Open Book Publishers logo Open Access logo
  • button
  • button
  • button
GO TO...
book cover


Aalders, G. J. D. (1979), ‘The Hellenistic Concept of the Enviousness of Fate’, in M. J. Vermaseren (ed.), Studies in Hellenistic Religion, Leiden, 1–8.

Adams, J. N. (2007), The Regional Diversification of Latin 200 BCAD 600, Cambridge.

Adema, S. M. (2017), Speech and Thought in Latin War Narratives: Words of Warriors, Leiden and Boston.

Adkin, N. (2010), ‘Further Virgilian Etymologizing: Privernum and Privernus’, Invigilata Lucernis 32, 7–11.

Agamben, G. (1991), Language and Death: The Place of Negativity, trans. Karen E. Pinkus with Michael Hardt, Minneapolis.

Alessio, M. (1993), Studies in Vergil: Aeneid Eleven: An Allegorical Approach, Laval.

Alexiou, M. (1971/2002), The Ritual Lament in Greek Tradition, 2nd edn, revised by Dimitrios Yatromanolakis and Panagiotis Roilos, Lanham, MD.

Amann, P. (ed.) (2012), Kulte – Riten – religiöse Vorstellungen bei den Etruskern und ihr Verhältnis zu Politik und Gesellschaft, 273–86.

Anderson, W. S. (1957), ‘Virgil’s Second Iliad’, Transaction of the American Philological Association 88, 17–30.

―. (1983), ‘Chalinus armiger in Plautus’ Casina’, Illinois Classical Studies 8, 11–21.

―. (1999), ‘Aeneid 11: The Saddest Book’, in C. Perkell (ed.), Reading Vergil’s Aeneid: An Interpretative Guide, Norman, 195–209.

Ando, C. (2002), ‘Vergil’s Italy: Ethnography ad Politics in First-century Rome’, in D. S. Levene and D. P. Nelis (eds.), Clio and the Poets: Augustan Poetry and the Traditions of Ancient Historiography, Leiden, Boston, Cologne, 123–42.

Armitage, D. (2017), Civil Wars: A History in Ideas, New Haven.

Ash, R. (2002), ‘Epic Encounters? Ancient Historical Battle Narratives and the Epic Tradition’, in D. S. Levene and D. P. Nelis (eds.), Clio and the Poets: Augustan Poetry and the Traditions of Ancient Historiography, Leiden, Boston, Cologne, 253–74.

Austin, R. G. (1964), P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Secundus Edited with a Commentary, Oxford.

Bacon, H. (1986), ‘The Aeneid as a Drama of Election’, Transaction of the American Philological Association 116, 305–34.

Bär, S. (2009), Quintus Smyrnaeus Posthomerica 1: Die Wiedergeburt des Epos aus dem Geiste der Amazonomachie. Mit einem Kommentar zu den Versen 1–219, Göttingen.

Baraz, Y. (2008), ‘From Vice to Virtue: the Denigration and Rehabilitation of Superbia in Ancient Rome’, in R. M. Rosen and I. Sluiter (eds.), KAKOS: Badness in Classical Antiquity, Leiden, 365–97.

―. (2014), ‘Modeling Roman Pride’, in A. Chaniotis and P. Ducrey (eds.), Unveiling Emotions II: Emotions in Greece and Rome: Texts, Images, Material Culture, Stuttgart, 215–36.

Barchiesi, A. (1984/2015), Homeric Effects in Vergil’s Narrative, Princeton and Oxford (originally published as La traccia del modello. Effetti omerici nella narrazione virgiliana, Pisa 1984).

Basson, W. P. (1984), ‘Vergil’s Mezentius: A Pivotal Personality’, Acta Classica 27, 57–70.

―. (1986), ‘Virgil’s Camilla: A Paradoxical Character’, Acta Classica 29, 57–68.

Baumann, Z. (1992), Mortality, Immortality and Other Life Strategies, Stanford.

Becker, T. H. (1997), ‘Ambiguity and the Female Warrior: Vergil’s Camilla’, Electronic Antiquity 4.1.

Benario, H. W. (2000), ‘The Tenth Book of the Aeneid’, in S. Quinn (ed.), Why Vergil? A Collection of Interpretations, Wauconda, 195–206.

Bettini, M. (2005), ‘Un’identità “troppo compiuta”: Troiani, Latini, Romani e Iulii nell’Eneide’, Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 55, 77–102.

―. (2006), ‘Forging Identities. Trojans and Latins, Romans and Julians in the Aeneid’, in M. Jehne and R. Pfeilschifter (eds.), Herrschaft ohne Integration? Rom und Italien in republikanischer Zeit, Frankfurt a. M., 269–91.

Bodel, J. (1999), ‘Death on Display: Looking at Roman Funerals’, in B. Bergmann and C. Kondoleon (eds.), The Art of Ancient Spectacle, New Haven, 259–81.

Boedeker, D. (1984), Descent from Heaven: Images of Dew in Greek Poetry and Religion, Chico, CA.

Boyd, B. W. (1992), ‘Virgil’s Camilla and the Traditions of Catalogue and Ecphrasis (Aeneid 7.803–17)’, American Journal of Philology 113, 213–34.

Bradley, G. (2007), ‘Romanisation: The End of the Peoples of Italy?’, in G. Bradley, E. Isayev, and C. Riva (eds.), Ancient Italy: Regions Without Boundaries, Exeter, 295–322.

Brenk, F. E. (1999), Clothed in Purple Light: Studies in Vergil and in Latin Literature, Including Aspects of Philosophy, Religion, Magic, Judaism, and the New Testament Background, Stuttgart.

―. (1999a), ‘Salus and Sancio in Vergil’, in Clothed in Purple Light: Studies in Vergil and in Latin Literature, including Aspects of Philosophy, Religion, Magic, Judaism, and the New Testament Background, Stuttgart, 122–31.

Brown, R. (2003), ‘The Terms Bellum Sociale and Bellum Ciuile in the Late Republic’, in C. Deroux (ed.), Latin Literature and Roman History 11, Brussels, 102–20.

Bruun, C. (2000), ‘“What Every Man in the Street Used to Know”: M. Furius Camillus, Italic Legends and Roman Historiography’, in C. Bruun (ed.), The Roman Middle Republic: Politics, Religion, and Historiography: c. 400–133 B. C.: Papers from a Conference at the Institutum Romanum Finlandiae, September 11–12, 1998, Rome, 41–68.

Burke, P. F. (1974), ‘The Role of Mezentius in the Aeneid’, Classical Journal 69, 202–09.

―. (1978), ‘Drances infensus: A Study in Vergilian Character Portrayal’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 108, 15–20.

Cairns, F. (1989), Virgil’s Augustan Epic, Cambridge.

Callen King, C. (1982), ‘Foil and Fusion: Homer’s Achilles in Vergil’s Aeneid’, Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 9, 31–57.

Camps, W. A. (1969), An Introduction to Virgil’s Aeneid, Oxford.

Chaudhuri, P. (2014), The War with God: Theomachy in Roman Imperial Poetry, Oxford.

Cherry, D. (1990), ‘The Minician Law: Marriage and the Roman Citizenship’, Phoenix 44, 244–66.

Clausen, W. (2002), Virgil’s Aeneid: Decorum, Allusion, and Ideology, Munich and Leipzig.

Cleary, V. (1982), ‘To the Victor Belong the spolia: A Study in Vergilian Imagery’, Vergilius 28, 15–29.

Clément-Tarantino, S. (2017), ‘Wanderings of Fama and “Fame’s Narratives” in the Aeneid’, in S. Kyriakidis (ed.), Libera Fama: An Endless Journey, Cambridge, 55–70.

Coffee, N. (2009), The Commerce of War: Exchange and Social Order in Latin Epic, Chicago.

Connolly, J. (2007), ‘Virile Tongues: Rhetoric and Masculinity’, in W. Dominik and J. Hall (eds.), A Companion to Roman Rhetoric, Malden etc., 83–97.

Conte, G. B. (1986), The Rhetoric of Imitation: Genre and Poetic Memory in Virgil and Other Latin Poets, Ithaca and London.

―. (2007), The Poetry of Pathos: Studies in Virgilian Epic, ed. by S. J. Harrison, Oxford.

Cooley, A. E. (ed.) (2009), Res gestae divi Augusti: Text, Translation and Commentary, Cambridge and New York.

Cornwell, H. (2017a), Pax and the Politics of Peace: Republic to Principate, Oxford.

―. (2017b), ‘Negotiating Ideas of Peace in the Civil Conflicts of the Late Republic’, in E. P. Moloney and M. S. Williams (eds.) (2017), Peace and Reconciliation in the Classical World, London, 86–101.

Courtney, E. (1993), The Fragmentary Latin Poets, edited with commentary, Oxford.

Cowan, B. (2005), ‘Mezentius: The Man You Hate to Love’, Omnibus 50, 23–24.

Crawford, M. (1981), ‘Italy and Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 71, 154–60.

Dainotti, P. (2015), Word Order and Expressiveness in the Aeneid, Berlin.

Dalby, A. (2002), Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World, London and New York.

Danforth, L. (1982), Death Rituals of Rural Greece, Princeton.

Daniels, E. D. (1930), ‘Virgil’s Use of Certain Adjectives’, Classical Weekly 23.21, 168.

David, J.-M. (1997), The Roman Conquest of Italy, Oxford.

Davis, G. (2015), ‘The Dual Function of the umbra-Motif in Vergil’s Bucolics’, in H.-C. Günther (ed.), Virgilian Studies. A Miscellany Dedicated to the Memory of Mario Geymonat, Nordhausen, 89–101.

Degelmann, C. (2018), Squalor. Symbolisches Trauern in der Politischen Kommunikation der Römischen Republik und Frühen Kaiserzeit, Stuttgart.

de Grummond, W. W. (1981), ‘Saevus Dolor: The Opening and Closing of the AeneidVergilius 27, 48–52.

―. (1997), ‘The “Diana Experience”: A Study of the Victims of Diana in Virgil’s Aeneid’, in C. Deroux (ed.), Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History VIII, Brussels, 158–94.

Delvigo, M. (1999), ‘Il “trionfo” di Pallante (e l’esegesi di Virg. Aen. 11, 72 ss.)’, Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 42, 199–209.

Derderian, K. (2001), Leaving Words to Remember. Greek Mourning & the Advent of Literacy, Leiden, Boston, Cologne.

de Souza, P. (2008), ‘Parta victoriis pax: Roman Emperors as Peacemakers’, in P. de Souza and J. France (eds.), War and Peace in Ancient and Medieval History, Cambridge, 76–106.

Di Cesare, M. A. (1974), The Altar and the City: A Reading of Vergil’s Aeneid, Columbia.

Dickey, E. (2002), Latin Forms of Address: From Plautus to Apuleius, Oxford and New York.

Dickie, M. (1985), ‘The Speech of Numanus Remulus (Aeneid 9.598–620)’, Papers of the Liverpool Latin Seminar 5, 165–221.

Dilke, O. A. W. (1967), ‘Do Line Totals in the Aeneid Show a Preoccupation with Significant Numbers?’, Classical Quarterly 17.2, 322–26.

Dinter, M. (2005), ‘Epic and Epigram: Minor Heroes in Virgil’s Aeneid’, Classical Quarterly 55.1, 153–69.

―. (2013), ‘Inscriptional Intermediality in Latin Literature’, in P. Liddel and P. Low (eds.), Inscriptions and Their Uses in Greek and Latin Literature, Oxford, 303–16.

Dionisotti, C. (2007), ‘Ecce’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 50, 75–91.

Dix, T. K. and Houston, G. W. (2006), ‘Public Libraries in the City of Rome: From the Augustan Age to the Time of Diocletian’, Mélanges de l’Ecole française de Rome – Antiquité 118.2, 671–717.

Drogula, F. K. (2015), Commanders and Command in the Roman Republic and Early Empire, Chapel Hill.

Duckworth, G. E. (1961), ‘Tripartite Structure in the Aeneid’, Vergilius 7, 2–11.

Du Quesnay, I. M. LeM. et al. (1977), ‘The End of the Aeneid’, Liverpool Classical Monthly, 139–43.

Dyson, J. T. (2001), King of the Wood: The Sacrificial Victor in Virgil’s Aeneid, Norman.

Edgeworth, R. J. (1978), ‘What Color Is “Ferrugineus”?’, Glotta 56, 297–305.

Edwards, C. (2007), Death in Ancient Rome, New Haven.

Egan, R. B. (1983), ‘Arms and Etymology in Aeneid 11’, Vergilius 29, 19–26.

Eidinow, E. (2016), ‘Popular Theologies: The Gift of Divine Envy’, in E. Eidinow, J. Kindt, and R. Osborne (eds.), Theologies of Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge, 205–32.

Erasmo, M. (2008), Reading Death in Ancient Rome, Columbus.

―. (2012), Death: Antiquity and its Legacy, London and New York.

Esposito, J. (2016), ‘Who Kills Turnus? “Pallas” and What Aeneas Sees, Says and Does in Aeneid 12.939–52’, Classical Journal 111, 463–81.

Fantham, E. (1999a), ‘Fighting Words: Turnus at Bay in the Latin Council (Aeneid 11.234–446)’, American Journal of Philology 120, 259–80.

―. (1999b), ‘The Role of Lament in the Growth and Death of Roman Epic’, in M. Beissinger, J. Tylus, and S. Wofford (eds.), Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: The Poetics of Community, Berkeley and London, 221–36.

Farney, G. D. (2007), Ethnic Identity and Aristocratic Competition in Republican Rome, Cambridge.

Farron, S. (1985), ‘Aeneas’ Human Sacrifice’, Acta Classica 38, 21–33.

Favro, D. and Johanson, C. (2010), ‘Death in Motion: Funeral Processions in the Roman Forum’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 69.1, 12–37.

Ferri, R. (2003), Octavia: A Play Attributed to Seneca, Cambridge.

Fletcher, K. F. B. (2014), Finding Italy: Travel, Nation and Colonization in Vergil’s Aeneid, Ann Arbor.

Flower, H. I. (1996), Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture, Oxford.

Fontaine, M. (2016), ‘Freudian Bullseyes in Classical Perspective: The Psycholinguistics of Guilt in Virgil’s Aeneid’, in P. Mitsis and I. Ziogas (eds.), Wordplay and Powerplay in Latin Poetry, Berlin and Boston, 131–50.

Fowler, D. P. (1987), ‘Virgil on Killing Virgins’, in M. Whitby, P. Hardie, and M. Whitby (eds.), Homo Viator: Classical Essays for John Bramble, Bristol and Oak Partk, IL, 185–98.

―. (1989), ‘First Thoughts on Closure’, Materiali e Discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 22, 75–122.

Fratantuono, L. (2004), ‘Harum unam: Dido’s Requiem for Pallas’, Latomus 63, 857–63.

―. (2005), ‘Posse putes: Virgil’s Camilla and Ovid’s Atalanta’, Collection Latomus: Studies in Latin Literature and History XII, 185–93.

―. (2006), ‘Ut videre Camillam: The Nachleben of Reckless Heroism’, Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 48.2, 287–308.

―. (2007a), Madness Unchained: A Reading of Virgil’s Aeneid, Lanham.

―. (2007b), ‘Virgil’s Camilla’, Athenaeum 95, 271–86.

―. (2009), A Commentary on Virgil, Aeneid XI, Brussels.

Fratantuono, L. M. and Smith, R. A. (2015), Aeneid 5: Text, Translation and Commentary, Leiden and Boston.

―. (2018), Virgil, Aeneid 8: Text, Translation, and Commentary, Leiden and Boston.

Freund, S. (2008), ‘Der Tod des Turnus und Homer. Überlegungen zum Schluss von Vergils Aeneis’, in S. Freund and M. Vielberg (eds.), Vergil und das antike Epos: Festschrift Hans Jürgen Tschiedel, Stuttgart, 67–84.

Frizzarin, A. (2016), Counterfactuals in the Aeneid, Doctoral Diss. London,

Fulkerson, L. (2008), ‘Patterns of Death in the Aeneid’, Scripta Classica Israelica 27, 17–33.

―. (2017), ‘The Vagaries of Hope in Vergil and Ovid’, in D. L. Cairns and D. Nelis (eds.), Emotions in the Classical World: Methods, Approaches, and Directions, Stuttgart, 207–30.

Garland, R. (2001), The Greek Way of Death, Ithaca.

Gaskin, R. (1994), ‘Aeneas Ultor and the Problem of Pietas’, Eirene 30, 70–96.

Gebhardt, U. C. J. (2009), Sermo Iuris: Rechtssprache und Recht in der augusteischen Dichtung, Leiden.

Gildenhard, I. (2007), ‘Virgil vs. Ennius – or: The Undoing of the Annalist’, in W. Fitzgerald and E. Gowers (eds.), Ennius perennis: The Annals and Beyond, Cambridge 2007, 73–102.

―. (2012), Virgil, Aeneid, 4.1–299: Latin Text, Study Questions, Commentary and Interpretative Essays, Cambridge. Frely available at

Gillis, D. (1983), Eros and Death in the Aeneid, Rome.

Gladhill, B. (2016), Rethinking Roman Alliance: A Study in Poetics and Society, Cambridge and New York.

Glucklich, A. (2001), Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul, Oxford.

Goldberg, S. M. (1995), Epic in Republican Rome, Oxford.

Gossrau, G. W. (1846), Publii Virgilii Maronis Aeneis in usum scholarum annotatione perpetua illustravit, Quedlinburg and Leipzig.

Gotoff, H. C. (1984), ‘The Transformation of Mezentius’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 114, 191–218.

Gransden, K. W. (1979), ‘Lente Currite Noctis Equi: Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde 3.1422–70, Donne, The Sun Rising and Ovid, Amores 1.13’, in D. West and T. Woodman (eds.), Creative Imitation in Latin Literature, Cambridge, 157–72.

―. (1991), Virgil Aeneid Book XI, Cambridge.

Green, R. P. H. (2006), Latin Epics of the New Testament: Juvencus, Sedulius, Arator, Oxford.

Green, S. J. (ed.) (2018), Grattius: Hunting an Augustan Poet, Oxford.

Griessmair, E. (1966), Das Motiv der mors immatura in den griechischen metrischen Grabinschriften, Innsbruck.

Gross, N. P. (2003–4), ‘Mantles Woven with Gold: Pallas’ Shroud and the End of the Aeneid’, The Classical Journal 99, 135–56.

Hainsworth, B. (1993), The Iliad: A Commentary. Volume III: books 9–12, Cambridge.

Hardie, P. (1994), Virgil, Aeneid IX, Cambridge.

―. (1997), ‘Closure in Latin Epic’, in D. H. Roberts, F. M. Dunn, and D. Fowler (eds.), Classical Closure: Reading the End in Greek and Latin Literature, Princeton, 139–62.

―. (1998), ‘Fame and Defamation in the Aeneid: the Council of Latins (Aen. 11.225–467)’, in H.-P. Stahl (ed.), Vergil’s Aeneid: Augustan Epic and Political Context, London, 243–70.

―. (2012), Rumour and Renown: Representations of Fama in Western Literature, Cambridge.

Harrison, R. P. (2003), The Dominion of the Dead, Chicago.

Harrison, S. J. (1991), Vergil Aeneid 10: With Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, Oxford.

Harrison, S. J. (2010), ‘Sermones deorum: Divine Discourse in Virgil’s Aeneid’, in E. Dickey and A. Chahoud (eds.), Colloquial and Literary Latin, Cambridge, 266–78.

Havener, W. (2016a), Imperator Augustus: Die diskursive Konstituierung der militärischen persona des ersten römischen princeps, Stuttgart.

―. (2016b), ‘Triumphus ex bello civili? Die Präsentation des Bürgerkriegssiegs im spätrepublikanischen Triumph’, in H. Börm, M. Mattheis, and J. Wienand (eds.), Civil War in Ancient Greece and Rome: Contexts of Disintegration and Reintegration, Stuttgart, 149–84.

Henderson, J. (1998), Fighting for Rome: Poets and Caesars, History and Civil War, Cambridge.

―. (2001a), Telling Tales on Caesar: Roman Stories from Phaedrus, Oxford.

―. (2001b), ‘Going to the Dogs: Grattius (and) the Augustan Subject’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 47, 1–22.

Henriksén, C. (2012), A Commentary on Martial, Epigrams Book 9, Oxford.

Henry, E. (1989), The Vigour of Prophecy: A Study of Virgil’s Aeneid, Carbondale and Edwardsville.

Hersch, K. K. (2010), The Roman Wedding: Ritual and Meaning in Antiquity, Cambridge.

Heuzé, P. (1985), L’Image du corps dans l’oeuvre de Virgile, Rome.

Heyworth, S. J. (2007), Cynthia: A Companion to the Text of Propertius, Oxford.

Highet, G. (1972), The Speeches in Vergil’s Aeneid, Princeton and London.

―. (1974), ‘Speech and Narrative in the Aeneid’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 78, 189–229.

Hinds, S. (1998), Allusion and Intertext: Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry, Cambridge.

Hine, H. (1987), ‘Aeneas and the Arts (Vergil, Aeneid 6.847–50)’, in M. Whitby, P. Hardie, and M. Whitby (eds.), Homo Viator: Classical Essays for John Bramble, Bristol and Oak Part, IL, 173–84.

Hölkeskamp, K.-J. (2004), ‘Fides – deditio in fidem – dextra data et accepta’, in Senatus populusque romanus: die politische Kultur der Republik, Stuttgart, 105–36.

Holst-Warhaft, G. (1992), Dangerous Voices: Women’s Lament and Greek Literature, London.

Holst-Warhaft, G. (2000), The Cue for Passion: Grief and its Political Uses, Cambridge, MA.

Hope, V. M. (2007), Death in Ancient Rome: A Source Book, London.

―. (2009), Roman Death. The Dying and the Dead in Ancient Rome, London.

Hopkins, K. (1983), Death and Renewal. Sociological Studies in Roman History, vol. 2, Cambridge.

Horsfall, N. (1971), ‘Numanus Remulus: Ethnography and Propaganda in “Aen”., ix, 598 f.’, Latomus 30, 1108–16.

―. (1982), ‘The Caudine Forks: Topography and Illusion’, Papers of the British School at Rome 50, 45–52.

―. (1988), ‘Camilla, o i limiti dell’invenzione’, Athenaeum 66, 31–51.

―. (2000), Virgil, Aeneid 7: A Commentary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne.

―. (2003), Virgil, Aeneid 11: A Commentary, Leiden and Boston.

―. (2016), The Epic Distilled: Studies in the Composition of the Aeneid, Oxford and New York.

James, S. L. (1995), ‘Establishing Rome with the Sword: condere in the Aeneid’, American Journal of Philology 116, 623–37.

Jameson, F. (1971), Marxism and Form: Twentieth-Century Dialectical Theories of Literature, Princeton.

Jamset, C. (2004), ‘Death-floration: The Eroticization of Death in the Thebaid’, Greece & Rome 51, 95–104.

Jehne, M. and Pfeilschifter, R. (eds.) (2006), Herrschaft ohne Integration? Rom und Italien in Republikanischer Zeit, Frankfurt a. M.

Jenkyns, R. (1989), ‘Virgil and Arcadia’, Journal of Roman Studies 79, 26–39.

―. (1998), Virgil’s Experience: Nature and History: Times, Names, and Places, Oxford.

Johnson, W. R. (1976), Darkness Visible: A Study of Vergil’s Aeneid, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

―. (2001), ‘Imaginary Romans: Vergil and the Illusion of National Identity’, in S. Spence (ed.), Poets and Critics Read Vergil, New Haven, 3–16.

Johnston, P. A. (2010), ‘Piety in Vergil and Philodemus’, in D. Armstrong, J. Fish, P. A. Johnston, and M. B. Skinner (eds.), Vergil, Philodemus, and the Augustans, Austin, 159–74.

Jones, P. J. (2005), Reading Rivers in Roman Literature and Culture, Lexington.

Joseph, T. (2012), Tacitus the Epic Successor: Virgil, Lucan, and the Narrative of Civil War in the Histories, Leiden.

Kaster, R. A. (2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, Oxford.

Katz, J. T. (2010), ‘Etymology’, in A Grafton, G. W. Most, and S. Settis (eds.), The Classical Tradition, Cambridge, MA, 342–45.

Kayachev, B. (2018), ‘Hunt as War and War as Hunt: Grattius’ Cynegetica and Virgil’s Aeneid’, S. J. Green (ed.), Grattius, Oxford, 97–114.

Keith, A. M. (2000), Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic, Cambridge.

Kennedy, D. F. (2012), ‘Love’s Tropes and Figures’, in B. K. Gold (ed.), A Companion to Roman Love Elegy, Malden and Oxford, 189–203.

Kepple, L. R. (1976), Arruns and the Death of Aeneas’, American Journal of Philology 97, 344–60.

King, B. J. (2013), How Animals Grieve, Chicago.

King, M. (2000), ‘Commemoration of Infants on Roman Funerary Inscriptions’, in G. J. Oliver (ed.), The Epigraphy of Death: Studies in the History and Society of Greece and Rome, Liverpool, 117–54.

Kinsey, T. E. (1979), ‘The Meaning of interea in Virgil’s Aeneid’, Glotta 57.3/4, 259–65.

Knauer, G. N. (1964/1979), Die Aeneis und Homer. Studien zur poetischen Technik Vergils mit Listen der Homer-Zitate in der Aeneis, Göttingen (2nd edn 1979).

―. (1964/1990), ‘Vergil’s Aeneid and Homer’, in S. J. Harrison (ed.), Oxford Readings in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford, 390–412 [reprinted from Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 5, 1964, 61–84].

Knox, B. (1966), ‘The Serpent and the Flame’, in S. Commager (ed.), Virgil: A Collection of Critical Essays, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 123–42.

Konrad, C. F. (2004), ‘Vellere Signa’, in C. F. Konrad (ed.) Augusto Augurio: Rerum Humanarum Et Divinarum Commentationes in Honorem Jerzy Linderski, Stuttgart, 169–203.

Köves-Zulauf, T. (1978), ‘Camilla’, Gymnasium 85, 182–205 and 408–36.

Kraggerud, E. (2016), Vergiliana: Critical Studies on the Texts of Publius Vergilius Maro, Abingdon.

Kronenberg, L. J. (2005), ‘Mezentius the Epicurean’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 135, 403–31.

La Penna, A. (1988), ‘Gli archetipi epici di Camilla’, Maia 40, 228–50.

Laird, A. (1999), Powers of Expression, Expressions of Power: Speech Presentation and Latin Literature, Oxford.

Lange, C. H. (2008), ‘Civil War in the Res Gestae Divi Augusti: Conquering the World and Fighting a War at Home’, in E. Bragg, L. I. Hau, and E. Macaulay-Lewis (eds.), Beyond the Battlefields: New Perspectives on Warfare and Society in the Graeco-Roman World, Cambridge, 185–204.

―. (2013), ‘Triumph and Civil War in the Late Republic’, Papers of the British School of Rome 81, 67–90.

―. (2018), Triumphs in the Age of Civil War: The Late Republic and the Adaptability of Triumphal Tradition, London.

Lanzilotta, L. R. (2010), ‘The so-called Envy of the Gods: Revisiting a Dogma of Ancient Greek Religion’, in J. Dijkstra, J. Kroesen, and Y. Kuiper (eds.), Myths, Martyrs, and Modernity: Studies in the History of Religions in Honour of Jan N. Bremmer, Leiden and Boston, 75–93.

Lausberg, M. (1970), Untersuchungen zu Senecas Fragmenten, Berlin.

Lavan, M. (2017), ‘Peace and Empire: pacare, pacatus, and the Language of Roman Imperialism’, in E. P. Moloney and M. S. Williams (eds.) (2017), Peace and Reconciliation in the Classical World, London, 102–14.

Leach, E. W. (2006), ‘Freedmen and Immortality in the Tomb of the Haterii’, in E. D’Ambra and G. Metraux (eds.), The Art of Citizens, Soldiers and Freedmen in the Roman World, Oxford, 1–18.

Lloyd-Jones, H. (1971), The Justice of Zeus, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

Lomas, K. (2012), ‘The Weakest Link: Elite Social Networks in Republican Italy’, in S. T. Roselaar (ed.), Processes of Integration and Identity Formation in the Roman Republic, Leiden and Boston, 197–214.

Loraux, N. (1986), The Invention of Athens: the Funeral Oration in the Classical City, Cambridge, MA.

Lott, J. B. (2012), Death and Dynasty in Early Imperial Rome: Key Sources, with Text, Translation, and Commentary, Cambridge.

Lowrie, M. (2005–2006), ‘Vergil and Founding Violence’, Cardozo Law Review 27.2, 945–76.

Lyne, R. O. A. M. (1989), Words and the Poet: Characteristic Techniques of Style in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford.

―. (1983), ‘Virgil and the Politics of War’, Classical Quarterly 33, 188–203 [reprinted in S. J. Harrison (ed.), Oxford Readings in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford 1990, 316–38 and R. O. A. M. Lyne and S. J. Harrison (eds.), R. O. A. M. Lyne: Collected Papers on Latin Poetry, Oxford 2007, 115–35].

―. (2007), Collected Papers on Latin Poetry, Oxford.

Mackail, J. W. (1930), The Aeneid of Virgil, Edited with Introduction and Commentary, Oxford.

Mackie, C. J. (1984), Speech and Narrative: Characterisation Techniques in the Aeneid, Doctoral Diss. Glasgow.

Maclennan, K. (ed.) (2003), Virgil Aeneid VI, London.

Matzner, S. (2016), Rethinking Metonymy: Literary Theory and Poetic Practice from Pindar to Jakobson, Oxford.

McAuley, M. (2016), Reproducing Rome. Motherhood in Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, and Statius, Oxford.

McDermott, W. C. (1980), ‘Drances–Cicero’, Vergilius 26, 34–38.

McGill, S. (2016), Juvencus’ Four Books of the Gospels: Evangeliorum Libri Quattuor, Abingdon and New York.

―. (2018), ‘Minus opus moveo: Verse Summaries of Virgil in the Anthologia Latina’, in M. Formisano and C. Shuttleworth Kraus (eds.), Marginality, Canonicity, Passion, Oxford, 263–86.

Mendelsohn, D. (2018), ‘Is the Aeneid a Celebration of Empire – or a Critique?’, The New Yorker, 15 October 2018,

Merriam, C. U. (2002), ‘Storm Warning: Ascanius’ Appearances in the Aeneid’, Latomus 61.4, 852–60.

Metcalf, P. and Huntington, R. (1991), Celebrations of Death. The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual, 2nd edn, Cambridge.

Millar, F. (1995), ‘The Last Century of the Republic: Whose History?’, Journal of Roman Studies 85, 236–43.

Miller, J. F. (2009), Apollo, Augustus, and the Poets, Cambridge.

Monti, R. C. (1981), The Dido Episode and the Aeneid: Roman Social and Political Values in the Epic, Leiden.

Morris, I. (1992), Death Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge.

Moskalew, W. (1982), Formulaic Language and Poetic Design in the Aeneid, Leiden.

Murgatroyd, P. (2009), A Commentary on Book 4 of Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, Leiden and Boston.

Nelis, D. (2001), Vergil’s Aeneid and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius, Wiltshire.

Nethercut, W. R. (1974), ‘Snakes in the Aeneid’, Vergilius 20, 20–23.

Neuhauser, W. (1958), patronus und orator. Eine Geschichte der Begriffe von ihren Anfängen bis in die augusteische Zeit, Innsbruck.

Newman, J. K. (1967), Augustus and the New Poetry, Brussels.

―. (1986), The Classical Epic Tradition, Madison.

Newman, J. K. and Newman, F. S. (2005), Troy’s Children: Lost Generations in Virgil’s Aeneid, Zurich and New York.

Nielsen, H. S. (1997), ‘Interpreting Epithets in Roman Epitaphs’, in B. Rawson and P. Weaver (eds.), The Roman Family in Italy: Status, Sentiment, Space, Oxford, 169–204.

Nielson, K. P. (1983), ‘The Tropaion in the Aeneid’, Vergilius 29, 27–33.

―. (1984), ‘Tarchon Etruscus: Alter Aeneas’, Pacific Coast Philology 19, 28–34.

Nisbet, R. G. M. (1990), ‘Aeneas imperator: Roman Generalship in an Epic Context’, in S. J. Harrison (ed.), Oxford Readings in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford, 378–89 [reprinted from Proceedings of the Virgil Society 18 (1978–80), 50–61].

Noreña, C. F. (2001), ‘The Communication of the Emperor’s Virtues’, Journal of Roman Studies 91, 146–68.

―. (2011), Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power, Cambridge.

Nussbaum, A. J. (1973), ‘Ennian Laurentis Terra’, in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 77, 207–15.

Oakley, S. P. (1985), ‘Single Combat in the Roman Republic’, Classical Quarterly 35, 392–410.

Ochs, D. J. (1993), Consolatory Rhetoric: Grief, Symbol, and Ritual in the Greco-Roman Era, Columbia.

O’Hara, J. J. (1990), Death and the Optimistic Prophecy in Vergil’s Aeneid, Princeton.

―. (1996/2016), True Names: Vergil and the Alexandrian Tradition of Etymological Wordplay, New and Expanded Edition, Ann Arbor.

Oliensis, E. (1997), ‘Sons and Lovers: Sexuality and Gender in Virgil’s Poetry’, in C. Martindale (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Virgil, Cambridge, 294–311.

Owen Lee, M. (1979), Fathers and Sons in Virgil’s Aeneid: Tum Genitor Natum, Albany.

Page, T. E. (1909), The Aeneid of Virgil, Books VII–XII, with Introduction and Notes, London.

Panoussi, V. (2009), Vergil’s Aeneid and Greek Tragedy: Ritual, Empire, and Intertext, Cambridge.

Paschalis, M. (1997), Virgil’s Aeneid: Semantic Relations and Proper Names, Oxford.

―. (2018), ‘“uestras spes uritis”: Hope and Empire in Virgil’s Aeneid’, in G. Kazantzidis and D. Spatharas (eds.), Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art, Berlin and Boston, 171–82.

Patterson, J. R. (2006a), ‘The Relationship of the Italian Ruling Classes with Rome: Friendship, Family Relations and their Consequences’, in M. Jehne and R. Pfeilschifter (eds.), Herrschaft ohne Integration? Rom und Italien in Republikanischer Zeit, Frankfurt a. M., 139–53.

―. (2006b), ‘Rome and Italy’, in N. Rosenstein and R. Morstein-Marx (eds.), A Companion to the Roman Republic, Malden and Oxford, 606–24.

―. (2012), ‘Contact, Co-operation, and Conflict in Pre-Social War Italy’, in S. T. Roselaar (ed.), Process of Integration and Identity Formation in the Roman Republic, Leiden and Boston, 215–26.

Petrini, M. (1997), The Child and the Hero: Coming of Age in Catullus and Vergil, Ann Arbor.

Poccetti, P. (2010), ‘Greeting and Farewell Expressions’, in E. Dickey and A. Chahoud (eds.), Colloquial and Literary Latin, Cambridge, 100–26.

Pogorzelski, R. J. (2009), ‘The “Reassurance of Fratricide” in the Aeneid’, American Journal of Philology 130, 261–89.

Powell, A. (2008), Virgil the Partisan: A Study in the Re-Integration of Classics, Swansea.

Prayon, F. (2004), ‘Reditus ad maiores. Ein Aspekt etruskischer Jenseitsvorstellungen’, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 111, 45–67.

Putnam, M. C. J. (1995), Virgil’s Aeneid: Interpretation and Influence, Chapel Hill and London.

―. (1998), Virgil’s Epic Designs: Ekphrasis in the Aeneid, New Haven and London.

―. (2004), Maffeo Vegio, Short Epics, edited and translated, Cambridge, MA and London.

Pyy, E. (2010), ‘Decus Italiae Virgo: Virgil’s Camilla and the Formation of Romanitas’, Arctos 44, 181–203.

Rebert, H. F. (1928), ‘The Felicity of Infelix in Virgil’s Aeneid’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 59, 57–71.

Reckford, K. J. (2012), ‘Some Trees in Virgil and Tolkien’, in G. K. Galinsky (ed.), Perspectives of Roman Poetry: A Classics Symposium, Austin and London, 57–92.

Reed, J. A. (2006), ‘Ardebat Laena (Aeneid 4.262)’, Vergilius 52, 55–75.

Reed, J. D. (2009), Virgil’s Gaze: Nation and Poetry in the Aeneid, Princeton.

Richardson, L. (1933), ‘Virgil, Aeneid XI. 154–57’, Classical Review 47, 6.

Rivero García, L. and Librán Moreno, M. (2011), ‘New Light on Virgil’s Mezentius: A New Homeric Model and Etymological Wordplay’, Paideia 66, 457–89.

Robben, A. C. G. M. (ed.) (2009), Death, Mourning, and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader, Malden and Oxford.

Roberts, D. H., Dunn, F. M., and Fowler, D. (eds.) (1997), Classical Closure: Reading the End in Greek and Latin Literature, Princeton.

Rogerson, A. (2017), Virgil’s Ascanius: Imagining the Future in the Aeneid, Cambridge.

Roller, L. (1999), In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele, Berkeley.

Rosati, G. (2017), ‘Euander’s Curse and the “Long Death” of Mezentius (VERG. AEN. 8.483–488, 10.845–850)’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 109, 377–82.

Roselaar, S. T. (ed.) (2012), Processes of Integration and Identity Formation in the Roman Republic, Leiden and Boston.

Rossi, A. (2004), Contexts of War: Manipulation of Genre in Virgilian Battle Narrative, Ann Arbor.

Rüpke, J. and Scheid, J. (eds.) (2009), Bestattungsrituale und Totenkult in der römischen Kaiserzeit/Rites funéraires et culte des morts aux temps imperials, Stuttgart.

Rüpke, J. (2014), Religion: Antiquity and its Legacy, London and New York.

Salmon, E. T. (1982), The Making of Roman Italy, Ithaca.

Sangmeister, U. (1978), Die Ankündigung direkter Rede im nationalen Epos der Römer, Meisenheim am Glan.

Saunders, C. (1925), ‘Creation and Inhumation in the Aeneid’, American Journal of Philology 46, 352–7.

―. (1940), ‘Sources of the Names of Trojans and Italians’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 71, 537–55.

Sayce, O. (2008), Exemplary Comparison from Homer to Petrarch, Cambridge.

Scheid, J. (1984), ‘Contraria facere: Renversements et déplacements dans les rites funérarires’, AION 6, 117–39.

Schmidt, E. A. (1997), ‘Vergil und episches Holzfällen: Zu einer unerkannten Technik poetischer Verdichtung’, Hyperboreus 3, 57–81.

Scholz, U. W. (1999), ‘Drances’, Hermes 127.4, 455–66.

Schönberger, O. (1966), ‘Camilla’, Antike & Abendland 12, 180–88.

Scott, J. C. (1990), Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts, New Haven.

Seaford, R. (2012), Cosmology and the Polis: The Social Construction of Space and Time in the Tragedies of Aeschylus, Cambridge.

Seider, A. (2013), Memory in Virgil’s Aeneid: Creating the Past, Cambridge.

Sharrock, A. and Morales, H. (eds.) (2000), Intratextuality: Greek and Roman Textual Relations, Oxford.

Sharrock, A. (2015), ‘Warrior Women in Latin Epic’, in J. Fabre-Serris and A. Keith (eds.), Women & War in Antiquity, Baltimore, 157–78.

Shaw, B. D. (1991), ‘The Cultural Meaning of Death: Age and Gender in the Roman Family’, in D. I. Kertzer and R. P. Saller (eds.), The Family in Italy from Antiquity to the Present, New Haven and London, 66–90.

Sidnell, P. (2007), Warhorse: Cavalry in Ancient Warfare, London and New York.

Smith, R. A. (2005), The Primacy of Vision in Virgil’s Aeneid, Austin.

Sourvinou-Inwood, C. (1996), ‘Reading’ Greek Death: To the End of the Classical Period, Oxford.

Spence, S. (1999), ‘The Polyvalence of Pallas in the Aeneid’, Arethusa 32, 149–63.

Springer, C. P. E. (1987), ‘The Last Line of the Aeneid’, Classical Journal 82, 310–13.

Stahl, H.-P. (1990), ‘The Death of Turnus: Augustan Vergil and the Political Rival’, in K. A. Raaflaub and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 174–211.

―. (2016), Poetry Underpinning Power: Vergil’s Aeneid – The Epic for Emperor Augustus, Swansea.

Stephens, V. G. (1990), ‘Like a Wolf in the Fold: Animal Imagery in Vergil’, Illinois Classical Studies 15, 107–30.

Stover, T. (2011), ‘Aeneas and Lausus: Killing the Double and Civil War in Aeneid 10’, Phoenix 65, 352–60.

Sullivan, T. M. (2009), ‘Death ante ora parentum in Virgil’s Aeneid’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 139, 447–86.

Syed, Y. (2005), Virgil’s Aeneid and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse, Ann Arbor.

Tarlow, S. (1999), Bereavement and Commemoration: An Archaeology of Mortality, Oxford.

Tarrant, R. (2012), Virgil Aeneid Book XII, Cambridge.

Tatum, J. (2003), The Mourner’s Song: War and Remembrance from the Iliad to Vietnam, Chicago.

Taylor, L. (2011), ‘Mourning Becomes Etruria. Ritual Performance and Iconography in the Seventh and Sixth Centuries’, Etruscan Studies. Journal of the Etruscan Foundation 14, 39–54.

Theodorakopoulos, E. (1997), ‘Closure: The Book of Virgil’, in C. Martindale (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Virgil, Cambridge, 155–65.

Thome, G. (1979), Gestalt und Funktion des Mezentius bei Vergil – mit einem Ausblick auf die Schlußszene der Aeneis, Frankfurt a. M. et al.

Thomas, R. F. (1999), Reading Virgil and His Texts: Studies in Intertextuality, Ann Arbor.

―. (2001), Virgil and the Augustan Reception, Cambridge.

Thomson de Grummond, N. and Simon, E. (2006), The Religion of the Etruscans, Austin.

Toynbee, J. M. C. (1971), Death and Burial in the Roman World, Ithaca.

Treggiari, S. (1991), Roman Marriage. Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian, Oxford.

Trundle, M. (2013), ‘Commemorating Victory in Classical Greece: Why Greek Tropaia?’, in A. Spalinger and J. Armstrong, J. (eds.), Rituals of Triumph in the Mediterranean World, Leiden and Boston, 123–38.

Untersteiner, M., W. Lapini and V. Citti (2002), Eschilo: Le Coefore (testo, traduzione e commento), Amsterdam.

Vandiver, E. (2010), Stand in the Trench, Achilles: Classical Receptions in British Poetry of the Great War, Oxford.

Viparelli, V. (2008), ‘Camilla: A Queen Undefeated, Even in Death’, Vergilius 54, 9–23.

Walcot, P. (1978), Envy and the Greeks, Warminster.

Walsh, P. G. (2010), Augustine De Civitate Dei (The City of God) Books VI & VII, edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary, Padstow.

Weinstock, S. (1960), ‘Pax and the “Ara Pacis”’, Journal of Roman Studies 50, 44–58.

West, D. (1969), ‘Multiple Correspondence Similes in the Aeneid’, Journal of Roman Studies 59, 40–49.

―. (1974), ‘The Deaths of Hector and Turnus’, Greece & Rome 21, 21–31.

―. (1990), Virgil, The Aeneid: A New Prose Translation, London.

West, G. S. (1985), ‘Chloreus and Camilla’, Vergilius 31, 22–29.

Whaley, J. (ed.) (1981), Mirrors of Mortality. Studies in the Social History of Death, London, 15–39.

Whitton, C. (2013), Pliny the Younger, Epistles Book II, Cambridge.

Williams, C. A. (2012), Reading Roman Friendship, Cambridge.

Williams, G. (1968), Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry, Oxford.

―. (1983), Techniques and Ideas in the Aeneid, New Haven and London.

Wills, J. (1996), Repetition in Latin Poetry: Figures of Allusion, Oxford.

Wiltshire, S. F. (1989), Public and Private in Vergil’s Aeneid, Amherst.

Woolf, G. (1993), ‘Roman Peace’, in J. W. Rich and G. Shipley (eds.), War and Society in the Roman World, London, 171–94.

―. (1994), ‘Becoming Roman, Staying Greek: Culture, Identity and the Civilising Process in the Roman East’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Association 40, 116–43.

Worstbrock, F. J. (1963), Elemente einer Poetik der Aeneis: Untersuchungen zum Gattungsstil Vergilianischer Epik, Münster.

Xinyue, B. (2017), ‘Imperatrix and bellatrix: Cicero’s Clodia and Vergil’s Camilla’, in D. Campanile, F. Carlà-Uhink, and M. Facella (eds.), TransAntiquity: Cross-Dressing and Transgender Dynamics in the Ancient World, London and New York, 164–78,