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List of Illustrations

Chapter 3

3.1

Nikolaĭ Mogili͡anskiĭ upon his return from Paris with the employees of the Mobile Museum of Teaching Aids, St Petersburg, 1898 (GARF R-5787-1-6-83; GARF R-5787-1-6-84). © State Archive of the Russian Federation, Moscow.

80

3.2

Portrait of Ėduard Petri. Photographer unknown. Ezhegodnik Russkogo antropologicheskogo obshchestva, vol. 4, 1913, insert 2.

81

3.3

Portrait of Dmitriĭ Koropchevskiĭ. Photographer unknown. Ezhegodnik Russkogo antropologicheskogo obshchestva, vol. 4, 1913, insert 2.

83

3.4

Fëdor Kondratievich Volkov (RĖM IM9-93). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

90

3.5

Fëdor Volkov during his lessons with students in the Cabinet of Geography and Ethnography, St Petersburg University (SPF ARAN 1004-1-467: 1). © St Petersburg Filial of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

101

3.6

A village. Russians, Kaluga gubernii͡a. Photo by Nikolaĭ M. Mogili͡anskiĭ, 1903 (RĖM 758-12). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

113

3.7

A view of the sloboda “Bugor”. Russians, Tula gubernii͡a. Photo by Nikolaĭ M. Mogili͡anskiĭ, 1902 (RĖM 757-2). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

113

3.8

An izba, covered with reeds. Ukrainians. Bessarabskai͡a gubernii͡a. Photo by Nikolaĭ M. Mogili͡anskiĭ, 1906 (RĖM 851-3). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

114

3.9

“A khata”. Ukrainians of the Volynskai͡a gubernii͡a. Photo by Fëdor K. Volkov, 1907 (RĖM 3747-43). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

115

3.10

“A street”. Ukrainians of the Volynskai͡a gubernii͡a. Photo by Fëdor K. Volkov, 1907. RĖM 3747-64. © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

115

3.11

“Types of the Ukrainian population: a) Psarovka, Chernigovskai͡a gubernii͡a (slightly mongolised), b) Kroveletskiĭ uezd, Chernigovskai͡a gubernii͡a, c) Obruchskiĭ uezd, Volynskai͡a gubernii͡a, d) Pavlogradskiĭ”. Fëdor K. Volkov, M. S. Grushevskiĭ, N. Kovalevskiĭ, et al., Ukrainskiĭ narod v ego proshlom i nastoi͡ashchem (Petrograd: tipografii͡a tovarichshestva “Obshchestvennai͡a pol’za”, 1914–16), p. 400.

120

3.12

Nikolaĭ M. Mogili͡anskiĭ near the hotel Graf in Prague, 1926 (GARF R-5787-1-16a-9v). © State Archive of the Russian Federation, Moscow.

129

3.13

Nikolaĭ M. Mogili͡anskiĭ. Prague, 1926 (GARF R-5787-1-16a-11). © State Archive of the Russian Federation, Moscow.

129

Chapter 4

4.1

A group of the employees of the Ethnographic Department of the Russian Museum in Starai͡a Ladoga, 1908–1910 (RĖM IM9-129-1). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

151

4.2

A group of Russian ethnographers, anthropologists, and orientalists, prior to 1917 (RĖM IM9-193). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

153

4.3

Bashkir questionnaire, p. 1 (NA RGO 24-1-72-111). © Research Archive of the Russian Geographical Society, St Petersburg.

157

4.4

The Members of the Upper Volga expedition among peasants. I͡aroslavskai͡a gubernia, 1922–1925 (RĖM IM12-83). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

162

4.5

A card for the record of anthropological measurements published by the IRGO in 1914 (NA RGO 48-1-223-1). © Research Archive of the Russian Geographical Society, St Petersburg.

163

4.6

A drawing by A. L. Kolobaev of Z. P. Malinovskai͡a, taking measurements of a peasant woman during an expedition to the Rybinskai͡a gubernia in 1922 (RĖM IМ14-1/19). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

163

4.7

“The Map of the Hair Colour of the Ukrainian Population” ‘Antropologicheskie osobennosti ukrainskogo naroda’, in Ukrainskiĭ narod v ego proshlom i nastoi͡ashchem, ed. by Fëdor K. Volkov, M. S. Grushevskiĭ, M. M. Kovalevskiĭ, et al. (Petrograd: Tip. tov-va “Obshchestvennai͡a pol’za”, 1916), p. 432.

165

4.8

David Alekseevich Zolotarëv, 1929 (RĖM IM9-185). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

171

4.9

Sergeĭ Ivanovich Rudenko (RĖM IM9-131). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

176

4.10

A Bashkir from Orenburgskai͡a gubernii͡a, Troitskiĭ uezd. 1912. Photo by Sergeĭ I. Rudenko (RĖM 3935-15 a, b). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

178

4.11

A Bashkir from Orenburgskai͡a gubernii͡a, Cheli͡abinskiĭ uezd. 1912. Photo by Sergeĭ I. Rudenko (RĖM 3935-31 a, b). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

179

4.12

A family in a kosh. Orenburgskai͡a gubernii͡a, Cheli͡abinskiĭ uezd. 1912. Photo by Sergeĭ I. Rudenko (RĖM 3935-163a). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

179

4.13

Sergeĭ I. Rudenko’s map of the division of the Bashkirs into regions by cultural (bytovye) elements (Rudenko 1925).

182

4.14

The Employees of the Ethnographic Department of the Russian Museum on the museum’s stairs, c. 1920s. (RĖM IM9-7-1). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

186

4.15

Sergeĭ I. Rudenko and David A. Zolotarëv with members of the Upper Volga expedition in folk clothes. I͡aroslavskai͡a or Tverskai͡a gubernii, 1922–1925 (RĖM IM 12-92). © Russian Ethnographic Museum, St Petersburg.

187

Chapter 5

5.1

Elizaveta Shirokogoroff posing in the forests around Tyksyr, 1912 (EVR).

205

5.2

Topographical Map of Zabaĭkal’e illustrating the routes of the two field expeditions of Sergei and Elizaveta Shirokogoroff in 1912 and 1913. Map by Alessandro Pasquini.

209

5.3

Orochen Gorbun as a subject of anthropometric photography in the village of Tyksyr. Photo by Sergei Shirokogoroff (MAĖ 2002-54). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

212

5.4

An Orochen above-ground burial, likely for a child, near the settlement of Tyksyr. Photo by Sergei Shirokogoroff (MAĖ 2002–12). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

213

5.5

A portrait of the local Tungus guide “Mélange”. © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

217

5.6

Table of anthropometric qualities distinguishing type A and type B (SPF ARAN 849-6-806 249). © St Petersburg Filial of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

218

5.7

“Type Beta”: Two unidentified Buri͡at men posing at the steppe at Naryn Talacha (MAĖ 2002–64). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

218

5.8

“Type Alpha”: Tungus Afanasiĭ with his wife and another unidentified relative posing at their home in Torgakon (MAĖ 2002–81). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

219

5.9

“Type Gamma”: Photograph from Tyksyr (MAĖ 2002–42). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

220

5.10

Sergei Shirokogoroff at home. St Petersburg. Before 1917 (EVR).

223

5.11

A “formal reception” but perhaps a wedding photograph taken during the 1912 expedition in the village of Naryn Talacha in June (Fragment MAĖ 2002–66). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

225

5.12

A handwritten table in Shirokogoroff’s manuscript on the ethnography of the Orochens demonstrating how official Tsarist administrative units break up into living clan groupings (SPF ARAN 849-6-806: 29v). © St Petersburg Filial of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

229

5.13

Detailed photograph of a Tungus “elk” shaman and his costume taken at Naryn-Talacha probably on 7 June 1912 (MAĖ 2002–58). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

232

5.14a

The ethnical equilibrium as represented in S. M. Shirokogoroff, The Psychomental Complex of the Tungus (London: Kegan Paul, 1935), p. 15.

235

5.14b

The “actual interethnical value” [valence] as represented in Ethnical Unit and Milieu: A Summary of the Ethnos (Shanghai: E. Evans, 1924), p. 15.

235

5.15

Table IV and VI from S. M. Shirokogoroff, The Psychomental Complex of the Tungus (London: Kegan Paul, 1935), p. 36.

237

Chapter 6

6.1

Sergei Shirokogoroff as a member of the Primorskiĭ parliament (MRC: unnumbered). © Museum of Russian Culture, San Francisco, California.

251

6.2

Sergei Shirokogoroff and Elizaveta Robinson, 1906 (EVR).

254

6.3

Sergei Shirokogoroff with Elizaveta’s family, June 1911 (EVR).

255

6.4

Elizaveta Robinson in Paris (EVR).

256

6.5

Political leaflet. Vladivostok [1921] (MRC: unnumbered). © Museum of Russian Culture, San Francisco, California.

272

6.6

Sergei Shirokogoroff working with one of his students, China (EVR).

277

6.7

The Beiping anti-communist committee. From Ivan I. Serebrennikov’s collection (HILA 1A/5: 40). © Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University, California.

281

Chapter 7

7.1a

Gě Jùn Gǔ and herders of Ewenki Camp 1. Photo by Jocelyne Dudding, Áolǔgǔ yā, 16 April 2014.

294

7.1b

“Petr Ivanovich’s daughter and daughter-in-law riding reindeer to look for lost deer. Holding long sticks = Tiawun used for mounting the deer”. Photo by Ethel Lindgren, Ulugit River, 24 June 1932 (MAA P.78208.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

294

7.2

“Ceremonial welcoming of guests” with Elizaveta and Sergei Shirokogoroff at the centre. Photographer unknown, Akima River, tributary of the Nercha River, October 1912 (MAĖ 2002-66). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

298

7.3

Shirokogoroffs’ expedition routes in Siberia and former Northwest Manchuria, 1915–1916. Map by Aleksei G. Akulov.

298

7.4a

7.4b

“An Orochen man (Bagadarin) (F.)” and “An Orochen man (translator Pavel) (Pr.)”. Photo by Elizaveta and Sergei Shirokogoroff, Akima River, tributary of the Nercha River, October 1912 (MAĖ 2002-44 and 2002-37). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

299

7.5

“Old man Antyrov with his wife and daughter at their yurt”. Photo by Elizaveta and Sergei Shirokogoroff, Akima River, tributary of the Nercha River, October 1912 (MAĖ 2002-70). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

300

7.6

“Orochen equestrians”. Identified as “Administrative heads among the Orochen population” in 2638-78. Photo by Elizaveta or Sergei Shirokogoroff, Radde, Upper Amur basin, 1915–1916 (MAĖ 2638-55b). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

301

7.7

The genres of photography undertaken by Elizaveta and Sergei Shirokogoroff, 1912–1917. Graph by Jocelyne Dudding.

303

7.8

“Man (?) with two dogs outside a tent”. Elizaveta with the camp dogs and their tents in the background. Photo by Sergei Shirokogoroff, Priamurskiĭ Kraĭ, 2015 (MAĖ 2500-8). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

304

7.9

“A female shaman (in traditional dress with her drum)”. Photo by Elizaveta Shirokogoroff, Orochen compound, Upper Amur basin, 1915–1916 (MAĖ 2638-23). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

305

7.10

“Transbaĭkal Orochon woman (Collection of the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography)”. Reproduced in M. A. Czaplicka, Aboriginal Siberia: A Study in Social Anthropology (Oxford: Clarendon, 1914), plate 13. Originally entitled “Woman (front)” (MAĖ 2002-39). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

307

7.11

Mrs Erdongua listening to and then singing the lullaby recorded by Elizaveta Shirokogoroff in 1912. Photo by Bǎohuà, 2 April 2015. Wax cylinder, Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House) (FV 3276).

309

7.12

Lindgren and Mamen’s expedition routes in former Northwest Manchuria, 1929–1932 (author’s highlighting) (MAA MN0082). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

310

7.13

“E. J bartering at our camp with R. T. woman, Listvi͡anai͡a, near Bystrai͡a River”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 30 May 1932 (MAA N.23911.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

312

7.14

“Khavan examines movie, Elingui”. Photo by Ethel Lindgren, 27 August 1931 (MAA N.40453.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

313

7.15

Olga Dmitrievna riding reindeer held by her husband, Nikolaĭ Larionovich. Ochilda, Upper Bystrai͡a. Note Mamen’s tent in the background. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 29 November 1931 (MAA N.23654.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

315

7.16

“Meeting the 1st R.T. on Ulugicha River”. Nikolaĭ Ivanovich Kokeroff [Kokarov] with Lindgren at their joint camp. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 25 July 1929 (MAA N.126084.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

315

7.17

“Three Tungus hunters from behind, Mid Martielkoi, Barga, N. Manchuria”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 27 November 1931 (MAA N.23611.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

316

7.18

“3 women & 2 little girls, Omul-ail (W)”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 23 May 1929 (MAA N.39838.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

317

7.19

The genres of photography undertaken by Oscar Mamen and Ethel Lindgren, 1929, 1931–1932. Graph by Jocelyne Dudding.

318

7.20

“Alekseĭ Filippovich Kaĭgorodov”, identified as “Trader B.” in Lindgren’s doctoral thesis. Photo by Oscar Mamen, Muchikan, 14 August 1929 (MAA N.21765.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

319

7.21a

“Types of Amur River Orochen”. A mounted board from Shirokogoroff’s Printed Collection. Photo by Sergei Shirokogoroff, likely July 1915. Orochens: Likely Bystrai͡a River camp (MAĖ 2639-219 and 2369-220). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

321

7.21b

“Numinchen” and “Kumarchen – Garsand, living among the Numinchen”. A mounted board from the MAA’s Teaching Collection and related catalogue card. Photos by Oscar Mamen, Imin River, 21 March 1932 (MAA P.5891.ACH1 and P.5892.ACH1). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

321

7.22

Āntè Bù holding a portrait of her father, Piotr Buldorovskiĭ (MAA N.21681.LIN). Photo by Jocelyne Dudding, Áolǔgǔyā, September 2015.

325

7.23

Pingrui holding her “Dagur cradle & 3 months baby, Omul Ail”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 19 July 1931 (MAA P.10943.ACH1). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

326

7.24a

Old mother, daughter and grandchild, Ikhe Bebe (MAA N.40513.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

328

7.24b

Child in cradle: middle wigwam of East group, Ikhe Bebe. Photo by Ethel Lindgren, 1 September 1931 (MAA N.40504.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

328

7.25a

“Wampuzan, young girl, Ango Holis”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 22 March 1932 (MAA N.21652.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

329

7.25b

“Wampuyan calling others, Ango Holis”. Photo by Ethel Lindgren, 22 March 1932 (MAA N.80589.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

329

7.26

“Dialogue Across the Century” exhibition, Ewenki Museum, Nántún, July 2016. Photo by Jocelyne Dudding.

331

7.27

“Men in winter hunting costumes”. Photo by Sergei Shirokogoroff, Chita Region, June 1912 (MAĖ 2002-92). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

332

7.28

“[Reed] Wigwams & houses at the Orochen settlement at Öru Kere, Upper Yīmǐn River”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 20 March 1932 (MAA N.21615.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

334

7.29

“An Orochen residence in the forest”. Photo by Sergei Shirokorogoff, Autumn 1915. Orochens: Upper Amur basin, Manchuria (MAĖ 2638-69). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

336

7.30a

“Wife of In[n]okentiĭ Nikolaevich Buldotovskiĭ [Buldorovskiĭ?], with baby. Beremekan Camp”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 3 August 1929 (MAA N.21706.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

337

7.30b

“Valentina, daughter of Kostenkin [Konstantin] Kudrin, tied in her cradle preparatory to being packed on deer. Note block of ice for water on the left”. Photo by Ethel Lindgren, Martielkoi River, 27 November 1931 (MAA N.24479.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

337

7.31a

“Olga Dmitrievna dressed as shaman, with Nic. and Stepan P., middle Martielkoi, near the Upper Bystrai͡a River”. Photo by Oscar Mamen, 26 November 1931 (MAA N.23609.LIN). © Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.

338

7.31b

Grigoriĭ Vasil’evich Kudrin’s cabin. Photo by Sergei or Elizaveta Shirokogoroff, Priamurskiĭ Kraĭ, 1915–1916 (MAĖ 2639-157). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

339

Chapter 8

8.1

Pomor women’s clothing illustrating three types of headwear (from left to right): povoĭnik (under the scarf), kokoshnik, and kerchief with “dangling horns”. Photo by Nikolaĭ A. Shabunin (MAĖ 974-54). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

355

8.2

A group of peasants in Arkhangelsk province at the turn of the twentieth century. Photo by Nikolaĭ A. Shabunin (MAĖ 974-41). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

356

8.3

Comparative illustration of peasant costumes distinguishing Pomor costumes (far right) from that of other central Russian peasants. V. A. Aleksandrov, Russkoe naselenie Sibiri XVIInachala XVIII v. (Eniseĭskiĭ kraĭ). Trudy instituta etnografii AN SSSR (novaia seriia) 87 (Moscow: Nauka), p. 377.

357

8.4

Schematic drawing of a Pomor koch. M. I. Belov, ‘Arkticheskie plavanii͡a i ustroĭstvo russkikh morskikh sudov v XVII veke’, in Istoricheskiĭ pami͡atnik russkogo arkticheskogo moreplavanii͡a XVII veka, ed. by A. P. Okladnikov and D. M. Pinkhenson (Moscow: izd. Glavsevmorputi, 1951), p. 75.

358

8.5

Example of a peasant’s house. Photo by Nikolaĭ A. Shabunin (MAĖ 974–88). © Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

359

8.6

Front cover of the dictionary Pomor’ska govori͡a. I. I. Moseev, Pomor’ska govori͡a. Kratkiĭ slovar’ pomorskogo i͡azyka (Arkhangelsk: Pravda Severa, 2005).

363

8.7

Toni͡a Kedy. Photo by Natalie Wahnsiedler.

374

8.8

Salmon fisheries at toni͡a Kedy. Photo by Natalie Wahnsiedler.

374

8.9

Old Pomor cross at toni͡a Kedy. Photo by Masha Shaw.

377