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List of Illustrations

Chapter 1

1.1

Robert Waldmüller [Charles Edouard Duboc]. Photograph by W. E. Hoffman, ca. 1900. Image courtesy of Getty Images. All rights reserved.

7

1.2

Front cover of Wilhelm Fraenger, Die Masken von Rheims, Die komische Bibliothek (Leipzig, Germany / Zurich: Eugen Gentsch / Erlenbach, 1922).

9

1.3

A kneeling male figure, tonsured. Illustration by Villard de Honnecourt, ca. 1225–1235. Reproduced in Wilhelm Fraenger, Die Masken von Rheims, Die komische Bibliothek (Leipzig, Germany / Zurich: Eugen Gentsch / Erlenbach, 1922), 15.

10

1.4

A prostrate male figure, tonsured. Illustration by Villard de Honnecourt, ca. 1225–1235. Reproduced in Wilhelm Fraenger, Die Masken von Rheims, Die komische Bibliothek (Leipzig, Germany / Zurich: Eugen Gentsch / Erlenbach, 1922), 39.

10

1.5

Postcard depicting medieval monks at work (Paris: L’Oliver Machine à Écriture, early twentieth century).

13

1.6

Virgin and Child standing on a crescent moon. Manuscript miniature from the “Chambord Missal,” 1844. London, Victoria and Albert Museum, MSL/1984/68, fol. 7r. Image courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum. All rights reserved.

14

1.7

“Les Fêtes de Paris.” Chromolithograph poster by Eugène Grasset, 1886.

17

1.8

Title page of Histoire des quatre fils Aymon: Très nobles et très vaillans chevaliers, illus. Eugène Grasset (Paris: H. Launette, 1883).

17

1.9

Front cover of Anatole France, Sainte Euphrosine, illus. Louis Édouard Fournier (Paris: F. Ferroud, 1906).

20

1.10

Anatole France, Sainte Euphrosine, illus. with miniature by Louis Édouard Fournier, woodcut border by Edmond Pennequin (Paris: F. Ferroud, 1906), 1.

20

1.11

St. Julian with an oar and hart. Illustration by Henri Malatesta, 1906. Published in Gustave Flaubert, La légende de S. Julien l’Hospitalier (Paris: La société normande du livre illustré, 1906), 55.

21

1.12

A stained-glass window, the imagined inspiration for Flaubert. Illustration by Henri Malatesta, 1906. Published in Gustave Flaubert, La légende de S. Julien l’Hospitalier (Paris: La société normande du livre illustré, 1906), 53.

22

1.13

Stained-glass window depicting the life of St. Julien l’Hospitalier, Rouen Cathedral, Rouen. Photograph from Wikimedia, 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Baie_23_-_Vitrail_de_Saint-Julien-l'Hospitalier_5_-_déambulatoire,_cathédrale_de_Rouen.jpg

22

1.14

Gustave Flaubert gestures toward a stained-glass window. Illustration by Henri Malatesta, 1906. Published in Gustave Flaubert, La légende de S. Julien l’Hospitalier (Paris: La société normande du livre illustré, 1906), 52.

23

1.15

Frontispiece and title page of Le moine sacristain: Fabliau du XIIIe siècle, illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1912).

24

1.16

Frontispiece and title page of D’un trompette qui fust refusé de loger à son logis ordinaire par la Maîtresse en l’absence de son Mari, illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1913).

24

1.17

Title page of Marie-Anne Glomeau, ed., Le mystère de Griselidis, illus. Georges Ripart (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1923).

25

1.18

Frontispiece and title page of Rutebeuf, La vie de Sainte Marie l’Égyptienne, trans. and ed. Marie-Anne Glomeau, illus. Léon Courbouleix (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1925).

26

1.19

Title page of De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914).

27

1.20

De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914), 7.

27

1.21

De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914), 9.

27

1.22

De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914), 16.

27

1.23

De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914), 17.

28

1.24

De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914), 18.

28

1.25

De Sainct Pierre et du jongleur: Fabliau du XIVe siècle, trans. and illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1914), 19.

28

1.26

Frontispiece and title page of Jacques de Voragine, La légende de Sainte Marie-Magdeleine, trans. and ed. Claude Therni, illus. Louis Malteste (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1921).

29

1.27

Jacques de Voragine, La légende de Sainte Marie-Magdeleine, trans. and ed. Claude Therni, illus. Louis Malteste (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1921), 7.

29

1.28

Frontispiece and title page of Charles Nodier, Légende de Sœur Béatrix, illus. Georges Ripart (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1924).

30

1.29

Our Lady of the Flowering Thorn. Illustration by Georges Ripart, 1924. Published in Charles Nodier, Légende de Sœur Béatrix (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1924), 14.

30

1.30

Beatrice and the wounded knight. Illustration by Georges Ripart, 1924. Published in Charles Nodier, Légende de Sœur Béatrix (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1924), 30.

30

1.31

Beatrice becomes a prostitute. Illustration by Georges Ripart, 1924. Published in Charles Nodier, Légende de Sœur Béatrix (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1924), 38.

31

1.32

Beatrice repents. Illustration by Georges Ripart, 1924. Published in Charles Nodier, Légende de Sœur Béatrix (Paris: Maurice Glomeau, 1924),46.

31

1.33

Title page of Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: F. Ferroud, 1906).

32

1.34

Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: F. Ferroud, 1906), 29.

32

1.35

Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: F. Ferroud, 1906), 31.

33

1.36

Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, illus. Henri Malatesta (Paris: F. Ferroud, 1906), 1.

33

1.37

Frontispiece and title page of Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, illus. Maurice Lalau (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1924).

34

1.38

Frontispiece and title page of Gustave Flaubert, La légende de Saint Julien l’Hospitalier, illus. Maurice Lalau (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1927).

34

1.39

Julian kills his mother and father. Illustration by Maurice Lalau, 1927. Published in Gustave Flaubert, La légende de Saint Julien l’Hospitalier (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1927), 51.

35

1.40

Frontispiece of Anatole France, Le miracle de la pie, illus. Maurice Lalau (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1921).

36

1.41

The scribe before the statue of the Virgin. Illustration by Maurice Lalau, 1921. Published in Anatole France, Le miracle de la pie (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1921), 31.

36

1.42

Front and back covers of Victor Hugo, Notre-Dame de Paris (Paris: Eugène Renduel, 1836).

39

1.43

Front cover of Auguste-Pierre Garnier, Les saintes gardiennes: La geste de Jeanne d’Arc, le mystère de sainte Geneviève, le dit de sainte Odile, illus. Maurice Lalau (Paris: Garnier frères, 1925).

40

1.44

Monks carve the statue of the Virgin. Illustration by Maurice Lalau, 1924. Published in Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1924), 17.

41

1.45

The juggler enters the monastery. Illustration by Maurice Lalau, 1924. Published in Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1924), 13.

41

1.46

The Virgin descends to bless the juggler. Illustration by Maurice Lalau, 1924. Published in Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1924), 23.

42

1.47

Spying monks. Illustration by Maurice Lalau, 1924. Published in Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame (Paris: A. & F. Ferroud, 1924), 27.

43

1.48

Frontispiece and title page of Anatole France, La légende des saintes Oliverie et Liberette, illus. Gustave-Adolphe Mossa (Paris: A. Ferroud - F. Ferroud, 1924).

44

1.49

Front cover of Amélie Milan (Nalim), L’imagier du Duc Jean, illus. Pichot (Paris: Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1912).

45

1.50

Front cover of Paul Duplessis de Pouzilhac, La fâcheuse aventure du verrier, de l’enlumineur et de la gargouille: Légende de XIIIe siècle (Montpellier, France: Montane, 1921).

45

1.51

Robert Lanz, Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame, 1924. Mixed paints on vellum, 20 × 17.75 cm.

47

1.52

Title and opening pages of Philip Wicksteed, trans., Our Lady’s Tumbler: A Twelfth Century Legend (MS copied by Mary O. Kneass [?], early twentieth century).

48

1.53

Front cover of Philip H. Wicksteed, trans., Our Lady’s Tumbler: A Twelfth Century Legend (New York: Privately printed for Stanford Briggs, 1923).

49

1.54

The monks watch the juggler. Illustration, 1923. Artist unknown. Published in Philip H. Wicksteed, trans., Our Lady’s Tumbler: A Twelfth Century Legend (New York: Privately printed for Stanford Briggs, 1923),4.

50

1.55

“Here ends Our Lady’s Tumbler.” Illustration, 1923. Artist unknown. Published in Philip H. Wicksteed, trans., Our Lady’s Tumbler: A Twelfth Century Legend (New York: Privately printed for Stanford Briggs, 1923), 31.

50

1.56

Title page of Our Lady’s Tumbler: A Legend of Compiègne (London: Aldenham Institute Letterpress Printing Classes, 1910).

51

1.57

Our Lady’s Tumbler: A Legend of Compiègne (London: Aldenham Institute Letterpress Printing Classes, 1910), 1.

52

1.58

“A Partially Finished Cathedral.” Drypoint by Pierson Underwood, 1928.

53

1.59

Front cover of Pierson Underwood and Lawrence Perry, Petit Noël: A Christmas Cantata for Treble Voices (New York: Chappell, 1942).

55

1.60

Pierson Underwood, “Little Christmas Journey” (1960).

55

1.61

Title page of Le jongleur de Notre Dame, vol. 1 of Les moralistes français, illus. Paul Dufau (Villeneuve, France: Les messagers du livre, 1954).

56

1.62

Front cover of Henri Marmier, Le bateleur de Notre-Dame, illus. André Hubert (Paris: H. Piazza, 1951).

57

1.63

Title page of Henri Marmier, Le bateleur de Notre-Dame, illus. André Hubert (Paris: H. Piazza, 1951).

57

1.64

The juggler performs. Illustration by Sears Gallagher, 1922. Published in Josette Eugénie Spink, Le beau pays de France (Boston, MA: Ginn, 1922), 59.

60

Chapter 2

2.1

Postcard of the Manhattan Opera House, New York (early twentieth century).

64

2.2

Metropolitan Opera House, New York. Photograph by Detroit Publishing Co., ca. 1905. Washington, DC, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Gift of the State Historical Society of Colorado, 1949.

64

2.3

Postcard of the Metropolitan Opera House, Philadelphia, PA (New York: Union News Company, ca. 1914).

65

2.4

Granada Cinema, Tooting, London. Photograph by John D. Sharp, 1967.

66

2.5

Front cover of Émile Zola, Le rêve, illus. Gabrielle Faure (Paris: Éditions André, 1924).

68

2.6

Title page of Émile Zola, Le rêve, illus. Louis Icart (Lausanne, Switzerland: Éditions du Grand-Chêne, 1946).

68

2.7

Gaston La Touche, La légende du point d’Argentan, 1884. Oil on canvas, 130 × 162 cm. long. Alençon, Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle d’Alençon, France.

69

2.8

Thomas Edison’s “Black Maria” studio, West Orange, NJ. Photograph, 1894. Photographer unknown. Image courtesy of Glasshouse Images. All rights reserved.

70

2.9

Maurice de Maeterlinck. Photograph by C. Gerschel, before 1923. New York, New York Public Library Archives.

71

2.10

Charles Nodier. Engraving by Abel Jamas, before 1911, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charles_Nodier-dessin-01.jpg

73

2.11

Beatrice in the nunnery. Postcard of Maurice Maeterlinck, Sœur Béatrice, produced by Jules Delacre, at the Théâtre du Marais. Photograph by Benjamin Couprie, 1922. Brussels, Archives et Musée de la Littérature. Image courtesy of Archives et Musée de la Littérature. All rights reserved.

74

2.12

Sister Beatrice kneeling in prayer. Postcard of Maurice Maeterlinck, Sœur Béatrice, produced by Jules Delacre, at the Théâtre du Marais. Photograph, 1922. Photographer unknown. Brussels, Archives et Musée de la Littérature. Image courtesy of Archives et Musée de la Littérature. All rights reserved.

74

2.13

Drawing “Professor Max Reinhardt,” by Arthur Kampf, on the front cover of The Illustrated London News 140, no. 3802 (March 2, 1912).

76

2.14

View toward altar in St. John the Baptist Church, Neu-Ulm, Germany. Hans Peter Schaefer (www.reserv-art.de), 2015, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neu-ulm-st_johann_baptist-260815_01.jpg

77

2.15

Postcard of Sister Beatrice in a Russian adaptation of Maeterlinck’s Soeur Beatrice (early twentieth century).

78

2.16

Schematics of the Century Theatre’s stage design for The Miracle. Drawing by George Wall, 1924. Published in Scientific American 130 (April 1924), 229.

78

2.17

Set design for the Century Theatre’s production of The Miracle. Drawing by Carl Link, 1924.

79

2.18

Rosamund Botsford as the Nun and Asta Fleming as the Madonna in a production of The Miracle. Photograph, 1914. Photographer unknown.

79

2.19

Advertisement for a German production of The Miracle. Illustration by Ludwig Hohlwein, 1914.

81

2.20

Front cover of Oliver M. Sayler, ed., Max Reinhardt and His Theatre, trans. Mariele S. Gudernatsch et al. (New York: Brentano’s Publishers, 1924).

81

2.21

Beatrice as a nun. Illustration by Paul Henry, 1905. Published in John Davidson, The Ballad of a Nun (London: John Lane, 1905), 11.

82

2.22

Beatrice kneels before the Virgin. Illustration by Paul Henry, 1905. Published in John Davidson, The Ballad of a Nun (London: John Lane, 1905), 35.

82

2.23

Collector’s movie card for the film adaption of Le rêve, dir. Jacques de Baroncelli (1931).

85

2.24

Collector’s movie card for Jacques de Baroncelli. Photograph, 1920s. Photographer unknown.

85

2.25

Front cover of Giacomo Puccini, Suor Angelica (Milan, Italy: G. Ricordi, 1918).

86

2.26

Clarence Darrow (left) and William Jennings Bryan (right) at the Scopes Monkey Trial, Dayton, TN. Photograph, 1925. Photographer unknown.

88

2.27

H. L. Mencken. Photograph by Ben Pinchot, before 1928, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:H-L-Mencken-1928.jpg

89

2.28

Advertisement for Columbia Records featuring Mary Garden and Olive Fremstad, 1916. Published in Outing 69, no. 1 (October 1916): 123.

90

2.29

Advertisement for Columbia Records featuring Mary Garden and Olive Fremstad, 1916. Published in Hearst’s (June 1916): 1.

90

2.30

Advertisement for Columbia Records featuring Mary Garden and Olive Fremstad, 1916. Published in Country Life in America (October 1916): 79.

90

2.31

Charlie Chaplin, Paulette Goddard, Alistair Cooke, and Ruth Emerson Cooke (left to right). Photograph, 1934. Photographer unknown. Image courtesy of Getty Images. All rights reserved.

92

Chapter 3

3.1

I. L. Peretz. Photograph, ca. 1910. Photographer unknown.

102

3.2

Ze’ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky. Photograph, 1918. Photographer unknown. Jerusalem, National Photo Collection of Israel.

105

3.3

Allie Sherman coaching the New York Giants. Photograph by Herb Scharfman, 1963. The LIFE Images Collection. Image courtesy of Getty Images. All rights reserved.

107

3.4

Jean-Marie Lustiger, before Notre-Dame of Paris. Photograph by Claude Truong-Ngoc, Feast of the Assumption of Mary, 1988, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Marie_Lustiger_par_Claude_Truong-Ngoc_1988.jpg

109

3.5

Mascot of the Notre Dame Junior and Senior High School, Utica, NY. Image courtesy of Anna Mae Collins, 2014. All rights reserved

110

3.6

Front cover of Le jongleur 64 (October 1973), quarterly publication of the Institution Notre-Dame de Grâce, Cambrai, France.

110

3.7

G. K. Chesterton. Photograph, before 1946. Photographer unknown, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:G._K._Chesterton_at_work.jpg

111

3.8

Front cover of Giovanni Bonetto, Un giocoliere in paradiso, illus. Gino Gavioli (Rome: Paoline, 1970).

115

3.9

Front cover of Giovanni Bonetto, 天国の サーカス ぼうや [Tengoku no sākasu bōya], trans. Hiro Ebina, illus. Gino Gavioli (Tokyo: Joshi Pauro kai, 1974).

116

3.10

William F. Buckley Jr. Photograph by Bert Goulait, 1985, public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_F._Buckley,_Jr._1985.jpg

117

3.11

Bill Bennett. Photograph by Gage Skidmore, 2011, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bill_Bennett_by_Gage_Skidmore.jpg

119

3.12

Barnabas and a monk. Illustration by Marigold Hunt, 1934. Published in Joan Windham, Six O’Clock Saints (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1934), 83.

121

3.13

The Virgin blesses Barnabas. Illustration by Marigold Hunt, 1934. Published in Joan Windham, Six O’Clock Saints (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1934), 85.

121

3.14

The juggler, feeling inept and useless in the monastery. Illustration by Mona Doneux, 1948. Published in Joan Windham, Sixty Saints for Boys (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1948), 382. © Joan Windham, 1948, Sixty Saints for Boys, Sheed & Ward, used by permission of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. All rights reserved.

122

3.15

The juggler sits in sadness while the statue of the Virgin is carved. Illustration by Elizabeth Andrewes, 1974. Published in Joan Windham, Story Library of the Saints, 3 vols. (London: Harwin, 1974), 1: 154.

122

3.16

Barnaby performs before the Virgin. Illustration by Mona Doneux, 1948. Published in Joan Windham, Sixty Saints for Boys (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1948), 383. © Joan Windham, 1948, Sixty Saints for Boys, Sheed & Ward, used by permission of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. All rights reserved.

122

3.17

The juggler performs before the Virgin while monks watch. Illustration by Elizabeth Andrewes, 1974. Published in Joan Windham, Story Library of the Saints, 3 vols. (London: Harwin Press, 1974), 1: 156.

122

3.18

Patrick Kavanagh Centre, former Catholic St. Mary’s church, Inniskeen, Ireland. Photograph from Wikimedia, 2009, CC BY-SA 1.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kavanaghcentre.jpg

123

Chapter 4

4.1

An Eastertide cross. Published on the front cover of Philip H. Wicksteed, trans., Our Lady’s Tumbler: A XIIth Century Legend (London: J. M. Dent, 1900).

128

4.2

“How the Queen of Heaven tends him.” Illustration, 1900. Artist unknown. Published in Philip H. Wicksteed, trans., Our Lady’s Tumbler: A XIIth Century Legend (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1924), frontispiece.

128

4.3

Postcard depicting Eastertime lilies (H. Wessler, 1909).

129

4.4

Postcard of the John Wanamaker Building, Philadelphia, PA (Detroit, MI: Detroit Publishing Co., ca. 1911).

130

4.5

Postcard of John Wanamaker’s Department Store before 1904, Philadelphia, PA (early twentieth century).

130

4.6

Postcard of the Grand Court of the John Wanamaker Building, Philadelphia, PA (after 1911).

130

4.7

John Wanamaker. Photograph by George Grantham Bain, 1915. Washington, DC, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

131

4.8

Front cover of John Wanamaker, Christmas Carols and Songs of Olden Time, with the Wanamaker Grand Organ (Philadelphia, PA: John Wanamaker, 1923).

131

4.9

Title page of John Wanamaker, Christmas Carols and Songs of Olden Time, with the Wanamaker Grand Organ (Philadelphia, PA: John Wanamaker, 1923).

131

4.10

Rodman Wanamaker. Photograph, 1927. Photographer unknown.

132

4.11

Front cover of Book of Gifts, 1924 (Philadelphia, PA: The John Wanamaker Store, 1924).

133

4.12

Christmas card depicting the hanging of holly (early twentieth century).

133

4.13

New Year’s card depicting holly and a Gothic window (ca. 1925).

134

4.14

Christmas and New Year’s card depicting a Gothic gateway (ca. 1923)

134

4.15

New Year’s card featuring a medieval musician and castle (early twentieth century).

135

4.16

Christmas card depicting medieval characters (early twentieth century). Image courtesy of Michelle Higgs. All rights reserved.

135

4.17

Christmas card depicting medieval characters (early twentieth century). Image courtesy of Michelle Higgs. All rights reserved.

135

4.18

“Cheerfulness. The habit of looking at the bright side of things is worth more than a thousand a year. – Samuel Johnson.” New Year’s card (Ernest Nister, 1912).

136

4.19

Google Ngram data for “ye olde,” showing a marked increase in usage in the 1880s and a peak in the 1920s and ’30s. Vector art by Melissa Tandysh, 2016. Image courtesy of Melissa Tandysh. All rights reserved.

137

4.20

“Ye Merrie Christmas Wishes.” Christmas card depicting holly-bearing figures in traditional dress (early twentieth century).

137

4.21

“Ye Merrie Christmas Greetings.” Christmas card depicting figures in traditional dress with a Yule log, in a procession led by a jester (early twentieth century).

138

4.22

Christmas card depicting a Yule log (New York: E. P. Dutton, early twentieth century).

138

4.23

“Ye Jollie Christmastide.” Christmas card depicting candle-bearers and a jester before the enthroned king or Father Christmas (early twentieth century).

138

4.24

“Merrie Xmas Cheer.” Christmas card with medieval poem and jester (ca. 1910).

139

4.25

“Bringing in the Yule Log.” Christmas card depicting medieval figures dragging a Yule log (ca. 1910).

140

4.26

Christmas card depicting medieval figures dragging a Yule log (Philadelphia: Hoover, 1916).

140

4.27

Christmas card depicting a jester and musician (early twentieth century).

140

4.28

Christmas card depicting a medieval musician framed by holly (London: B. B., early twentieth century).

141

4.29

Christmas card depicting a mounted medieval musician (early twentieth century).

141

4.30

Postcard depicting “England of Old, 1475” (London: Raphael Tuck & Sons, early twentieth century). Illustration by M. C. Whishew.

142

4.31

Christmas card depicting a medieval figure against a backdrop of Tudor-style buildings (George Mason, early twentieth century).

142

4.32

Christmas card depicting a cathedral and Christmas tree (ca. 1907).

143

4.33

Advertisement for Philadelphia Electric Company. Published in Philadelphia Daily News (December 24, 1963): 13.

143

4.34

Frontispiece and title page of Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol, illus. John Leech (London: Chapman & Hall, 1843).

144

4.35

William Showell Rogers. Photograph, before 1899. Photographer unknown.

145

4.36

Mary tends to the fallen juggler. Illustration by Alphonse Mucha, 1897. Published in Dezsö Malonyay, “Le fou, légende hongroise,” trans. Adrien Remacle, in Le Figaro de Noël (December 1897): 226.

146

4.37

Henri Heugel and Jules Massenet. Photograph, 1899. Photographer unknown.

147

4.38

“He and the wind were alone on the road.” Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1907. Published in Edwin Markham, “The Juggler of Touraine,” in Century Magazine (December 1907): 220.

147

4.39

“Sprinkling the world with his merriment.” Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1907. Published in Edwin Markham, “The Juggler of Touraine,” in Century Magazine (December 1907): 223.

147

4.40

“Nothing of these he could do, alas.” Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1907. Published in Edwin Markham, “The Juggler of Touraine,” in Century Magazine (December 1907): 227.

148

4.41

“Lightly down from the dark descends the Lady of Beauty.” Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1907. Published in Edwin Markham, “The Juggler of Touraine,” in Century Magazine (December 1907): 231.

148

4.42

“The Illustrator in the Middle Ages.” Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1908. Published on the front cover of Collier’s42.10 (November 28, 1908).

148

4.43

Monks at work. Illustration by Henri Morin, 1928. Published in Anatole France, Abeille / Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame / Les Pains Noir, ed. R. I. Graeme Ritchie (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1928), 9.

148

4.44

“The Fair Crowning the Brave.” Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1910. Published on the front cover of Woman’s Home Companion (October 1910).

149

4.45

The infant Jesus framed by a cross. Illustration by Leon Guipon, 1907. Published in Edwin Markham, “The Juggler of Touraine,” in Century Magazine (December 1907): 233.

150

4.46

Christmas card depicting the Virgin and Child (early twentieth century). Illustration by Ellen Clapsaddle, date unknown.

153

4.47

Title page of Anatole France, Our Lady’s Juggler / Le Jongleur de Notre Dame, illus. C. Leroy Baldridge (New York: English Book Shop, 1933).

154

4.48

Front cover of Anatole France, Our Lady’s Juggler / Le Jongleur de Notre Dame, trans. Frederic Chapman (New York: William E. Rudge, 1938).

154

4.49

The Virgin descends to the juggler. Illustration, 1938. Artist unknown. Published in Anatole France, Our Lady’s Juggler / Le Jongleur de Notre Dame, trans. Frederic Chapman (New York: William E. Rudge, 1938), frontispiece.

155

4.50

Front cover of Bertha C. Krall, ed., Further Christmas-Tide Stories (London: The National Sunday School Union, 1946).

155

4.51

The juggler. Illustration by Raymond Lufkin, 1951. Published in Thomas J. McCabe, An Adaptation of the Story of Our Lady’s Juggler (Tenafly, NY: Adeline and Raymond Lufkin, 1951), frontispiece.

156

4.52

The Virgin blesses the juggler. Illustration by Raymond Lufkin, 1951. Published in Thomas J. McCabe, An Adaptation of the Story of Our Lady’s Juggler (Tenafly, NY: Adeline and Raymond Lufkin, 1951), 14.

156

4.53

Front cover of Heywood Broun and Anatole France, Christmas Miscellany: A Collection of Short Stories from Traditional Literature, illus. William F. M. Kay (Berkeley, CA: Lederer, Street & Zeus, 1953).

157

4.54

The juggler performs before the Virgin. Illustration by William F. M. Kay, 1953. Published in Heywood Broun and Anatole France, Christmas Miscellany: A Collection of Short Stories from Traditional Literature (Berkeley, CA: Lederer, Street & Zeus, 1953), 7.

157

4.55

Fritz Bühler. Photograph, date and photographer unknown. Image courtesy of Heinz Waech. All rights reserved.

158

4.56

The itinerant juggler. Illustration by Fritz Bühler, 1955. Published in Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame (Basel, Switzerland: St. Alban, 1955), 6.

159

4.57

The illustrator’s toolkit. Illustration by Fritz Bühler, 1955. Published in Anatole France, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame (Basel, Switzerland: St. Alban, 1955), 16.

159

4.58

Christmas card depicting juggler dressed as clown (Deer Crest / Grant, ca. 1950s).

160

4.59

Christmas card depicting the juggler as a child (Dallas, TX: The Drawing Board, 1970s). Illustration by Christine Damen. Image courtesy of American Greetings Corporation. © AGC, LCC. All rights reserved.

160

4.60

Postcard of the Faculty Club, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (before 1915).

162

4.61

Postcard of the Faculty Club, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (San Francisco: E. P. Charlton, early twentieth century).

162

4.62

Bernard Maybeck, The Juggler of Notre Dame, 1907. Pencil and watercolor. Image courtesy of PBA Galleries, San Francisco, CA. All rights reserved.

164

4.63

General Electric J-80 Cathedral Radio (1932). Photograph by Joe Mills, 2018. Image courtesy of Joe Mills. All rights reserved.

165

4.64

Man listening to one of President Roosevelt’s “Fireside Chats.” Statue by George Segal, 1997. Washington, DC, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. Photograph by Carol M. Highsmith, before 2006. Washington, DC, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Carol M. Highsmith Archive.

166

4.65

Remigio Vilariño. Photograph, date and photographer unknown.

167

4.66

The juggler before the Madonna, illustration by Goiko, in Remigio Vilariño Ugarte, Radiocuentos por Erreví Esejot (Bilbao, Spain: El Mensajero del Corazón de Jesús, 1926), 101.

167

4.67

Cap i pota doll, ca. 1850–1900. Photograph by Joe Mills, 2018.

167

4.68

Maurice Léna and Jules Massenet, Le Jongleur de Notre Dame: A Miracle in Three Acts, trans. Louise Baum (London: British Broadcasting Company, 1929), 4.

168

4.69

Alexander Woollcott. Photograph by Carl Van Vechten, 1939.

169

4.70

Title page of Alexander Woollcott, Our Lady’s Juggler: An Antique Legend as Retold for the Air (San Mateo, CA: Quercus, 1937).

169

4.71

John Nesbitt, age 46. Photograph, 1956. Photographer unknown.

170

4.72

Nadine Gae. Photograph, ca. 1949. Photographer unknown.

173

4.73

Mary Gertrude Pickersgill, Clever Alice and Other Mimes (London: Samuel French, 1972),44.

174

4.74

Scenes from Ronald Duncan’s Our Lady’s Tumbler. Photographs, 1951. Photographer unknown. Published in The Salisbury and Winchester Journal (June 8, 1951).

177

4.75

Christiane Lasquin. Photograph by D. Fallot, 1960. Published on the front cover of Télé 60, no. 795 (January 23, 1960).

178

4.76

Norman Rockwell, Jester, 1939. Published in Molly Rockwell, ed., Norman Rockwell’s Christmas Book (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977), 58. Illustration © Norman Rockwell Family Entities, 1939. Image courtesy of the Norman Rockwell Family Agency. All rights reserved.

180

4.77

Elena Pasquali, The Lion Book of Two-Minute Christmas Stories, illus. Nicola Smee (Oxford: Lion Children’s Books, 2012), 37. Image courtesy of Lion Hudson PLC, Oxford, UK. All rights reserved.

182

4.78

Front cover of Gian Carlo Menotti, Amahl and the Night Visitors, adap. Frances Frost, illus. Roger Duvoisin (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952). Image courtesy of McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

184

4.79

The miraculous healing. Illustration by Roger Duvoisin, 1952. Published in Gian Carlo Menotti, Amahl and the Night Visitors, adap. Frances Frost (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952), 75. Image courtesy of McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

185

4.80

Brother Ambrose supports the injured young juggler. Illustration by Violet Moore Higgins, 1917. Published in Violet Moore Higgins, The Little Juggler and Other French Tales Retold (Racine, WI: Whitman, 1917), between pp. 16–17.

185

4.81

Front cover of Charles Tazewell, The Littlest Angel, illus. Katherine Evans (Chicago: Children’s Press, 1946).

186

4.82

Gift box. Illustration by Katherine Evans, 1946. Published in Charles Tazewell, The Littlest Angel (Chicago: Children’s Press, 1946).

187

4.83

Front cover of Raymond MacDonald Alden, Why the Chimes Rang, illus. Mayo Bunker (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1909).

191

4.84

Raymond MacDonald Alden, Why the Chimes Rang, illus. Mayo Bunker (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1909), 1.

191

Chapter 5

5.1

The young juggler bows before the Virgin. Illustration by Harold R. Shurtleff, 1928. Published in Katherine Taylor and Henry Copley Greene, The Shady Hill Play Book (New York: MacMillan, 1928), 99.

194

5.2

Front cover of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Histoire d’un hôtel de ville et d’une cathédrale (Paris: J. Hetzel, 1878).

194

5.3

“Mester de Juglaría.” Drawing by Jorge Salazar, date unknown.

196

5.4

Anna de Noailles. Photograph, 1921. Photographer unknown.

197

5.5

Sacha Guitry. Photograph, 1930s. Photographer unknown.

197

5.6

“To Give Is the Spirit of Christmas.” Illustration by Helen Chamberlin, 1917. Violet Moore Higgins, French Fairy Tales: The Little Juggler, The Wooden Shoe, and The Noel Candle (Racine, WI: Whitman, 1917), 6.

198

5.7

“You May Stay Here and Learn.” Illustration by Helen Chamberlin, 1917. Violet Moore Higgins, French Fairy Tales: The Little Juggler, The Wooden Shoe, and The Noel Candle (Racine, WI: Whitman, 1917), 21.

199

5.8

“Not a Ball Fell to the Floor.” Illustration by Helen Chamberlin, 1917. Violet Moore Higgins, French Fairy Tales: The Little Juggler, The Wooden Shoe, and The Noel Candle (Racine, WI: Whitman, 1917), 27.

199

5.9

The juggler in the town square. Illustration by Roser Bru, 1942. Published in José María Souviron, El juglarcillo de la Virgen (Santiago, Chile: Difusión Chilena, 1942), 3.

200

5.10

The juggler before the Virgin. Illustration by Roser Bru, 1942. Published in José María Souviron, El juglarcillo de la Virgen (Santiago, Chile: Difusión Chilena, 1942), 14.

200

5.11

The juggler performs before the Virgin and Child. Illustration by Christina Balit, 2004. Published in Lois Rock, Saintly Tales and Legends (Boston, MA: Pauline Books & Media, 2004), 33. Image courtesy of Christina Balit. All rights reserved.

201

5.12

Front cover of The Little Juggler (New York: Dial Press, 1991).

202

5.13

Front cover of Maryline Poole Adams, Le Jongleur de Notre Dame / The Juggler of Notre Dame (Berkeley, CA: Poole Press, 2003).

202

5.14

Maryline Poole Adams, Le Jongleur de Notre Dame / The Juggler of Notre Dame (Berkeley, CA: Poole Press, 2003), 1–2. Image courtesy of Maryline Poole Adams. All rights reserved.

203

5.15

A monk spies on the juggler’s performance. Illustration by Maryline Poole Adams, 2003. Published in Maryline Poole Adams, Le Jongleur de Notre Dame / The Juggler of Notre Dame (Berkeley, CA: Poole Press, 2003). Image courtesy of Maryline Poole Adams. All rights reserved.

203

5.16

Virgin and Child. Illustration by Maryline Poole Adams, 2003. Published in Maryline Poole Adams, Le Jongleur de Notre Dame / The Juggler of Notre Dame (Berkeley, CA: Poole Press 2003). Image courtesy of Maryline Poole Adams. All rights reserved.

203

5.17

Pop-up pages of The Little Juggler (New York: Dial, 1991).

204

5.18

The juggler before the Virgin. Illustration by Mary Fidelis Todd, 1954. Published in Mary Fidelis Todd, The Juggler of Notre Dame: An Old French Tale (New York: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill, 1954), 35. Image courtesy of McGraw Hill. All rights reserved.

205

5.19

Zoé embraces the Madonna and Child. Illustration by Mary Fidelis Todd, 1956. Published in Mary Fidelis Todd, Song of the Dove: The Story of Saint Catherine Labouré and the Miraculous Medal (New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 1956), 29.

205

5.20

Catherine Labouré’s Miraculous Medal of the Immaculate Conception, ca. 1832. Photograph from Wikimedia, 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Miraculous_medal.jpg

206

5.21

Postcard of the tomb of Catherine Labouré, Paris (early twentieth century).

206

5.22

Front cover of Barbara Cooney, The Little Juggler (New York: Hastings House, 1961). Image courtesy of the Barbara Cooney Porter Royalty Trust. All rights reserved.

209

5.23

The juggler performs before the Madonna. Illustration by Mae Gerhard, 1968. Published in Louis Untermeyer, The Fire Bringer, and Other Great Stories (New York: M. Evans, 1968), 209. Image courtesy of Rowman & Littlefield. All rights reserved.

210

5.24

The boy acrobat soars. Illustration by David Shannon, 1999. Published in Mark Shannon, The Acrobat and the Angel (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1999), 22–23. Image courtesy of David Shannon. All rights reserved.

211

5.25

The mother and her plague-ridden infant, now healed. Illustration by David Shannon, 1999. Published in Mark Shannon, The Acrobat and the Angel (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1999), 28. Image courtesy of David Shannon. All rights reserved.

212

5.26

First page of “Il giocoliere della Madonna” (1976), in Dino Battaglia, Leggende, 2nd ed. (Grumo Nevano, Italy: Grifo Edizioni, 2004), 35. Image courtesy of Grifo. All rights reserved.

214

5.27

Final pages of “Il giocoliere della Madonna” (1976), in Dino Battaglia, Leggende, 2nd ed. (Grumo Nevano, Italy: Grifo, 2004),41. Image courtesy of Grifo. All rights reserved.

215

5.28

Max Bolliger. Photograph, before 2013. Photographer unknown.

216

5.29

The juggler wanders through a valley. Illustration by Štěpán Zavřel, 1991. Published in Max Bolliger, Jacob the Juggler (Trieste, Italy: Bohem, 1991), 8–9. © Heirs of Štěpán Zavřel. All rights reserved.

218

5.30

The miracle of the Virgin. Illustration by Štěpán Zavřel, 1991. Published in Max Bolliger, Jacob the Juggler (Trieste, Italy: Bohem, 2018), 24–25. © Heirs of Štěpán Zavřel. All rights reserved.

218

5.31

Štěpán Zavřel. Photograph, 1992. Photographer unknown. Photograph Wikimedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stepan_Zavrel_a_1992-12-26_2.JPG

219

5.32

The juggler performs. Illustration by Helena Olofsson, 2000. Published in Helena Olofsson, The Little Jester, trans. Kjersti Board (Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren Bokförlag, 2002), 15. Image courtesy of Helena Olofsson. All rights reserved.

220

5.33

The Madonna smiles. Illustration by Helena Olofsson, 2000. Published in Helena Olofsson, The Little Jester, trans. Kjersti Board (Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren Bokförlag, 2002), 21. Image courtesy of Helena Olofsson. All rights reserved.

221

5.34

Tatiana von Metternich, Der Gaukler der Jungfrau Maria (Wiesbaden, Germany: Modul, 1999), 16.

223

5.35

Tatiana von Metternich, Der Gaukler der Jungfrau Maria (Wiesbaden, Germany: Modul, 1999), 24.

223

5.36

Front cover of Alberto Benevelli, Il giocoliere di Maria, illus. Manuela Marchesan (Milan, Italy: San Paolo, 2005).

224

5.37

Alberto Benevelli, Il giocoliere di Maria, illus. Manuela Marchesan (Milan, Italy: San Paolo, 2005), 25–26.

225

5.38

Film poster for Marcelino pan y vino, dir. Ladislao Vajda (Filmayer, 1954).

228

5.39

The juggler. Illustration by Victoria Brzustowicz, 1977. Published in Ethel Marbach, Once-upon-A-Time Saints: Faith-Tales for Children (Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1977), 60. © Victoria Brzustowicz. All rights reserved.

231

5.40

Frontispiece of Ernst Tegethoff, trans., Französische Volksmärchen, aus älteren Quellen (Jena, Germany: Eugen Diederichs, 1923).

232

5.41

The leaping juggler. Illustration by Eva Raupp-Schliemann, 1976. Published in Ursula Rauch, trans., Märchen aus Frankreich den Niederlanden und der Schweiz: Märchen europäischer Völker (Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann, 1976), 83.

232

5.42

Ruth Sawyer. Photograph, ca. 1950. Photographer unknown. Image courtesy of the St. Catherine University Library Archives and Special Collections. All rights reserved.

234

5.43

Frontispiece and title page of Katherine Evans, The Little Juggler (Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1960).

235

5.44

Henri Pourrat. Photograph, date and photographer unknown.

236

5.45

Tomie dePaola. Photograph by Dan O’Connor, 1978. Image courtesy of Bob Hechtel. All rights reserved.

238

5.46

“Our Lady’s Juggler: A Mediaeval Tale.” Preliminary drawing by Tomie dePaola, 1970. Image courtesy of Bob Hechtel. All rights reserved.

239

5.47

“Our Lady’s Juggler: A Mediaeval Tale.” Preliminary drawing by Tomie dePaola, 1970. Image courtesy of Bob Hechtel. All rights reserved.

239

5.48

Virgin and Child. Illustration by Tomie dePaola, 1950s. Image courtesy of Tomie dePaola. All rights reserved.

241

5.49

Virgin and Child. Illustration by Tomie dePaola, 1978. Published in Tomie dePaola, The Clown of God (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace, 1978), 31.

241

5.50

Master of Camerino, The Virgin and Child Enthroned, ca. 1270. Tempera and silver on panel, 108.6 ×47.6 cm. Cambridge, MA, Harvard Art Museums, Fogg Museum, Gift of John Nicholas Brown. Imaging Department © President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

242

5.51

Postcard with the boy choristers of the Cathedral of Seville, Spain, in the garb of los seises (early twentieth century).

244

5.52

Postcard with the boy choristers of the Cathedral of Seville, Spain, in the garb of los seises (Seville, Tomas Sanz, early twentieth century).

244

Notes

n.1

René François Armand (Sully) Prudhomme. Photograph, 1880s. Photographer unknown, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sully_Prudhomme,_René-François-Armand,_BNF_Gallica.jpg

256

n.2

Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de Brantôme, Mémoires de Messire Pierre de Bourdeille sur les vies des dames galantes de son temps, ed. Maurice Rat, illus. André Hubert, 3 vols. (Paris: Union latine d’éditions, 1953) 2: 6.

265

n.3

Title page of André Messager, Béatrice (Paris: A. Fürstner, 1914).

276

n.4

Postcard depicting Bethany Church, Philadelphia, PA, with inset photo of John Wanamaker (early twentieth century).

294

n.5

Christmas card depicting medieval children singing (New York: E. P. Dutton, early twentieth century). Illustration by Albertine Randall Wheelan.

297

n.6

Photograph of Charles Robinson Smith. Photographer, William Notman, Montreal, Toronto, and Halifax, 1875.

303

n.7

Edna Best. Photograph, date and photographer unknown.

317

n.8

Helen Hayes. Photograph by George Hurrell, 1931.

317

n.9

Bob Keeshan. Photograph, 1977. Photographer unknown.

317

n.10

Front cover of Violet Moore Higgins, The Little Juggler and Other French Tales Retold (Racine, WI: Whitman, 1917).

323

n.11

“The Little Juggler Prepares to Do His Tricks.” Illustration by Violet Moore Higgins, 1917. Published in Violet Moore Higgins, The Little Juggler and Other French Tales Retold (Racine, WI: Whitman, 1917), frontispiece.

323

n.12

Roser Bru. Photograph from Wikimedia, 2013, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roser_Bru.jpg

324

n.13

John K. Colby. Photograph, date and photographer unknown.

327

n.14

The Virgin and angels comfort the juggler. Illustration by Barbara Cooney, 1961. Published in Barbara Cooney, The Little Juggler (New York: Hastings House, 1961), 42–43. Image courtesy of the Barbara Cooney Porter Royalty Trust. All rights reserved.

329

n.15

Mark Shannon and David Shannon, Gawain and the Green Knight (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1994), 18–19. Image courtesy of David Shannon. All rights reserved.

331

n.16

Front cover of Cœurs vaillants, no. 22 (May 4, 1930). Image courtesy of Bibliothèque nationale de France. All rights reserved.

332

n.17

Cœurs vaillants, no. 22 (June 1, 1961): 22.

332

n.18

Cœurs vaillants, no. 22 (June 1, 1961): 23.

332