perempto (177)?
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun quam (179)?
  • Sort out the datives meritis, tibi, and fortunae (179–80).
  • Is vitae (180) genitive or dative?
  • Parse manis (181).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Why does Evander deviate from natural word order to the extent that he does? (Cf. the post-positive position of si (174), quid (175), quam (179), the hyperbata tu quoque … Turne (173–75) and hic … solus … locus (179–80) and the anastrophe manis … sub imos (181)?

Discussion Point

  • Do the terms (ethical, economical) of the revenge killing Evander here commissions make sense to you?

immanis, -is, -e

savage, brutal; vast, of enormous size

robur, -oris, n.

oak-tree; firmness, strength, vigour

demoror, -ari, -atus

to cause delay to, keep waiting, detain
(w. abl.) to keep from

vado, -ere

to proceed, go

memor, -oris (adj.)

mindful; commemorative

mandatum, -i, n.

order, instruction, commission, charge

moror, -ari, -atus

to delay, detain, hold back, impede; remain

invisus, -a, -um

hateful, odious, disliked, unpopular

perimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum

to destroy, annihilate, kill

meritum, -i, n. (ppp. of mereo)

due reward; worthiness

vaco, -are, -avi, -atum

to be empty, devoid of, free from, exempt

manes, -ium, m. pl.

the spirits of the dead

perfero, -rre, pertuli, perlatum

to carry/convey to, deliver; endure

imus, -a, -um

lowest, bottommost

11.182–92: Fire Darkness

Aurora interea miseris mortalibus almam

extulerat lucem referens opera atque labores:

iam pater Aeneas, iam curvo in litore Tarchon

constituere pyras. huc corpora quisque suorum


more tulere patrum, subiectisque ignibus atris

conditur in tenebras altum caligine caelum.

ter circum accensos cincti fulgentibus armis

decurrere rogos, ter maestum funeris ignem

lustravere in equis ululatusque ore dedere.


spargitur et tellus lacrimis, sparguntur et arma,

it caelo clamorque virum clangorque tubarum.

Study Questions

  • Why does Virgil here call Aeneas pater (184)?
  • On what noun does the genitive suorum (185) depend?
  • Parse tulere (186).
  • What construction is subiectis ignibus atris (186)?
  • How are we supposed to construe caligine (187)?
  • What noun does the participle accensos (188) modify?
  • How are we to construe cincti (188)?
  • Parse decurrere (189).
  • Parse lustravere and dedere (190).
  • What kind of dative is caelo (192)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Discuss the narratological implications of the pluperfect extulerat (183).
  • Savour the sound-play in miseris mortalibus and almam … lucem (182–83).
  • What is the effect of the anaphora iam … iam (184)?
  • Why do we only get a double (and not, as the word would lead one to suppose, triple) anaphora of ter (188–89)?
  • What is the effect of the asyndeton spargitur – sparguntur – it (191–92), even though the verses are full of connectives (et tellus, et arma, clamorque … clangorque)?
  • Explore the overall design of this passage – with particular attention to the way Virgil interrelates human affairs and the cosmos.

Discussion Point

  • Virgil uses a lot of ‘foundational’ imagery in this passage, to do with Roman (religious) identity. What is it doing in a funerary context?

Aurora, -ae, f.

the dawn, daybreak, sunrise

almus, -a, -um (adj.)

nurturing, fostering, life-giving; kindly

effero, -rre, extuli, elatum

to carry/bring out or away; reveal; raise

lux, -lucis, f.

light; daylight;
the light of the sun (= life)

refero, -rre, rettuli, relatum

to bring back, carry home, return; report

curvus, -a, -um (adj.)

bent, crooked, dinted; swerving, winding

litus, -oris, n.

sea-shore, coast, strand; beach

pyra, -ae, f.

a funeral pile, pyre

huc (adv.)

to this place, hither

quisque, quaeque, quidque

each (of several)

subicio, -icere, -ieci, -ectum

to throw from below, place underneath

ater, atra, atrum

black, dark-coloured; smoky

condo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to put/insert into; put out of sight, hide
to found, establish

tenebrae, -arum, f. pl.


caligo, -inis, f.

darkness, obscurity;
the murkiness of thick smoke

ter (adv.)

three times, thrice

accendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to set on fire, kindle, ignite

cingo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to surround, encircle; gird, equip

fulgeo, -gere, -si

to shine brightly, flash, glitter, gleam

decurro, -rrere, -rri, -rsum

to run down; to carry out rituals/manoeuvres

rogus, -i, m.

funeral pyre; ashes of the dead

lustro, -are, -avi, -atum

to purify ceremonially, move/circle round;
to scan, survey

ululatus, -us, m.

cries, howling, yelling

os, oris, n.


spargo, -gere, -si, -sum

to scatter in drops, sprinkle, strew, shower
to disperse

clangor, -oris, m.

crying, clamour, screaming; blare, blast

tuba, -ae, f.


11.193–202: Flames, Blood, and Ashes

hic alii spolia occisis derepta Latinis

coniciunt igni, galeas ensisque decoros

frenaque ferventisque rotas; pars munera nota,


ipsorum clipeos et non felicia tela.

multa boum circa mactantur corpora Morti,

saetigerosque sues raptasque ex omnibus agris

in flammam iugulant pecudes. tum litore toto

ardentis spectant socios semustaque servant


busta, neque avelli possunt, nox umida donec

invertit caelum stellis ardentibus aptum.

Study Questions

  • What kind of ablative is Latinis (modified by occisis) (193)?
  • How does galeas ensisque decoros | frenaque ferventisque rotas (194–95) fit into the sentence?
  • Parse ensis (194).
  • Parse ferventis (195).
  • What is the verb of the clause starting with pars (195)?
  • Parse boum (197).
  • What noun does the participle raptas (198) modify?
  • Can you spot the animals of the suovetaurilia = the sacrifice of a pig (sus), a sheep (ovis) and a bull (taurus) in these lines?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Is the s-alliteration and assonance in 200–1 (ardentis spectant socios semustaque servant | busta) expressive of anything?
  • What do you make of the jingle semusta… | busta (200–1)?
  • In what ways does the phrase stellis ardentibus pick up and invert (cf. 202: invertit) ardentis … socios (200)?

Discussion Point

  • In lines 197–99, we get a prototype of one of the most solemn rites of Roman religion, the sacrifice of a pig, a sheep, and a bull. What do you make of the fact that the Trojans already perform it here?

spolium, -ii, n.

(usu. pl.) spoils

occido, -dere, -di, -sum

to kill, slaughter

deripio, -ipere, -ipui, -eptum

to tear or pull off; seize and take away

conicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to put, cast, throw

galea, -ae, f.


decorus, -a, -um (adj.)

fine in appearance, handsome; glorious, noble

frenum, -i, n.

bridle, harness

fervens, -ntis (adj.)

intensely hot, boiling; ardent

rota, -ae, f.


munus, -eris, n.

function, task; duty; gift, tribute, token

notus, -a, -um (adj.)

known, well-known; accustomed, familiar

clipeus, -i, m.


bos, bovis, m./f.

cattle; ox, bull; cow

macto, -are, -avi, -atum

to honour; afflict; sacrifice; kill

saetiger, -era, -erum (adj.)


sus, suis, m./f.

pig, sow

iugulo, -are, -avi, -atum

to kill by cutting the throat; slaughter

pecus, -oris, n.

farm animals; sheep; cattle

sem(i)ustus, -a, -um (adj.)

half-burnt, scorched, singed

bustum, -i, n.

funeral pyre; grave-mound, tomb

avello, -ellere, -elli/-olsi, -ulsum

to pluck off; to tear or wench away

donec (conj.)

until; while

inverto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to turn upside down/inside out; reverse

aptus, -a, -um (adj.)

tied, fastened; fitted/provided (with)
prepared, equipped
useful, convenient

11.203–12: The Latin Dead

Nec minus et miseri diversa in parte Latini

innumeras struxere pyras, et corpora partim

multa virum terrae infodiunt, avectaque partim


finitimos tollunt in agros urbique remittunt.

cetera confusaeque ingentem caedis acervum

nec numero nec honore cremant; tunc undique vasti

certatim crebris conlucent ignibus agri.

tertia lux gelidam caelo dimoverat umbram:


maerentes altum cinerem et confusa ruebant

ossa focis tepidoque onerabant aggere terrae.

Study Questions

  • What is the meaning of et (203) here?
  • Parse struxere (204).
  • Parse virum (205).
  • What noun does the participle avecta (205) modify?
  • How does finitimos (206) fit into the sentence?
  • What noun does vasti (208) modify?
  • Identify and explain the case of caelo (210).
  • What is the accusative object of onerabant (212)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does Virgil bring out the innumerable number of the dead in need of burial in lines 203–8?
  • Analyze the design of tunc undique vasti | certatim crebris conlucent ignibus agri (208–9).
  • What is the effect of the hyperbaton gelidam … umbram (210)?

Discussion Point

  • Compare and contrast Virgil’s depiction of the Latin funerals with those performed by Aeneas and his allies in the previous section.

nec minus (connecting formula)

(and) likewise; (and) as well; equally

diversus, -a, -um (adj.)

turned, pointed;
situated apart, away; distant, remote

struo, -ere, -xi, -ctum

to set in position, arrange;
to construct, put together, build

partim (adv.)

- partim et partim


partly one and partly the other

infodio, -odere, -odi, -ossum

to bury, inter; to sink in

aveho, -here, -xi, -ctum

to convey away, to carry off
(pass.) to depart

finitimus, -a, -um (adj.)

neighbouring, nearby, adjacent

remitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to send back, return to
to release, let go; relax; concede

confusus, -a, -um (adj.)

mixed together; disordered, jumbled

caedes, -is, f.

killing, slaughter, massacre

acervus, -i, m.

a heap, pile, stack; large quantity, mass

tunc (adv.)

at that moment (in the past), then

undique (adv.)

from/on every side, everywhere

vastus, -a, -um (adj.)

desolate, dreary; huge, vast

certatim (adv.)

in competition

conluceo, -cere, -xi

to shine brightly; to be bright

dimoveo, -overe, -ovi, -otum

to part, disperse; remove

maereo, -ere

to be sad, mourn, grieve; bewail

cinis, -eris, m.


ruo, -ere, -i

to rush; collapse
(tr.) to cause to collapse, overthrow

focus, -i, m.

hearth, fire-place

onero, -are, -avi, -atum

to load, heap, weigh down with

tepidus, -a, -um (adj.)


agger, -eris, m.

earthwork, ramp, rampart; mound

11.213–24: Necropolitics: Stop the War!

iam vero in tectis, praedivitis urbe Latini,

praecipuus fragor et longi pars maxima luctus.

hic matres miseraeque nurus, hic cara sororum


pectora maerentum puerique parentibus orbi

dirum exsecrantur bellum Turnique hymenaeos;

ipsum armis ipsumque iubent decernere ferro,

qui regnum Italiae et primos sibi poscat honores.

ingravat haec saevus Drances solumque vocari


testatur, solum posci in certamina Turnum.

multa simul contra variis sententia dictis

pro Turno, et magnum reginae nomen obumbrat,

multa virum meritis sustentat fama tropaeis.

Study Questions

  • Parse luctus (214).
  • Scan lines 215–17 and explore the correlation of theme and metrical design.
  • Parse maerentum (216).
  • Identify and explain the mood of poscat (219).
  • What is the verb of the sentence multa … pro Turno (222–23)?
  • What is the accusative object of obumbrat (223)?
  • What noun does multa (223) modify?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the point of the repetitions ipsum … ipsumque (218) and solum – solum (220, 221)?
  • How do style and syntax enact theme in 222–24?

Discussion Point

  • Does Turnus get a fair hearing? (Read on: is he going to get one? You be his advocate; argue his case.)

praedives, -itis (adj.)

outstandingly rich, superabundant

praecipuus, -a, -um

peculiar, special; outstanding;
exceeding all others, foremost, chief

fragor, -oris, m.

act/process of breaking; crash, roar

nurus, -us, f.

young (unmarried) woman

dirus, -a, -um (adj.)

awful, dire, dreadful

exsecror, -ari, -atus

to curse; detest

hymenaeus, -i, m.

(usu. pl.) wedding, match, marriage

decerno, -ernere, -revi, -retum

to bring to a decision, settle, decide

posco, -ere, poposci

to ask for, call for, demand

ingravo, -are, -avi, -atum

to weight down; make worse

testor, -ari, -atus

to invoke, appeal to;
to affirm, declare solemnly;
to give evidence of; demonstrate

certamen, -inis, n.

competition, contention, rivalry

simul (adv.)

together; at the same time; as well

varius, -a, -um (adj.)

variegated, varied, different; fickle

obumbro, -are, -avi, -atum

to darken, overshadow, obscure
to screen, cloak; shelter, protect

meritus, -a, -um (adj.)

well-deserved, just, due; deserving

sustento, -are, -avi, -atum

to hold up, support, maintain

11.498–506: Enter Camilla

Obvia cui Volscorum acie comitante Camilla

occurrit portisque ab equo regina sub ipsis

desiluit, quam tota cohors imitata relictis


ad terram defluxit equis; tum talia fatur:

‘Turne, sui merito si qua est fiducia forti,

audeo et Aeneadum promitto occurrere turmae

solaque Tyrrhenos equites ire obvia contra.

me sine prima manu temptare pericula belli,


tu pedes ad muros subsiste et moenia serva.’

Study Questions

  • Explain the syntax of cui (498) and identify and explain the case.
  • What construction is Volscorum acie comitante (498)?
  • Explain the syntax of the relative pronoun quam (500). What is its antecedent?
  • What construction is relictis | …equis (500–1)?
  • What noun does the genitive sui (502) depend on?
  • Parse qua (502).
  • What kind of dative is forti (502)?
  • Parse Aeneadum (503).
  • How does sola (504) fit into the sentence?
  • Parse sine (505).
  • What noun does prima (505) modify? manu or pericula?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Is there a point to the anastrophe + hyperbaton portis … sub ipsis (499)?
  • What outlook on life is embedded in the si-clause sui merito si qua est fiducia forti (502) – and why might Camilla think it rhetorically expedient to bring it into play in the present situation?
  • What do you make of the lexical repetitions between narrative and speech (498: obvia ~ 504: obvia; 499: occurrit ~ 503: occurrere)?
  • Discuss the design and rhetorical effect of the antithesis between me and tu, the first words of, respectively, 505 and 506.

Discussion Point

  • This is Camilla’s first appearance in Book 11 and first short speech (two to follow): how does she come across? And does her entry here confirm the expectations a reader might have on the basis of her catalogue entry at 7.803–17 (see above 23)?

obvius, -a, -um (adj.)

placed so as to meet; meeting, to meet

comito, -are, -avi, -atum

to accompany, attend, follow

occurro, -rrere, -rri, -rsum (c. dat.)

to meet

desilio, -ire, -ui

to jump down, dismount

cohors, -rtis, f.

an armed force; cohort; entourage

imitor, -ari, -atus

to copy, follow, imitate

relinquo, -inquere, -iqui, -ictum

to depart from, leave

defluo, -ere, -xi, -xum

to flow/glide down, descend

for, fari, fatus

to speak, talk

merito (adv.)

deservedly; with good cause

fiducia, -ae, f.

trust, reliance, confidence, assurance

audeo, -dere, -sus

to dare, venture

turma, -ae, f.

troop of riders, squadron of cavalry

sino, sinere, sivi, situm

to leave alone, let be; let, allow, permit

tempto, -are, -avi, -atum

to test, try, attack

subsisto, -istere, -titi

to stand firm, stop short, remain

11.507–21: Turnus’ Turn

Turnus ad haec oculos horrenda in virgine fixus:

‘o decus Italiae virgo, quas dicere grates

quasve referre parem? sed nunc, est omnia quando

iste animus supra, mecum partire laborem.


Aeneas, ut fama fidem missique reportant

exploratores, equitum levia improbus arma

praemisit, quaterent campos; ipse ardua montis

per deserta iugo superans adventat ad urbem.

furta paro belli convexo in tramite silvae,


ut bivias armato obsidam milite fauces.

tu Tyrrhenum equitem conlatis excipe signis;

tecum acer Messapus erit turmaeque Latinae

Tiburtique manus, ducis et tu concipe curam.’

sic ait, et paribus Messapum in proelia dictis


hortatur sociosque duces et pergit in hostem.

Study Questions

  • 507: What is the main verb?
  • How does decus Italiae (508) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Parse grates (508).
  • Identify and explain the mood of parem (509).
  • Parse partire (510).
  • What kind of clause does ut (511) introduce?
  • What are the subjects of reportant (511)? Put differently, what does the –que after missi link?
  • Parse equitum (512).
  • Explain the syntax of quaterent campos (513).
  • How are we to imagine the terrain that Aeneas traverses (513–14)?
  • What ethnicity does Turnus refer to with Tyrrhenum (517)?
  • What construction is conlatis … signis (517)?
  • Who are Messapus (518) and Tiburtus (519)?
  • What kind of genitive is ducis (519)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Rewrite the quando clause in 509–10 in standard prose word order. Why is it all jumbled up here?
  • How might design mirror theme in line 516?

Discussion Points

  • Compare and contrast Turnus’ speech with Camilla’s: who is the more courteous, who more forceful?
  • What do you think of Turnus’ strategy?
  • How does the picture on the following page portray the dynamics of power and gender between Camilla and Turnus?

horrendus, -a, -um

awe-inspiring, terrible, fearful

figo, -gere, -xi, -xum

to drive in, fix in/on, insert, fasten
to gaze on, stare at

decus, -oris, m.

high esteem, honour, glory; beauty

grates, -ium, f.

thanksgiving, thanks rendered

-ve (enclitic conjunction)


paro, -are, -avi, -atum

to furnish, supply, provide, prepare;
to purpose, plan, intend

quando (conj.)

when; seeing that, since

partior, -iri, -itum

to share, distribute, divide out/up

fides, -ei, f.

trust, guarantee, promise
piece of evidence, proof, confirmation

reporto, -are, -avi, -atum

to take/carry back, report

explorator, -oris, m.

investigator; scout, spy

eques, -itis, m.

horseman, rider, cavalryman; knight

improbus, -a, -um (adj.)

inferior, unsound, shameless, insolent

praemitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to send in advance/ahead (of)

quatio, -tere, -ssum

to shake, rock, agitate;
cause to tremble; disturb

arduus, -a, -um (adj.)

lofty, high, towering; steep

desertus, -a, -um (adj.)

- deserta, -orum, n. pl.

empty, deserted, uninhabited

unfrequented places, wilderness

iugum, -i, n.

yoke; ridge, cliff, upper slopes

supero, -are, -avi, -atum

to climb over, cross, get beyond, pass;
to rise above; surpass; overcome

advento, -are, -avi, -atum

to approach, draw near, arrive

furtum, -i, n.

stealing, robbery, theft; secret action
stratagem, trick

convexus, -a, -um (adj.)

curving outwards, arching;
hollowed, sunken, concave

trames, -itis, m.

a footpath, track, path

bivius, -a, -um (adj.)

that is traversable both ways

obsido, -ere

to besiege, beleaguer
to occupy (so as to bar a passage)

fauces, -ium, f. pl.

throat, windpipe;
narrow entrance, gateway, outlet

confero, -rre, contuli, collatum

- signa conferre

to bring, take, carry, convey, bestow
to bring together in hostile fashion

to engage in a pitched battle

excipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to take out; accept, receive, absorb
to sustain the force (of an attack)

concipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to receive, draw in, absorb
to conceive, produce, form
to adopt

pergo, -gere, -rexi, -rectum

to move onward, proceed

Fig. 6 THEY COME FROM DIFFERENT WORLDS, BUT THEY ARE THE SAME? Wenceslas Hollar, The meeting of Turnus and Camilla. Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto. Public domain,

11.532–38: A Virginal Threesome (Diana, Opis, Camilla)

Velocem interea superis in sedibus Opim,

unam ex virginibus sociis sacraque caterva,

compellabat et has tristis Latonia voces

ore dabat: ‘graditur bellum ad crudele Camilla,


o virgo, et nostris nequiquam cingitur armis,

cara mihi ante alias. neque enim novus iste Dianae

venit amor subitaque animum dulcedine movit.

Study Questions

  • What noun does Velocem (532) modify?
  • Who is the subject of the sentence starting with Velocem (532)?
  • Who is Opis (532)?
  • Explain the semantic value of ex (533).
  • What phrases does the –que after sacra link (533)?
  • What noun does tristis (534) modify?
  • Who is Latonia (534)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the rhetorical effect of Diana’s apostrophe of Opis with o virgo (536)?
  • How come Diana speaks of herself in the third person (537–38)?

Discussion Point

  • What is the nature of the relationship between the three characters that come into focus here (Diana, Opis, Camilla)?

velox, -ocis (adj.)

swift, speedy, rapid

superus, -a, -um (adj.)

situated above, upper; celestial

Ops (Opis), Opis f.

Opis (a Roman goddess)

socius, -a, -um (adj.)

accompanying, associated

caterva, -ae, f.

company, band; crowd

compello, -ellere, -uli, -ulsum

to drive together, round up
to force to go; coerce, constrain

tristis, -is, -e (adj.)

depressed, gloomy, unhappy; grim

Latonia, -ae, f.

the daughter of Leto, Diana

gradior, -i, gressus

to proceed, step, walk

nequiquam (adv.)

to no purpose, vainly; without cause

cingo, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to surround, encircle; gird, equip

subitus, -a, -um (adj.)

sudden, abrupt; impromptu

dulcedo, -inis, f.

sweetness; pleasantness, charm

11.539–46: ‘They F*** You up, Your Mum and Dad. They May not Mean to, but They Do.’

pulsus ob invidiam regno virisque superbas

Priverno antiqua Metabus cum excederet urbe,


infantem fugiens media inter proelia belli

sustulit exsilio comitem, matrisque vocavit

nomine Casmillae mutata parte Camillam.

ipse sinu prae se portans iuga longa petebat

solorum nemorum: tela undique saeva premebant


et circumfuso volitabant milite Volsci.

Study Questions

  • Identify and explain the case of regno (539).
  • Parse viris (539).
  • What does the –que after viris link (539)?
  • What noun does antiqua (540) modify?
  • Explain the use of the word cum in line 540.
  • Identify and explain the case of exsilio (542).
  • How does comitem (542) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What construction is mutata parte (543)?
  • What is the subject, what the object of premebant (545)?
  • What construction is circumfuso … milite (546)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Why might the design of the sentence pulsus … Camillam (539–43) be so convoluted?

Discussion Point

  • What faults did Camilla’s mum and dad fill her with? Which ones did they add as extras, just for her?

pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum

to beat, push, strike; drive away, expel
to drive into exile, banish

ob (prep. + acc.)

in the direction of; by reason of
on account of

invidia, -ae, f.

ill will, spite, indignation, jealousy
odium, dislike

regnum, -i, n.

kingship, political control, dominion
realm, kingdom

vis, vis, f. (pl. vires, virium)

strength, force, violence, power
(pl.) power over others, control

superbus, -a, -um

proud, haughty, disdainful

Privernum, -i, n.

Privernum (a Volscian town)

excedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to go away, withdraw, retire, depart
to proceed beyond

infans, -ntis (adj.)

tongue-tied, inarticulate;
newly born, infant

comes, -itis, m./f.

companion, comrade; partner, sharer

tollo, -ere, sustuli, sublatum

to pick up, lift, hoist;
to take away, carry off, remove

sinus, -us, m.

fold, bosom, refuge, shelter

solus, -a, -um (adj.)

alone, lonely, forsaken, deserted

nemus, -oris, n.

wood, forest

undique (adv.)

from all sides/directions

premo, -mere, -ssi, -ssum

to apply pressure, press
to press hard upon in pursuit, harass

circumfundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusum

to pour round, distribute; surround

volito, -are, -avi, -atum

to fly (about), move swiftly, flit

11.547–56: A Stroke of Inspearation

ecce fugae medio summis Amasenus abundans

spumabat ripis, tantus se nubibus imber

ruperat. ille innare parans infantis amore

tardatur caroque oneri timet. omnia secum


versanti subito vix haec sententia sedit:

telum immane manu valida quod forte gerebat

bellator, solidum nodis et robore cocto,

huic natam libro et silvestri subere clausam

implicat atque habilem mediae circumligat hastae;


quam dextra ingenti librans ita ad aethera fatur:

Study Questions

  • What noun does summis (547) modify?
  • Who is Amasenus (547) and where is he located?
  • What kind of genitive is infantis (549)?
  • What (implied) pronoun does the participle versanti (551) agree with?
  • Discuss the syntax of telum immane (552).
  • What are the main verbs of the sentence beginning with telum immane (552)?
  • Identify and explain the cases of, respectively, huic and libro (554).
  • Parse subere (554).
  • Explain the syntax of quam (556).
  • Parse aethera (556). (Put differently, this looks like a neuter noun in the accusative plural – in fact, it’s a masculine noun in the accusative singular: how come?)

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the rhetorical effect of the hyperbaton summis … ripis (547–48)?
  • How does verse design enact theme in the placement of ruperat (549)?
  • Where in this passage does Virgil make particularly expressive use of meter?
  • What phrase has Virgil placed at the very centre of this block of verses?
  • Discuss the dramatic impact of the quickly shifting subjects in this passage.

Discussion Points

  • What information about Camilla is encoded in the name Amasenus?
  • What characteristics does Metabus imprint on his daughter here?
  • What would you have done in Metabus’ situation?
  • Get hold of Boccaccio’s entry on Camilla in his neo-Latin treatise De muliebribus claris (On Famous Women) and compare and contrast his coverage with that of Virgil. (The illustration on the following page is from a German translation of Boccaccio’s Latin, produced in the very early days of print culture. Can you make out Camilla, Metabus, the Amasenus River and the angry Volscians in pursuit? How did the early-modern bookmakers deal with the challenge of capturing a story in an image?)

ecce (interjection)

see! behold! look! lo and behold!

fuga, -ae, f.

flight; route; exile, banishment

abundans, -ntis (adj.)

overflowing, in flood, full; plentiful

spumo, -are, -avi, -atum

to foam, froth

ripa, -ae, f.


nubes, -is, f.


imber, -bris, m.

rain, shower; rain-water

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptum

to cause to split open/explode, burst
(refl./pass.) to burst forth, erupt

inno, -are

to swim

paro, -are, -avi, -atum

to furnish, supply, provide
to purpose, plan, intend

tardo, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause to slow down, delay, check

carus, -a, -um

expensive, costly, dear; beloved

onus, -eris, n.

burden, load; task, charge

verso, -are, -avi, -atum

to keep turning round/over
to turn over in the mind, ponder

sedeo, -ere, sedi, sessum

(of a course of action)

to sit, be seated; rest

to be settled or decided on

sententia, -ae, f.

opinion, sentiment; vote, decision;
thought, idea

validus, -a, -um (adj.)

powerful, robust, strong; stout, tough

forte (adv.)

by chance, accidentally, fortuitously

gero, -rere, -ssi, -stum

to bear, carry; perform, do, carry on

bellator, -oris, m.

warrior, fighter

solidus, -a, -um (adj.)

solid, firm, unyielding

nodus, -i, m.

knot, node, joint

robur, oris, n.

on oak-tree; club, spear; timber

coquo, -quere, -xi, -ctum

to cook; burn; dry up

liber, -bri, m.

bark, rind, bast; book, roll

silvestris, -tris, -tre

wooded, of the forest

suber, -eris, n.


claudo, -dere, -si, -sum

to close, shut, enclose; cover, conceal

implico, -are, -avi/-ui, -atum/-itum

+ acc. and dat.

to fold, twine about itself; entwine

to entwine one thing about another

habilis, -is, -e (adj.)

easy to handle/wield, adaptable, fit

circumligo, -are, -avi, -atum

to bind round, surround, encircle
(c. dat.) to attach, fasten

libro, -are, -avi, -atum

to level, balance, poise

aether, -eris, m.

heaven, ether; air, sky

Fig. 7 HOW IS THIS GOING TO WORK? (BELIEVE!) Woodcut illustration of Camilla and Metabus escaping into exile, from an incunable German translation by Heinrich Steinhöwel of Giovanni Boccaccio’s De mulieribus claris, printed by Johannes Zainer at Ulm (ca.1474). Penn Libraries, CC 2.0,

11.557–66: Camilla Speared

“alma, tibi hanc, nemorum cultrix, Latonia virgo,

ipse pater famulam voveo; tua prima per auras

tela tenens supplex hostem fugit. accipe, testor,

diva tuam, quae nunc dubiis committitur auris.”


dixit, et adducto contortum hastile lacerto

immittit: sonuere undae, rapidum super amnem

infelix fugit in iaculo stridente Camilla.

at Metabus magna propius iam urgente caterva

dat sese fluvio, atque hastam cum virgine victor


gramineo, donum Triviae, de caespite vellit.

Study Questions

  • What case are alma, cultrix, and Latonia virgo (557)?
  • Explain the syntax of famulam (558).
  • What is the subject of fugit (559)?
  • What kind of ablative is adducto … lacerto (561)?
  • Parse sonuere (562).
  • What kind of construction is magna … urgente caterva (564)?
  • What noun does gramineo (566) modify?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does Metabus articulate his reverence towards Diana?
  • What iconic image of Camilla does the alliteration tua… | tela tenens (558–59) underscore?
  • Why does Diana call Camilla infelix (563)?
  • Consider the placement of the main verbs in lines 561–66 – and how they interrelate with the two named characters (Camilla and Metabus).

Discussion Point

  • What is the theology that underwrites Metabus’ prayer to Diana here?

almus, -a, -um (adj.)

nourishing, kind, propitious

cultrix, -icis, f.

female inhabitant; devotee

famulus, -i, m.

servant, attendant

voveo, -vere, vovi, votum

to promise, vow

supplex, -icis, m./f.


fugio, -ere, fugi

to run away (from), flee (from)

accipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to receive; acquire, get; learn

testor, -ari, -atus

to invoke as a witness, testify

diva, -ae, f.


dubius, -a, -um (adj.)

uncertain, hesitant, wavering
doubtful; unreliable

committo, -ittere, -isi, -issum

(w. dat.)

to bring together, join, engage
to expose to, commit, consign

to place in the hands of, entrust to

aura, -ae, f.

air, breeze, wind

adduco, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to lead, bring; induce, cause
to draw back, pull towards

contorqueo, -quere, -si, -tum

to twist, whirl, turn

hastile, -is, n.

shaft or handle of a spear; spear

lacertus, -i, m.


immitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to cause to go, send; throw, discharge,
let fly; to introduce; let loose

sono, -are (-ere), -ui, -itum

to make a noise, sound

rapidus, -a, -um (adj.)

strong-flowing, swiftly moving, rapid;
violent, fierce

amnis, -is, m./f.

river, stream

iaculum, -i, n.

spear, javelin, missile

strido, -ere, -i

to whistle, shriek, whirr, wizz, hiss

propior, -ior, -ius (compar. adj.)

nearer, closer

urgeo, -ere, ursi

to exert pressure, press; push

fluvius, -(i)i, m.

stream, current, river

gramineus, -a, -um

covered with grass, grassy

donum, -i, n.

present, gift

caepes, -itis, m.

sod, turf, grassy ground; rampart

vello, -ere, -i/vulsi, vulsum

to pull/pluck out, extract

11.567–72: Got Milk?

non illum tectis ullae, non moenibus urbes

accepere (neque ipse manus feritate dedisset),

pastorum et solis exegit montibus aevum.

hic natam in dumis interque horrentia lustra


armentalis equae mammis et lacte ferino

nutribat teneris immulgens ubera labris.

Study Questions

  • What noun does ullae (567) modify?
  • Parse accepere (568).
  • Parse manus (568).
  • What kind of ablative is feritate (568)?
  • Identify and explain the mood of dedisset (568).
  • On what noun does the genitive pastorum (569) depend?
  • How does natam (570) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What phrases does the –que after inter (570) link?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does Virgil interrelate the themes of ‘Sure Start’ and ‘Feral’ stylistically?

Discussion Point

  • What is the point of Metabus and Camilla undergoing a space/time journey into the pre-agricultural human past?

tectum, -i, n.

roof, ceiling; house, dwelling

feritas, -atis, f.

wildness; fierceness, ferocity

pastor, -oris, m.


exigo, -igere, -egi, -actum

to drive/compel to go out
to spend, pass (time)
to enforce, enact

aevum, -i, n.

time; an age; lifetime, life

dumus, -i, m.

a thorn or briar bush

horreo, -ere, -ui

to bristle, be stiff/rigid
to shudder, shiver (at)

lustrum, -i, n.

(lustrum, -i, n.

muddy place;
(pl.) haunts of wild beasts, wilds

ceremony of purification)

armentalis, -is, -e

rustic, bucolic

mamma, -ae, f.

breast, udder; mother, mummy

lac, lactis, n.


ferinus, -a, -um (adj.)

wild, brutish, bestial

tener, -ra, -rum (adj.)

soft, tender, delicate; immature

immulgeo, -ere

to milk into, to expel (milk into)

uber, -eris, n.

breast, teat, udder

labrum, -i, n.


11.573–86: How to Raise a Wild Warrior Princess

utque pedum primis infans vestigia plantis

institerat, iaculo palmas armavit acuto

spiculaque ex umero parvae suspendit et arcum.


pro crinali auro, pro longae tegmine pallae

tigridis exuviae per dorsum a vertice pendent.

tela manu iam tum tenera puerilia torsit

et fundam tereti circum caput egit habena

Strymoniamque gruem aut album deiecit olorem.


multae illam frustra Tyrrhena per oppida matres

optavere nurum; sola contenta Diana

aeternum telorum et virginitatis amorem

intemerata colit. vellem haud correpta fuisset

militia tali conata lacessere Teucros:


cara mihi comitumque foret nunc una mearum.

Study Questions

  • Parse pedum (573).
  • What noun does primis modify (573)?
  • What do the –que after spicula and the et before arcum link (575)?
  • What is the subject of pendent (577)?
  • What noun does tenera (578) modify?
  • Parse optavere (582).
  • In the phrase sola contenta Diana (582), what is in the nominative, what in the ablative?
  • What noun does aeternum (583) modify?
  • Identify and explain the mood and tense of vellem (584).
  • Identify and explain the mood and tense of foret (586).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Are the alliterations in this passage (e.g. 573: pedum primis … plantis; 578: tela manu iam tum tenera puerilia torsit) expressive of anything?
  • How does Diana manage to be (subliminally) present throughout her narrative?

Discussion Points

  • Lines 581–82 recall a passage in Catullus 62 (see commentary): what is the effect of this allusion?
  • How do we get from Camilla, Diana’s devotee, to Camilla, leader of the Volscians?
  • Has Virgil completely lost the plot by this point? No, seriously…
  • What do you think Amazons and Amazon-like figures such as Camilla signified in Roman culture, in either their textual or visual (see next page) manifestations? Were they meant to turn you on or off (or both at once in revolting attraction)?

pes, pedis, m.


vestigium, -(i)i, n.

footprint, track; imprint; trace

planta, -ae, f.

the sole of the foot

instituo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to set/put up, erect, organize
to establish, fix

palma, -ae, f.

palm, hand; palm-tree

acutus, -a, -um (adj.)

sharpened, pointed, sharp

spiculum, -i, n.

sharp point of a weapon; javelin

umerus, -i, m.


suspendo, -dere, -di, -sum

to hang, suspend

arcus, -us, m.

bow; rainbow; arch, vault

crinalis, -is, -e (adj.)

worn in the hair

aurum, -i, n.


tegmen, -inis, n.

covering, cover

palla, -ae, f.

mantle, garment

tigris, -is/-idis, f.

tiger, tiger-skin

exuviae, -arum, f.

armour; spoils; skin

dorsum, -i, n.


vertex, -icis, m.

whirlpool, eddy
topmost part of the head
highest point, summit, peak

puerilis, -is, -e (adj.)

childish; immature

torqueo, -quere, -si, -tum

to twist tightly; torment;
to send (missiles), hurl, shoot

funda, -ae, f.

a leather strap for hurling stones; sling

teres, -etis (adj.)

smooth and rounded

habena, -ae, f.

rein; strap, thong, cord

Strymonius, -a, -um (adj.)

dwelling by the river Strymon

grus, gruis, f.


deicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw down, cause to fall;
to knock/pull down

olor, -oris, m.


nurus, -us, f.

daughter-in-law; young maiden

intemeratus, -a, -um (adj.)

undefiled, unstained, pure

colo, -ere, -ui, cultum

to live in, inhabit; till, cultivate
to decorate, adorn; worship
to practise, maintain, foster, promote

corripio, -ipere, -ipui, -eptum

to seize hold up, snatch up, grasp
to carry off, carry away emotionally

militia, -ae, f.

military service; campaign

conor, -ari, -atus

to make an effort; attempt, endeavour

lacesso, -ere, -ivi/-ii, -itum

to challenge, provoke, arouse, assail

Fig. 8 DON’T EVEN TRY? WHAT DOES THE IMAGE GET WRONG? Roman marble statue of a wounded Amazon (1st–2nd century A.D.). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Public domain,

11.587–96: Lady Vengeance, or: Diana’s Black Ops Commando

verum age, quandoquidem fatis urgetur acerbis,

labere, nympha, polo finisque invise Latinos,

tristis ubi infausto committitur omine pugna.

haec cape et ultricem pharetra deprome sagittam:


hac, quicumque sacrum violarit vulnere corpus,

Tros Italusque, mihi pariter det sanguine poenas.

post ego nube cava miserandae corpus et arma

inspoliata feram tumulo patriaeque reponam.’

dixit, at illa levis caeli delapsa per auras


insonuit nigro circumdata turbine corpus.

Study Questions

  • Parse labere (588).
  • What kind of ablative is polo (588)?
  • Parse finis (588).
  • Identify and explain the case of pharetra (590).
  • What noun does sacrum (591) modify?
  • Parse miserandae (593) and explain how it fits into the syntax of its sentence.
  • What case is tumulo (594)?
  • Parse levis (595).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Analyze the design of verse 589.
  • How does verse design enact theme in 595–96?
  • Discuss Diana’s use of different moods in this passage, as well as active and passive verbs.

Discussion Points

  • What do you think of Diana’s ethics of revenge?
  • Diana knows that Camilla will die, but doesn’t know the identity of her killer: does that mean that she only has partial knowledge of a predetermined future or is this an area of contingency, of history (still) in the making?

ago, agere, egi, actum

- imperative (age)

to drive, bring, carry; force, push, urge



inasmuch as, seeing that, since

urgeo, -ere, ursi

to press, squeeze;
to bear hard on, threaten

acerbus, -a, -um

acid, bitter, harsh, strident;
cruel, pitiless; untimely, premature

labor, -bi, -psus

to glide, slip, slide; run, flow; collapse

polus, -i, m.

pole; sky, heaven

finis, -is, m.

boundary; limit; end
(pl.) territory, domain

inviso, -ere, -i, -um

to go to see, visit

infaustus, -a, -um (adj.)

luckless, ill-starred; inauspicious

omen, -inis, n.


ultrix, -icis, f. (adj.)

avenging, that exacts retribution

pharetra, -ae, f.


depromo, -ere, -psi, -ptum

to bring out, fetch, produce

violo, -are, -avi, -atum

to violate, profane; pierce, wound

pariter (adv.)

together; in equal quantity/measure
in the same manner, alike

post (adv.)

subsequently, afterwards

nubes, -is, f.


cavus, -a, -um (adv.)

hollow, concave

inspoliatus, -a, -um (adj.)

not plundered or robbed

tumulus, -i, m.

a rounded hill; burial mound, grave

repono, -onere, -osui, -ositum/ostum

to put back; repay; store away
to lay (a body) to rest

levis, -is, -e (adj.)


delabor, -bi, -psus

to drop, descend, flow down, fall

insono, -are, -ui

to make a loud noise, sound, resound

niger, -gra, -grum

dark in colour, black

turbo, -inis, m.

whorl, eddy; whirlwind

11.648–63: Camilla’s Martial Arts

At medias inter caedes exsultat Amazon

unum exserta latus pugnae, pharetrata Camilla,

et nunc lenta manu spargens hastilia denset,


nunc validam dextra rapit indefessa bipennem;

aureus ex umero sonat arcus et arma Dianae.

illa etiam, si quando in tergum pulsa recessit,

spicula converso fugientia derigit arcu.

at circum lectae comites, Larinaque virgo


Tullaque et aeratam quatiens Tarpeia securim,

Italides, quas ipsa decus sibi dia Camilla

delegit pacisque bonas bellique ministras:

quales Threiciae cum flumina Thermodontis

pulsant et pictis bellantur Amazones armis,


seu circum Hippolyten seu cum se Martia curru

Penthesilea refert, magnoque ululante tumultu

feminea exsultant lunatis agmina peltis.

Study Questions

  • What noun (manu or hastilia) does the attribute lenta (650) agree with? (Tip: scan the line to find out!)
  • What noun does indefessa (651) agree with?
  • Parse quando (653).
  • What construction is converso … arcu (654)?
  • What is the main verb of the sentence beginning with at circum (655)?
  • How does the phrase pacisque bonas bellique ministras (658) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Scan line 659 and explain the metrical peculiarity.
  • What constructions does seu … seu… (661) coordinate?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What are the thematic implications of the verb exsultare (648, 663)?
  • Compare the design of 650 and 651.
  • What is the effect of Virgil’s use of Greek names and loanwords in this passage? (See 648: Amazon, 649: pharetrata; 659: Thermodontis; 660: Amazones; 661: Hippolyten; 662: Penthesilea; 663: peltis.) How does their presence chime with his insistence that Camilla’s entourage consists of native Italian women? (657: Italides – which follows Greek morphology!)
  • Analyze the design of 663.

Discussion Points

  • Identify and discuss the points of contact between narrative (648–58) and simile (659–63) in this passage.
  • Why does Virgil call Camilla an ‘Amazon’ outright (648) and then also compare her to Amazons in a simile (659–63)?

exsulto, -are, -avi

to spring up, leap about, run riot
to show unrestrained pleasure, exult

exsero, -ere, -ui, -tum

to thrust out, stretch forth
to lay bare, uncover; unsheathe

latus, -eris, n.

side, flank, breast

pharetratus, -a, -um (adj.)

equipped with a quiver

lentus, -a, -um (adj.)

flexible, pliant, supple; slow

spargo, -gere, -si, -sum

to scatter, sprinkle, strew; spread about

hastile, -is, n.

shaft or handle of a spear; spear

denseo, -ere

to thicken, condense; crowd together
to cause to come thick and fast

validus, -a, -um (adj.)

physically powerful, robust, strong

rapio, -ere, -ui, -tum

to seize, carry off, snatch, pick up

indefessus, -a, -um (adj.)

unwearied, tireless

bipennis, -is, f.

a two-bladed axe

aliquando (adv.)

at some time or other
(after si) at any time, ever

tergum, -i, n.

- in tergum

back; rear

towards one’s rear, backwards

pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum

to exert force against, beat, push, strike
to banish; defeat; repulse in battle

recedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to draw back, retire, withdraw

spiculum, -i, n.

sharp point; arrow; javelin

converto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to rotate, invert; reverse; alter

derigo, -igere, -exi, -ectum

to align, form; straighten out; guide, steer
to propel or direct (missiles)

arcus, -us, m.


lectus, -a, -um (adj.)

carefully chosen, select, picked; choice

aeratus, -a, -um (adj.)

decorated with bronze or brass; bronze-clad

quatio, -tere, -ssum

to shake; knock or strike repeatedly

securis, -is, f.

an axe, battle-axe

Italis, -idis, f.

an Italian woman

dius, -a, -um (adj.)

having a supernatural radiance, divine

deligo, -igere, -egi, -ectum

to pick out, choose

ministra, -ae, f.

female servant/attendant; handmaid

Threicius, -a, -um (adj.)


Thermodon, -ontis, m.

the Thermodon river

pulso, -are, -avi, -atum

to strike, beat; assail, assault; make resound

pictus, -a, -um

painted; coloured

bello, -are, -avi, -atum

to wage war; take part in battle; fight

Amazon, -onis, f.

an Amazon

Martius, -a, -um (adj.)

of or belonging to Mars

currus, -us, m.

vehicle, chariot

ululo, -are, -avi, -atum

to howl; yell

tumultus, -us, m.

commotion, fuss, confused uproar

lunatus, -a, -um (adj.)


pelta, -ae, f.

a light shield

Fig. 9 YOU CAN TELL SHE’S THE QUEEN? Gabriel-Vital Dubray, Penthesilea (1862). East façade of the Cour Carrée in the Louvre palace, Paris. Public domain,

11.664–69: Getting the Massacre Underway

Quem telo primum, quem postremum, aspera virgo,

deicis? aut quot humi morientia corpora fundis?


Eunaeum Clytio primum patre, cuius apertum

adversi longa transverberat abiete pectus.

sanguinis ille vomens rivos cadit atque cruentam

mandit humum moriensque suo se in vulnere versat.

Study Questions

  • quem … quem…? quot…? (664–65). What is the difference between an interrogative pronoun and an interrogative adjective? Which is which?
  • Identify the case of humi (665).
  • Parse fundis (665).
  • What kind of ablative is Clytio … patre (666)?
  • What noun does apertum (666) modify?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the effect of the apostrophe aspera virgo (664)?
  • Analyze the design of the cuius clause (666–67).
  • What do the alliterations suo se and vulnere versat (669) underscore?

Discussion Point

  • Is this what we’ve been waiting for? Can style redeem theme here?

asper, -a, -rum (adj.)

rough, harsh, severe

deicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw down, overthrow, strike dead

humus, -i, f.

the earth, the ground

morior, -i, -tuus

to die

fundo, -ere, fudi, fusum

to pour (out); spread out, scatter

apertus, -a, -um (adj.)

unfastened, open; exposed; visible

adversus, -a, -um (adj.)

opposite, directly facing; hostile

transverbero, -are, -avi, -atum

to pierce through

abies, -etis, f.

silver fir; spear, javelin

pectus, -oris, n.

chest, breast

vomo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to vomit; discharge, spew out

rivus, -i, m.


cado, -ere, cecidi, casum

to fall

cruentus, -a, -um (adj.)

stained or mixed with blood; bloody

mando, -dere, -di, -sum

to chew, bite

verso, -are, -avi, -atum

to spin, wheel, turn

11.670–83: The Death Toll Rises

tum Lirim Pagasumque super, quorum alter habenas


suffuso revolutus equo dum colligit, alter

dum subit ac dextram labenti tendit inermem,

praecipites pariterque ruunt. his addit Amastrum

Hippotaden, sequiturque incumbens eminus hasta

Tereaque Harpalycumque et Demophoonta Chromimque;


quotque emissa manu contorsit spicula virgo,

tot Phrygii cecidere viri. procul Ornytus armis

ignotis et equo venator Iapyge fertur,

cui pellis latos umeros erepta iuvenco

pugnatori operit, caput ingens oris hiatus


et malae texere lupi cum dentibus albis,

agrestisque manus armat sparus; ipse catervis

vertitur in mediis et toto vertice supra est.

Study Questions

  • What is the main verb of the sentence starting tum Lirim (670)?
  • How does the syntax of the relative clause introduced by quorum (670) work?
  • What noun does quot (676) modify?
  • What noun does the participle emissa (676) agree with?
  • What noun does tot (677) modify?
  • Parse cecidere (677).
  • What noun does the attribute Iapyge (678) modify?
  • What is the subject of the relative clause introduced by cui (679)?
  • What noun does the participle erepta agree with?
  • How does pugnatori (680) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • What does the et at the beginning of 681 link? (Put differently, what are the subjects of texere?)
  • Parse texere (681).
  • Parse manus (682).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does verse design enact theme in 675?
  • How does Virgil foreground the centre of this passage (676–77) stylistically?

Discussion Points

  • What are we to make of the fact that a virgo (676) lays low viri (677), even if they happen to come ‘from Phrygia’? Is this really an ‘entirely neutral adjective’ (Horsfall 2003: 376)?
  • Can the specifics matter when it comes to a run of ‘cannon-fodder’?

habena, -ae, f.

rein; strap, thong, cord

suffundo, -undere, -udi, -usum

- (of a fallen horse)

to pour on/in; cover/fill with a liquid

to sprawl its limbs beneath

revolvo, -vere, -ui, -utum

to roll back/aside; relapse, revert

colligo, -igere, -egi, -ectum

to gather together, collect

subeo, -ire, -ii, -itum

to go/move underneath; support
to go up to; approach

labor, -bi, -psus

to glide, slip, slide; tumble

tendo, -dere, tetendi, -tum/-sum

to extend, stretch out, offer
to aim at, strive for

inermis, -is, -e (adj.) [in + arma + -is]


praeceps, -ipitis (adj.)

headlong, rushing forward

ruo, -ere, -i

to rush; tumble down; collapse

incumbo, -umbere, -ubui

to bend forwards/lean over;
to press on; bear down;
to apply oneself vigorously

eminus (adv.)

at long range; from a distance

quot (indeclinable adjective)

(interrogative) how many?
(relative) whatever number of,
as many as

emitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum

to send out, dispatch; let fly, launch

contorqueo, -quere, -si, -tum

to twist, discharge, send whirling

procul (adv.)

some way off, away; far, at a distance

ignotus, -a, -um (adj.)

unknown, unfamiliar, strange

venator, -oris, m.


Iapyx, -ygis/-ygos (adj.)


pellis, -is, f.

skin, hide

latus, -a, -um (adj.)

broad, wide

umerus, -i, m.


eripio, -ipere, -ipui, -eptum

to seize/pull/tear/snatch from

iuvencus, -i, m.

a young bull or ox

pugnator, -oris, m.

fighter, combatant

operio, -ire, -ui, -tum

to shut, close; cover, clothe, envelop

hiatus, -us, m.

gaping, yawning; wide-opened jaws

mala, -ae f.

(usually in plural) cheeks, jaws

tego, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to cover; roof over, clothe;
to shield, protect

lupus, -i, m.


dens, -ntis, m.


albus, -a, -um (adj.)


agrestis, -is, -e (adj.)

rustic, rural, wild; of the countryside

sparus, -i, m.

a hunting-spear, javelin

caterva, -ae, f.

company, band, squadron; crowd

vertex, -icis, m.

topmost part of the head

Fig. 10 THAT MARE IS WATCHING US. TO SEE IF WE GET CAMILLA – VIRGIL’S CAMILLA. Giacomo del Po, Camillia [sic!] at War from Virgil’s Aeneid (1708–10). Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Public domain,

11.684–89: The Hunter Hunted

hunc illa exceptum (neque enim labor agmine verso)

traicit et super haec inimico pectore fatur:


‘silvis te, Tyrrhene, feras agitare putasti?

advenit qui vestra dies muliebribus armis

verba redargueret. nomen tamen haud leve patrum

manibus hoc referes, telo cecidisse Camillae.’

Study Questions

  • What is the verb of the sentence in parentheses (684)?
  • What kind of construction is agmine verso (684)?
  • Identify and explain the case of silvis (686).
  • How does te (686) fit into the syntax of its sentence?
  • What is the antecedent of the relative pronoun qui (687)?
  • What noun does vestra (687) modify?
  • What stylistic device does Virgil use in the phrase haud leve (688)?
  • Parse patrum (688).
  • Parse manibus (689).
  • Parse referes (689).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does verse design enact theme in 684–85?
  • Discuss the tone of redargueret: why does Camilla use a technical legal term here?
  • What do vestra … verba refer to? Have we heard any?

Discussion Points

  • Unpack the phrase muliebribus armis (687).
  • Do you think Ornytus can relate to Camilla’s tamen (688)?
  • What precisely is it that Ornytus is supposed to bring to the shades below?
  • Are you getting anxious for Camilla right now?

excipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to take out, extract; accept, receive;
to catch, intercept

traicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw or propel; transfix, pierce

fera, -ae, f.

wild animal; beast

agito, -are, -avi, -atum

to set in motion, move, stir; rouse
to chase; disturb, trouble

redarguo, -ere, -i

to prove wrong; refute; show up

manes, -ium, m. pl.

the spirits of the dead

11.725–40: Shaming, Naming, Blaming: Tarchon Rallies the Troops

At non haec nullis hominum sator atque deorum


observans oculis summo sedet altus Olympo.

Tyrrhenum genitor Tarchonem in proelia saeva

suscitat et stimulis haud mollibus inicit iras.

ergo inter caedes cedentiaque agmina Tarchon

fertur equo variisque instigat vocibus alas


nomine quemque vocans, reficitque in proelia pulsos.

‘quis metus, o numquam dolituri, o semper inertes

Tyrrheni, quae tanta animis ignavia venit?

femina palantis agit atque haec agmina vertit!

quo ferrum quidve haec gerimus tela inrita dextris?


at non in Venerem segnes nocturnaque bella,

aut ubi curva choros indixit tibia Bacchi.

exspectate dapes et plenae pocula mensae

(hic amor, hoc studium) dum sacra secundus haruspex

nuntiet ac lucos vocet hostia pinguis in altos!’


Study Questions

  • What noun does nullis (725) modify?
  • Who do sator (725) and genitor (727) refer to?
  • What does atque (725) link?
  • What noun does altus (726) modify?
  • What does the –que after cedentia (729) link?
  • What needs to be supplied to complete the question starting with quis metus (732)?
  • Parse dolituri (732).
  • Parse palantis (734). How does it fit into its sentence?
  • What is the verb of the sentence beginning at non (736)?
  • Parse exspectate (738).
  • Identify and explain the mood of nuntiet and vocet (740).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the rhetorical force of the adversative particle at (725)?
  • Why might the word order in 275–76 be all jumbled up?
  • Is there a thematic point to the fact that Virgil describes Jupiter’s actions using two litotes (non … nullis … oculis; stimulis haud mollibus)?
  • How does verse design enhance the plot in 729–31?
  • What are the stylistic devices Tarchon uses to give his battlefield speech rhetorical oomph?

Discussion Points

  • Why does Virgil go nuclear and bring Jupiter into play here?
  • What are the arguments and the insults Tarchon employs to motivate his men?
  • The picture on the following page illustrates a scene from the part of the poem the OCR Latin set text just skipped over (11.690–724). How come Camilla has dismounted – and is nevertheless able to catch up with and slay a horseman?

sator, -oris, m. [sero + -tor]

sower, planter; founder, progenitor;
begetter, father

suscito, -are, -avi, -atum

to cause to rise, rouse

stimulus, -i, m.

a goad, spur

haud (particle)


inicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw in/on, lay on, instil, inject

fero, -rre, tuli, latum

(pass. of persons):

to proceed, be borne, go

varius, -a, -um (adj.)

varied, multifarious, motley, different

instigo, -are, -avi, -atum

to incite, urge, impel, drive; provoke

ala, -ae, f.

wing; unit/squadron of cavalry

reficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to restore, refresh, revive

metus, -us, m.


doleo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to suffer physical pain, grieve

iners, -rtis (adj.)

inactive, lazy, slothful

ignavia, -ae, f.

idleness, sloth; faint-heartedness

palor, -ari, -atus

to wander, stray, be dispersed, scatter

gero, -rere, -ssi, -stum

to bear, carry

inritus, -a, -um (adj.)

not ratified, null and void, empty

segnis, -is, -e (adj.)

slothful, inactive, sluggish

curvus, -a, -um (adj.)

bent, crooked, dinted
winding, tortuous

chorus, -i, m.

a dancing group, band of revellers

indico, -cere, -xi, -ctum

to give formal notice of, proclaim

tibia, -ae, f.

reed-pipe, flute

exspecto, -are, -avi, -atum

to wait for, await; expect, hope for

daps, -pis, f.

a sacrificial meal; feast, meal, banquet

poculum, -i, n.

drinking-vessel, cup, bowl

mensa, -ae, f.


studium, -(i)i, n.

earnest application, ardour, desire
enthusiasm, eagerness

secundus, -a, -um (adj.)

favourable, supportive, encouraging;
second, next

haruspex, -icis, m.


nuntio, -are, -avi, -atum

to announce, report; convey, deliver

lucus, -i, m.

a sacred grove

voco, -are, -avi, -atum

to call upon, invoke; summon

hostia, -ae, f.

a sacrificial animal; victim

pinguis, -is, -e (adj.)

fat, sleek, plump; luxuriant, rich

Fig. 11 SPEED KILLS – EASY TO WRITE, TOUGH TO DRAW. Wenceslas Hollar, Camilla slaying [the son of] Aunus. Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto. Public domain,

11.741–50: Venulus Gets Carried Away

haec effatus equum in medios moriturus et ipse

concitat, et Venulo adversum se turbidus infert

dereptumque ab equo dextra complectitur hostem

et gremium ante suum multa vi concitus aufert.

tollitur in caelum clamor cunctique Latini


convertere oculos. volat igneus aequore Tarchon

arma virumque ferens; tum summa ipsius ab hasta

defringit ferrum et partis rimatur apertas,

qua vulnus letale ferat; contra ille repugnans

sustinet a iugulo dextram et vim viribus exit.


Study Questions

  • Parse effatus and moriturus (741).
  • What is the sense of et in line 741 (moriturus et ipse)?
  • How does adversum (742) fit into its sentence?
  • What noun does the participle dereptum (743) modify?
  • Identify and explain the case of dextra (743).
  • What is the accusative object of aufert (744)?
  • Parse convertere (746).
  • Parse partis (748).
  • Why is ferat (749) in the subjunctive?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Identify and discuss the different narrative perspectives built into this passage.
  • How does Virgil use style in this passage to generate excitement?

Discussion Points

  • Is Virgil horsing around here? (Remember the Etruscan tyrant Mezentius’ worst atrocity of binding together the living to the dead, complexu in misero (8.485-8)…?)
  • Are we meant to hear the opening of the poem (1.1: arma virumque cano…) when we read arma virumque ferens (747)? If so, why?

(effor), -ari, -atus

to utter, say, enunciate

concito, -are, -avi, -atum

to set in rapid motion, hurl; spur, urge on
to excite, arouse

adversus, -a, -um (adj.)

turned towards, facing; opposed to
hostile; unfavourable, adverse, bad

turbidus, -a, um (adj.)

violently agitated, turbulent, wild, stormy
troubled in expression; disorderly, frantic

infero, -re, intuli, illatum

- se inferre

to carry/convey into; bring forward

to move forward to the attack, charge

deripio, -ipere, -ipui, -eptum

to tear or pull off; snatch away, grab, seize

complector, -cti, -xus

to embrace, hug, clasp; grasp

gremium, -ii, n.

lap, bosom

concieo/concio, -iere/-ire, -ivi, -itum

to stir up, provoke, arouse, incite

aufero, -rre, abstuli, ablatum

to carry/fetch away, remove, abduct

converto, -tere, -ti, -sum

to rotate, turn, invert, reverse

volo, -are, -avi, -atum

to fly; to move rapidly over

igneus, -a, -um (adj.)

consisting of fire, fiery, ardent

aequor, -oris, n.

smooth or level surface, expanse; the sea

defringo, -ingere, -egi, -actum

to remove by breaking, break off

ferrum, -i, n.

iron, steel; blade, point, head (of a weapon)

rimor, -ari, -atus

to examine the fissures or crevices of,
to feel, probe, search; explore

letalis, -is, -e (adj.)

deadly, fatal, lethal

fero, -rre, tuli, latum

(here): to bring on a person, inflict

repugno, -are, -avi, -atum

to offer resistance, fight back

sustineo, -ere, -ui

- with ab + ablative:

to keep, maintain, preserve, uphold

to hold back (from)

iugulum, -i, n.


exeo, -ire, -ivi/ii, -itum

- transitive, with accusative:

to come/go out;

to escape, elude

11.751–61: Exemplary Combat: Eagle vs. Snake

utque volans alte raptum cum fulva draconem

fert aquila implicuitque pedes atque unguibus haesit,

saucius at serpens sinuosa volumina versat

arrectisque horret squamis et sibilat ore

arduus insurgens, illa haud minus urget obunco


luctantem rostro, simul aethera verberat alis:

haud aliter praedam Tiburtum ex agmine Tarchon

portat ovans. ducis exemplum eventumque secuti

Maeonidae incurrunt. tum fatis debitus Arruns

velocem iaculo et multa prior arte Camillam


circuit, et quae sit fortuna facillima temptat.

Study Questions

  • What is the meaning of cum (751) here?
  • What noun does fulva (751) modify?
  • Who is the subject of implicuit (752)?
  • What does the demonstrative pronoun illa (755) refer back to?
  • Parse Tiburtum (757).
  • What noun does the participle secuti (758) agree with?
  • Who are the Maeonidae (759)?
  • Identify and explain the cause of fatis (759).
  • Why is sit (761) in the subjunctive?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Go on, join in with the fun of o.t.t. alliteration in this passage!
  • How does verse design enact theme in 759–61?

Discussion Points

  • Explore the points of contact between narrative and simile.
  • Does human eagle kill snake and human snake kill eagle?

alte (adv.)

at a great height, high

rapio, -ere, -ui, -tum

to seize and carry off, snatch away

fulvus, -a, -um (adj.)

brown, tawny

draco, -onis, m.


aquila, -ae, f.


implico, -are, -avi/-ui, -atum/-itum

to fold, twine, entwine, enclose

unguis, -is, m.

fingernail, claw, talon

haereo, -rere, -si, -sum

to adhere, stick, cling, attach oneself

saucius, -a, -um (adj.)

wounded; pierced, torn; stricken

serpens, -ntis, m./f.

snake, serpent

sinuosus, -a, -um (adj.)

sinuous, winding

volumen, -inis, n.

coil, twist, convolution;
roll of papyrus, book

verso, -are, -avi, -atum

to keep turning, twist
to turn over in the mind, ponder

arrigo, -igere, -exi, -ectum

to make to stand upright, stand on end
to tilt upwards, raise; excite, arouse

horreo, -ere, -ui

to be stiffly erect, stand up, bristle
to shudder, shiver, tremble

squama, -ae, f.


sibilo, -are, -avi, -atum

to make a hissing sound; to hiss

arduus, -a, -um (adj.)

high, steep; difficult

insurgo, -gere, -rexi

to get up, stand up, rise (up)

haud (particle)

not, no

minus (comparative adverb)

- haud minus

to a smaller extent, less

no less, as much, equally

urgeo, -ere, ursi

to press, squeeze, push, thrust
to bear hard on, press hard in attack

obuncus, -a, -um (adj.)

hook-shaped, hooked

luctor, -ari, -atus

to wrestle, grapple, struggle, fight

rostrum, -i, n.

(pl.) speakers’ platform at Rome

simul (adv.)

together; at the same time; as well

aether, -eris m.

heaven, the ether; the air, sky

ala, -ae, f.


Tiburtus, -i, m.

a founder/inhabitant of Tibur

porto, -are, -avi, -atum

to transport, convey, carry

ovo, -are, -avi, -atum

to celebrate (a minor triumph)
to exult, rejoice

eventus, -us, m.

outcome, fulfilment, success;
occurrence, event

sequor, -qui, -cutus

to follow; escort, attend; support, back
to use as a guide in one’s conduct

Maeonides, -ae, m.

the Lydian (= Homer);
(pl.) the Etruscans

incurro, -rere, -ri, -sum

to rush/charge (at), run (in), strike

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to owe, be under an obligation

velox, -ocis (adj.)

rapid in movement, swift, speedy

prior, -or, -us (comparative adj.)

in front, ahead;
previous, former, earlier

circu(m)eo, -(m)ire, -(m)ii, -(m)itum

to go round, circle, prowl round

tempto, -are, -avi, -atum

to test, seek to discover, examine

Fig. 12 A LOSE-LOSE SITUATION, COULD IT BE? Antoine-Louis Barye, Eagle and snake, bronze plaque (ca.1824–26). Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. Public domain,

11.762–67: Stalking Camilla

qua se cumque furens medio tulit agmine virgo,

hac Arruns subit et tacitus vestigia lustrat;

qua victrix redit illa pedemque ex hoste reportat,

hac iuvenis furtim celeris detorquet habenas.


hos aditus iamque hos aditus omnemque pererrat

undique circuitum et certam quatit improbus hastam.

Study Questions

  • What is the subject of tulit (762)?
  • What does the demonstrative pronoun illa (764) refer back to?
  • Parse celeris (765).
  • Parse aditus (766).
  • What noun does omnem (766) modify?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Where in the verse did Virgil place medio (762)?
  • How does the formal design of the passage enact Arruns’ stalking of Camilla?

Discussion Point

  • Since the entire story of Camilla is Virgil’s invention, he could have had her killed by anybody (indeed, the Greek epic precedent suggests that this is a job for Aeneas – Penthesilea is slain by Achilles after all). Why, then, is he casting such a detestable figure as Arruns for the part?

furens, -ere

to be mad, rage, rave
to rush furiously about, range wildly

fero, -rre, tuli, latum

- se ferre

to carry, convey, transport

to make one’s way, go, proceed, advance

subeo, -ire, -ii, -itum

to go, move, pass underneath
to approach, go for, attack; sneak up on

tacitus, -a, -um (adj.)

silent, noiseless, quiet; hidden, concealed

vestigium, -(i)i, n.

footprint, track; movement

lustro, -are, -avi, -atum

to purify; move round, circle, surround
to cast one’s eyes over, scan, survey

victrix, -icis, f. (adj.)


reporto, -are, -avi, -atum

to take or carry back; bring home

furtim (adv.)

secretly, stealthily; without being noticed

celer, -ris, -re (adj.)

moving swiftly, fast, speedy; agile, quick

detorqueo, -quere, -si, -tum

to turn away, deflect, turn aside; twist

habena, -ae, f.

rein; strap, thong, cord

pererro, -are, -avi, -atum

to wander through/over, traverse
to go over in the mind, review

undique (adv.)

from all sides/directions;
from every point of view

circu(m)itus, -us, m.

circular motion, revolution, orbit
an indirect route to a place, detour
a roundabout way

certus, -a, -um (adj.)

fixed, settled, definite; indisputable, certain
assured, accurate; well-aimed, unerring

quatio, -tere, -ssum

to shake, agitate; hurry along, urge on

improbus, -a, -um (adj.)

unprincipled, shameless, ill-disposed
relentless, wanton

11.768–77: Spot the Queer Bird

Forte sacer Cybelo Chloreus olimque sacerdos

insignis longe Phrygiis fulgebat in armis

spumantemque agitabat equum, quem pellis aenis


in plumam squamis auro conserta tegebat.

ipse peregrina ferrugine clarus et ostro

spicula torquebat Lycio Gortynia cornu;

aureus ex umeris erat arcus et aurea vati

cassida; tum croceam chlamydemque sinusque crepantis


carbaseos fulvo in nodum collegerat auro

pictus acu tunicas et barbara tegmina crurum.

Study Questions

  • Identify and explain the case of Cybelo (768).
  • What does the –que after olim (768) link?
  • What noun does aenis (770) modify?
  • What noun does the participle conserta (771) agree with?
  • What does et (772) link?
  • What parts of the world do the geographical markers Lycio (modifying cornu) and Gortynia (modifying spicula) refer to (773)?
  • Identify and explain the case of vati (774).
  • Parse crepantis (775).
  • What noun does fulvo (776) modify?
  • How does pictus (777) fit into the syntax of the sentence?
  • Identify and explain the case of acu (777).
  • What kind of accusative are tunicas and tegmina (777)?
  • Parse crurum (777).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What formal devices does Virgil use to highlight Chloreus’ garish outfit?

Discussion Points

  • ‘Chloreus has the distinction of being Camilla’s last victim, and the distinction of escaping her, although his escape is not due to his own actions. He is also probably the most beautifully and brilliantly dressed character in the poem. Since Camilla dies because of her desire to possess Chloreus’ arms, he deserves our attention. Why did Vergil invent Chloreus as he did? Finally, what does an understanding of Chloreus contribute to our understanding of the Aeneid?’ (West 1985: 22). Good questions: what do you think?
  • Are you up to the one-man fashion show that Chloreus puts on? Can you identify the different items of clothing he sports?

forte (adv.)

by chance, accidentally, as luck would have it

sacer, -cra, -crum (adj.)

consecrated to a deity, sacred, hallowed

Cybelus, -i, m.

Cybelus (a mountain in Phrygia)

olim (adv.)

formerly, once (upon a time)

insignis, -is, -e (adj.)

clearly visible; conspicuous, noteworthy

spumo, -are, -avi, -atum

to foam, froth

pellis, -is, f.

skin, hide

aenus, -a, -um (adj.)

made of bronze, brazen

pluma, -ae, f.

feather, plumage

squama, -ae, f.


consero, -ere, -ui, -tum

to fasten together, join

tego, -gere, -xi, -ctum

to cover; shield, protect

peregrinus, -a, -um (adj.)

foreign, alien, exotic

ferrugo, -inis, f.

iron-rust; reddish-purple

clarus, -a, -um (adj.)

loud; bright, shining; famous

ostrum, -i, n.

purple dye; purple colour;
material dyed purple

spiculum, -i, n.

the sharp point of a weapon, barb;
javelin, arrow

torqueo, -quere, -si, -tum

to twist tightly
to send missiles spinning, hurl, shoot

Lycius, -ia, -ium (adj.)


Gortynius, -a, -um (adj.)

of or coming from Gortyna

cornu, -us, n.

horn; drinking vessel; bow; wing

aureus, -a, -um (adj.)

golden; covered/adorned with gold

cassida, -ae, f.

a helmet

croceus, -a, -um (adj.)

of saffron or its oil; saffron-coloured, yellow

chlamys, -ydis (-ydos), f.

a Greek cloak or cape

sinus, -us, m.

fold produced by the looping of a garment;
fold; bosom; refuge; shelter
(pl.) clothes draped in folds

crepo, -are, -ui

to make a sharp loud noise, clatter, crack

carbaseus, -a, -um (adj.)

made of linen

fulvus, -a, -um (adj.)

dull yellow, reddish brown, tawny

nodus, -i, m.

a knot

colligo, -igere, -egi, -ectum

to gather together, collect; recover

pingo, -ere, pinxi, pictus

to decorate, embellish; to paint

acus, -us, f.

needle, pin

tunica, -ae, f.

a tunic, undergarment

tegmen, -inis, n.

cover, clothing

crus, cruris, n.

leg, shin, shank

Fig. 13 and 14 THE ORIGINAL ROMAN CATWALK... Clothing of two Phrygian males and females from Friedrich Hottenroth, Trachten, Haus-, Feld- und Kriegsgeräthschaften der Völker alter und neuer Zeit (details of table 24). Stuttgart: Gustav Weise, 1884. Digitally altered. Public domain,

11.778–84: The Stalker Stalks the Stalked Stalking

hunc virgo, sive ut templis praefigeret arma

Troia, captivo sive ut se ferret in auro

venatrix, unum ex omni certamine pugnae


caeca sequebatur totumque incauta per agmen

femineo praedae et spoliorum ardebat amore,

telum ex insidiis cum tandem tempore capto

concitat et superos Arruns sic voce precatur:

Study Questions

  • Lines 778–84 consist of one long sentence: break it down into its constituent parts.
  • What verb is virgo (778) the subject of?
  • Scan Troia (779).
  • What noun does captivo modify (779)?
  • What does unum (780) agree with?
  • What noun does femineo (782) modify?
  • What kind of genitive are praedae and spoliorum (782)? What noun do they depend on?
  • What kind of clause does cum (783) introduce?
  • What construction is tempore capto (783)?
  • Who is the subject of concitat (784)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Lines 778–84 form one long sentence: discuss how design (syntax, stylistic features such as hyperbata) enacts theme in this passage.
  • Why does Virgil refer to Camilla as venatrix (780) here?
  • What attributes of Camilla has Virgil placed at the very centre of this block of verses?

Discussion Points

  • What does the ut-clause in 778–80 add to the characterization of Camilla?
  • What exactly does Virgil mean when he says that Camilla ‘was burning with female passion for beauty and spoils’ (782)?

templum, -i, n.

sacred precinct, temple

praefigo, -gere, -xi, -xum

to attach to, impale

captivus, -a, -um (adj.)

captured in war; taken prisoner

certamen, -inis, n.

competition, contention; fight, battle
dispute, quarrel

caecus, -a, -um (adj.)

blind, undiscerning, stupid; dark, black

incautus, -a, -um (adj.)

incautious, unwary, unsuspecting
off one’s guard; unforeseen, unprotected

agmen, -inis, n.

stream, current; mass, throng, crowd, host;
an army (on the march), column;
battle, warfare

femineus, -a, -um (adj.)

womanly; effeminate

praeda, -ae, f.

booty, plunder, spoil, loot; prey; prize

spolium, -ii, n.

(usu. in pl.) spoils of war, booty

insidiae, -arum, f. pl.

surprise attack; ambush; plot, snare

concito, -are, -avi, -atum

to set in rapid motion, discharge, hurl
excite, agitate, rouse; provoke

superus, -a, -um (adj.)

- superi (masc. pl.)

situated above, upper

the gods who dwell above

precor, -ari, -atus

to ask or pray for, beg, beseech

11.785–93: The Hunter’s Prayer

‘summe deum, sancti custos Soractis Apollo,


quem primi colimus, cui pineus ardor acervo

pascitur, et medium freti pietate per ignem

cultores multa premimus vestigia pruna,

da, pater, hoc nostris aboleri dedecus armis,

omnipotens. non exuvias pulsaeve tropaeum


virginis aut spolia ulla peto, mihi cetera laudem

facta ferent; haec dira meo dum vulnere pestis

pulsa cadat, patrias remeabo inglorius urbes.’

Study Questions

  • What is the main verb of the sentence starting with summe deum (785)?
  • Parse summe (785).
  • Parse deum (785).
  • How does custos (785) fit into the sentence?
  • What kind of ablative is acervo (786)?
  • What does the et between pascitur and medium (787) link?
  • What does freti (787) agree with?
  • What noun does multa (788) modify?
  • What tense is ferent (792)?
  • What noun does haec (792) agree with?
  • What kind of accusative is patrias … urbes (793)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Identify those features in this passage that are typical of prayers – and ask yourself whether Arruns has fully mastered the genre.
  • In what sense is the word order in 787 iconic?

Discussion Points

  • If you were Apollo, would you accept the bargain Arruns offers? Is Virgil finding a way to collapse any epic illusions about glory in combat? (Read Tolstoy’s War and Peace before you decide!)
  • Do you follow Arruns’ labelling of Camilla as a dira pestis? (What precisely is this?)

sanctus, -a, -um (adj.)

sacrosanct, inviolate; holy, sacred

Soracte, -is, n.

Mt. Soracte

colo, -ere, -ui, cultum

to dwell in, cultivate; decorate, adorn;

pineus, -a, -um (adj.)

consisting of pinewood; of the pine tree

ardor, -oris, m.

burning, conflagration, fire

acervus, -i, m.

heap, pile, stack; mass

pasco, -cere, pavi, -tum

to feed, pasture, rear, keep; nurture, nourish

fretus, -a, -um (adj.)

(+ abl.) relying on, trusting to, confident of

cultor, -oris, m.

inhabitant, cultivator; worshipper

pruna, -ae, f.

glowing charcoal, live coal

aboleo, -ere, -evi, -itum

to destroy, efface, obliterate; banish, dispel

dedecus, -oris, n.

discredit, disgrace, shame, dishonour

exuviae, -arum, f. pl.

spoils, armour stripped from a defeated enemy

pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum

to push, strike, beat; drive away, banish; to defeat

tropaeum, -i, n.

a victory trophy

spolium, -ii, n.

(usu. in pl.) spoils of war, booty

laus, -dis, f.

praise, commendation; esteem, renown

dirus, -a, -um (adj.)

awful, dire, dreadful; inspiring terror

pestis, -is, f.

destruction, death; plague, pestilence; nuisance; an instrument of ruin; curse

cado, -ere, cecidi, casum

to fall over, fall, drop; die

patrius, -a, -um (adj.)

of a father; paternal; ancestral

remeo, -are, -avi, -atum

to go or come back, return; to recede

inglorius, -a, -um (adj.)

lacking renown, obscure, undistinguished

11.794–804: A Prayer Half-Answered Hitting Home

Audiit et voti Phoebus succedere partem

mente dedit, partem volucris dispersit in auras:


sterneret ut subita turbatam morte Camillam

adnuit oranti; reducem ut patria alta videret

non dedit, inque Notos vocem vertere procellae.

ergo ut missa manu sonitum dedit hasta per auras,

convertere animos acris oculosque tulere


cuncti ad reginam Volsci. nihil ipsa nec aurae

nec sonitus memor aut venientis ab aethere teli,

hasta sub exsertam donec perlata papillam

haesit virgineumque alte bibit acta cruorem.

Study Questions

  • What nouns does the genitive voti (794) depend on?
  • Parse volucris (795). What noun does it modify?
  • Parse oranti (797).
  • What is the subject of videret (797)?
  • Parse vertere (798), convertere, and tulere (800).
  • Explain the syntax of missa (799). What noun does it agree with?
  • What is the subject of convertere and tulere (800)?
  • What is the verb of the main clause starting with nihil ipsa (801)?
  • Parse sonitus (802).
  • Parse venientis (802).
  • Explain the syntax of acta (804).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Analyze the design of 794–98. What does Virgil foreground through syntax and word order?
  • In what ways do the grammar and syntax of 799–804 help to enhance the drama of the action?

Discussion Points

  • What are the implications of Apollo’s differentiated reaction to Arruns’ wish for the theology of the Aeneid?
  • What is our response to the image of Camilla being fatally wounded just below her exposed breast (and the spear drinking her virginal blood) supposed to be? Pity? Relief? Excitement? Revulsion?
  • Does it help to pair Pallas with Camilla if we’re to understand either of their roles in painting the bigger picture?

votum, -i, n.

vow, prayer; desire, hope

succedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to move below, move up (to);
to succeed, take effect

volucer, -cris, -cre (adj.)

flying; swift, rapid; fleeting, transitory

dispergo, -gere, -si, -sum

to spread about, scatter, disperse

sterno, -ere, stravi, stratum

to lay out on the ground, spread;
to knock down, lay low, defeat

turbo, -are, -avi, -atum

to run amok, riot; agitate, disturb
to upset, disrupt, disturb, confound

adnuo, -uere, -ui, -utum

to beckon, nod (assent); grant, concede

oro, -are, -avi, -atum

to pray to, beseech, supplicate

redux, -ucis (adj.)

coming back, returning; restored

Notus, -i, m.

the South Wind

procella, -ae, f.

a violent wind, storm, gale

sonitus, -us, m.

sound, noise

memor, -oris (adj.)

mindful; recalling

exsero, -ere, -ui, -tum

to thrust out, stretch forth;
to lay bare, uncover, unsheathed;
to reveal, disclose, show

perfero, -rre, pertuli, perlatum

to carry or convey to; deliver; drive home
to maintain, keep up, sustain, endure

papilla, -ae, f.

nipple; teat

haereo, -rere, -si, -sum

to adhere, stick; fasten on to; attach oneself

virgineus, -a, -um (adj.)


cruor, -oris, m.


11.805–15: Arruns Turns Tail

concurrunt trepidae comites dominamque ruentem


suscipiunt. fugit ante omnis exterritus Arruns

laetitia mixtoque metu, nec iam amplius hastae

credere nec telis occurrere virginis audet.

ac velut ille, prius quam tela inimica sequantur,

continuo in montis sese avius abdidit altos


occiso pastore lupus magnove iuvenco,

conscius audacis facti, caudamque remulcens

subiecit pavitantem utero silvasque petivit:

haud secus ex oculis se turbidus abstulit Arruns

contentusque fuga mediis se immiscuit armis.


Study Questions

  • Parse omnis (806).
  • Does ante omnis go with fugit or exterritus (806)?
  • What kind of construction is laetitia mixtoque metu (807)?
  • Identify and explain the mood of sequantur (809).
  • Parse montis (810).
  • What kind of construction is occiso pastore … magnove iuvenco (811)?
  • What does the –que after caudam (812) link?
  • What noun does the present participle pavitantem (813) agree with?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • How does the wolf-simile (809–15) work – and what does it add to Virgil’s narrative?
  • Is the a-alliteration in 810 expressive of anything?
  • What is the point of Virgil using the attribute turbidus of Arruns (814), thus recalling 796: subita turbatam morte Camillam?

Discussion Point

  • Why should Arruns be terrified (806: exterritus; 807: metu) and flee (806: fugit)? Don’t epic warriors tend to gloat over their kill?

concurro, -rere, -ri, -sum

to hurry together; collide; coincide

trepidus, -a, -um (adj.)

fearful, anxious, apprehensive

suscipio, -ipere, -epi, -eptum

to catch from below; receive
to undertake, perform

occurro, -rrere, -rri, -rsum

to run/hurry to meet; meet, confront

continuo (adv.)

forthwith, without delay, immediately

avius, -a, -um (adj.)

trackless, unfrequented, untrodden
distant, remote

abdo, -ere, -idi, -itum

to conceal, cover; go and hide

iuvencus, -i, m.

a young bull or ox

conscius, -a, -um (adj.)

privy, conscious

audax, -acis (adj.)

daring, bold, confident; reckless, rash

cauda, -ae, f.


remulceo, -cere, -si, -sum

to stroke or smooth back; lay back

subicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw from below; to place underneath

pavito, -are

to be in a state of fear/trepidation

uterus, -i, m.

belly, abdomen; womb

haud (particle)


secus (adverb)

- haud secus

in another way, differently, otherwise

just so

turbidus, -a, um (adj.)

violently agitated, confused, troubled

aufero, -rre, abstuli, ablatum

to carry away, carry off, remove

immisceo, -scere, -scui, -xtum

to mix, mingle

11.816–22: Appointment with Death

illa manu moriens telum trahit, ossa sed inter

ferreus ad costas alto stat vulnere mucro.

labitur exsanguis, labuntur frigida leto

lumina, purpureus quondam color ora reliquit.

tum sic exspirans Accam ex aequalibus unam


adloquitur, fida ante alias quae sola Camillae

quicum partiri curas, atque haec ita fatur:

Study Questions

  • What noun does the preposition inter (816) govern?
  • What noun does the adjective ferreus (817) modify?
  • What noun does the adjective alto (817) modify?
  • Explain the syntax of ora (819).
  • What do we know about Acca (820)?
  • How are we to construe fida … curas (821–22)?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What is the rhetorical effect of the two present participles moriens (816) and exspirans (820)?
  • What is the effect of the inversion of the normal word order in the phrase ossa … inter?
  • Discuss the design of 817.
  • Identify, and discuss the emotional impact of, the stylistic devices that Virgil brings into play in 818–19.

Discussion Point

  • Where does Acca come from? And what is her narrative function?

os, ossis, n.


ferreus, -a, -um (adj.)


costa, -ae, f.


altus, a, um (adj.)

high, lofty, elevated, great; deep, profound

mucro, -onis, m.

sharp end of a sword; tip; point

labor, -bi, -psus

to glide, slip, slide; run, flow; collapse

exsanguis, -is, -e

lacking blood, bloodless; pale; feeble

lumen, -inis, n.

light; eye

purpureus, -a, -um (adj.)

purple, crimson; radiant, glowing

exspiro, -are, -avi, -atum

to breathe out, exhale; perish

aequalis, -is, f./m.

a person of the same age; companion

fidus, -a, -um (adj.)

faithful, loyal, devoted; trustworthy, reliable

partior, -iri, -itus

to share, distribute, divide out, apportion

11.823–31: Passing on the Torch

‘hactenus, Acca soror, potui: nunc vulnus acerbum

conficit, et tenebris nigrescunt omnia circum.

effuge et haec Turno mandata novissima perfer:


succedat pugnae Troianosque arceat urbe.

iamque vale.’ simul his dictis linquebat habenas

ad terram non sponte fluens. tum frigida toto

paulatim exsolvit se corpore, lentaque colla

et captum leto posuit caput, arma relinquens,


vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras.

Study Questions

  • What is the accusative object of conficit (824)?
  • What is the subject of nigrescunt (824)?
  • Parse effuge and perfer (825).
  • Identify and explain the mood of succedat and arceat (826).
  • What kind of ablative is urbe (826)?
  • How does frigida (828) fit into its sentence?
  • What noun does toto (828) modify?
  • What noun does the participle captum (830) agree with?

Stylistic Appreciation

  • What are the stylistic devices in 823–27 that help to convey that Camilla is down to her novissima verba?
  • Analyze the syntactical design of 828–81 (tum frigida … sub umbras): what is the basic structure, what element stands out – and why?
  • How does metre enhance theme in 831?

Discussion Points

  • Assess Camilla’s last words. Are they true to her character?
  • Line 831 is identical to the very last line of the Aeneid (12.952), where Virgil reuses the verse to capture the death of Turnus. What is the point of this prefiguration?
  • ‘The close association between arma and vir introduced by the opening words of the Aeneid is only momentarily contested by Camilla: her eventual failure to dislodge this gendered pairing not only reinforces the exclusion of women from the military arena, but also underlines the immutable futility of challenging the masculine hold on arma’ (Xinyue 2017: 174). Do you agree?

hactenus (adv.)

to this point, so far

acerbus, -a, -um (adj.)

acid, bitter; pitiless, cruel, harsh

conficio, -icere, -eci, -ectum

to do, perform, accomplish
to bring to completion, finish off, complete
to overwhelm, undo, ruin; destroy, consume

tenebrae, -arum, f. pl.


nigresco, -escere, -ui

to become dark, blacken

mandatum, -i, n.

order, instruction; charge; directive

novissimus, -a, -um (adj.)

most recent, latest; last, final, ultimate

perfero, -rre, pertuli, perlatum

to carry or convey to; deliver; drive home
to maintain, keep up, sustain, endure

succedo, -dere, -ssi, -ssum

to move below, move up (to);
to succeed, take effect

arceo, -ere, -ui

to keep away, to prevent or keep from

valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum

to be powerful, have strength
to be well

simul (adv.)

together, jointly; at the same time

linquo, -ere, liqui

to quit, leave; forsake, abandon; drop, leave

(spons), spontis, f.

- sponte (ablative)

will, volition

deliberately, purposefully

frigidus, -a, -um (adj.)

cold, cool, chilling

paulatim (adv.)

little by little, by degrees, gradually

exsolvo, -vere, -ui, -utum

to unfasten, undo, loose; set free, release

lentus, -a, -um (adj.)

flexible, pliant, supple, yielding; slow

collum, -i, n.


gemitus, -us, m.

groaning, moaning

indignor, -ari, -atus

to regard with indignation, take offence
to resent; to be aggrieved

Fig. 15 AFTER ALL, JUST A GIRL? Carlo Cignani, The Death of Camilla (1703). Yekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts. Public domain,Смерть_Камиллы_(Чиньяни).jpg

11.832–35: ‘The Fight Goes on’ — No End in Sight

tum vero immensus surgens ferit aurea clamor

sidera: deiecta crudescit pugna Camilla;

incurrunt densi simul omnis copia Teucrum

Tyrrhenique duces Evandrique Arcades alae.


Study Questions

  • What noun does immensus (832) modify?
  • What construction is deiecta … Camilla (833)?
  • Parse pugna (833).

Stylistic Appreciation

  • Discuss the interrelation of verse design and theme in 832–33.
  • How does Virgil interrelate the fighting forces in 834–35?

Discussion Points

  • Why should Camilla’s death magnify the savagery of the battle?
  • ‘I believe that [Virgil] has produced an understated representation of Camilla that is neither chauvinistically triumphant nor pornographically defective’ (Anderson 1999: 204). Do you agree?

immensus, -a, -um

immeasurable, boundless, vast, immense

ferio, -ire

to strike, smite, beat, knock, cut, thrust, hit

deicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum

to throw down, cause to fall
to strike or shoot down

crudesco, -ere, crudui

to become fierce or savage, grow worse,
increase in violence

incurro, -curri and -cucurri

to run into, run upon, rush at, make an attack

densus, -a, -um (adj.)

dense, thick, solid

Tyrrhenus, a, um (adj.)

Tyrrhenian, Etrurian, Tuscan

ala, -ae, f.

wing; wing of an army (esp. cavalry)