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© Deborah Willis, Ellyn Toscano and Kalia Brooks Nelson

Copyright of individual chapters is maintained by the chapters’ authors.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the text; to adapt the text and to make commercial use of the text providing attribution is made to the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:

Deborah Willis, Ellyn Toscano and Kalia Brooks Nelson (eds.), Women and Migration: Responses in Art and History. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2019,

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit,

Further details about CC BY licenses are available at

All external links were active at the time of publication unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at

Updated digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at

Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher.

ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-565-4

ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-566-1

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-567-8

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-78374-568-5

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-78374-569-2

ISBN Digital (XML): 978-1-78374-674-3

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0153

Cover image: Sama Alshaibi, Sabkhat al-Mil (Salt Flats) 2014, from the ‘Silsila’ series,Chromogenic print mounted on Diasec, 47' diameter. © Sama Alshaibi and Ayyam Gallery.

Cover design: Anna Gatti.

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative), PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC® certified).