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Image, Knife, and Gluepot: Early Assemblage in Manuscript and Print
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List of Illustrations

Chapter 1

1

Manuscript leaf written in Middle Dutch, with an engraved roundel by Israhel van Meckenem representing St Barbara, standing with her attribute. Unlabelled documentary photograph housed at the Warburg Institute, London.

16

2a; 2b

Manuscript binding, binding front and back, blind stamped leather over boards, made by the beghards of Maastricht c. 1500 (rebacked after 1861). London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332.

17

3

Opening from the beghards’ book of hours, Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fols 311v–312r (modern foliation) or ccc xlv (original foliation).

19

4

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours with part of a hand-painted woodcut depicting the Annunciation,Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 283v (modern foliation).

20

5

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours with a printed rosette pasted into the initial. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 254r (modern foliation).

21

6

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours with a silhouetted engraving depicting Mary and John, Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 307v (modern foliation).

21

7

Calendar page for the first half of May. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 5r (modern foliation).

22

8

Rubric revealing Franciscan affinities. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 250r (modern foliation).

23

9

Manuscript binding, blind stamped leather over boards, made by the beghards of Maastricht c. 1500. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462.

28

10

Clock folio, facing January calendar page. Opening folios in a prayerbook made in Maastricht c. 1500. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462.

28

11

Franciscan church, Sint Pieterstraat, Maastricht (now the Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg). Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy.

30

12

Manuscript binding, blind stamped leather over boards, made by the beghards of Maastricht c. 1500. Amsterdam University Library, Ms. I G 12.

33

13

Opening in a prayerbook made in Maastricht, with computational circles dated 1500. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462, fol. 15v-16r.

35

14

Diagram for calculating the length of Advent, copied by Jan van Emmerick. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462, fol. 16v-17r.

36

15

Table with offset from now-missing leaf. Maastricht, Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg, 22.001A Handschriften GAM, inv.nr. 462, fol. 17v-18r.

36

16

The River Maas, photographed from the bridge, with a view of the medieval Marian church. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy.

37

17

Manuscript leaf written in Middle Dutch, with an engraved roundel by Israhel van Meckenem representing SS Peter and Paul, standing with their attributes. Unlabelled documentary photograph, housed at the Warburg Institute, London.

40

18

Manuscript leaf written in Middle Dutch, with an engraved roundel by Israhel van Meckenem representing St Wolfgang, who has been transformed into St Servatius. Unlabelled documentary photograph, housed at the Warburg Institute, London.

41

19

The interior of the Prints & Drawings Study Room at the British Museum, London. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy.

42

20

Page from Register for 9 November 1861. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy.

48

21

Letter from Mr Carpenter, dated 6 November 1861. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy.

50

22

Engraved roundels representing virgins, some used as initials in the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.659, 662, 663, 664, 673, 674.

56

23

Folio from a prayerbook with three engravings by the Master of the Flower Borders glued to it and one sewn to it. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, ser. Nova 12715, fol. 29r.

57

24

Folio from a prayerbook with three engravings by the Master of the Flower Borders glued to it and one sewn to it. Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, ser. Nova 12715, fols 29v-30r.

58

25

Matte with manuscript leaves from Add. 24332 glued to it, with engravings representing St Francis and others. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings.

66

26

Matte with manuscript leaves from Add. 24332 glued to it, with small engravings. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings.

66

27

Matte with manuscript leaves from Add. 24332 glued to it, with small engravings. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings.

67

28

Israhel van Meckenem, Christ as Man of Sorrows, engraving. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea 48Res.

76

29

Mosaic icon with the Akra Tapeinosis (Utmost Humiliation), or Man of Sorrows, in a series of frames. Mosaic icon, Byzantine, late 13th–early 14th century. Basilica di Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome.

76

30

Detail of the Mosaic icon from the previous figure.

77

31

Detail of London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.637, flipped to reveal the offset inscription.

80

32

Digital reconstruction to show the proposed original state of the opening of the Seven Penitential Psalms (Add. 24332, fol. 104v and Add. 41338, fol. 6r).

82

33

Digital reconstruction to show the proposed third state of the opening of the Seven Penitential Psalms (London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.632 and Add. 41338, fol. 6r).

83

34

Leaf from the beghards’ book of hours, with an engraving depicting the Virgin and Child, by Israhel van Meckenem. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.633.

92

35

Leaf from the beghards’ book of hours, reverse of London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.633.

95

36

Two leaves mounted onto a single matte. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.638 and 639.

97

37

Two impressions of an engraving depicting St Mark, mounted onto a single matte. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.643 and 1868,1114.114.

101

38

London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1861,1109.634 (St Anne, Mary, and Jesus) and three other manuscript leaves, including two from the St Godeleva manuscript.

103

39

Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, which has been partially cut off. Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 271v (modern foliation).

105

40

Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, which has been partially cut off. Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 309v (modern foliation).

106

41

Zodiac man, from the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 1r.

114

42

Leaf formerly belonging to the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 1v.

114

43

Unfoliated front matter, formerly belonging to the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 2r.

115

44

Leaf from the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 2v.

116

45

Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, showing the offset of a now-missing image. Maastricht, c. 1500. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 19r (modern foliation).

117

46

Incipit of the Hours of the Cross, formerly belonging to the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 3r.

120

47

Incipit of the Hours of the Holy Spirit, formerly fol. xci in the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 4r.

121

48

Incipit of the Seven Penitential Psalms, formerly fol. cxxxiiij in the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 6r.

121

49

Skeleton incipit prefacing the Vigil of the Dead, formerly fol. c lxxxiiij in the beghards’ manuscript. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 7r.

122

50

London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 11v.

122

51

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a marginal pen drawing depicting a kneeling cleric at the foot of the Cross. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 13r.

123

52

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a pen drawing depicting St Gertrude with mice. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 8v = fol. ccc xiii.

125

53

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a pen drawing depicting the Virgin of the Sun, with a kneeling portrait of a male cleric and a frame filled with inscribed prayers. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 5r.

127

54

Virgin of the Sun, parchment painting, inserted to face a prayer to the Body Parts of the Virgin. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 75 G 2, fol. 196v-197r.

129

55

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting St Lambert. The frame measures 123 x 68 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 10r, formerly folio cccc xxiii, BM 696.

131

56

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting St Trudo. The frame measures 114 x 62 mm. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 12v.

131

57

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with an engraving depicting St Matthew. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 10v.

132

58

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 12r.

133

59

Title page from 1868 catalogue of the Bibliothèque Imperiale.

136

60

Album from Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, with three engravings by Israhel van Meckenem representing Christ as the Man of Sorrows. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

142

61

Virgin of the Sun engraving, hand-coloured and pasted into the letter H in a German prayerbook. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea20aRes. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

143

62

Crucifixion, hand-coloured engraving, with a red penwork frame. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea18cRes 28. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

144

63

Israhel van Meckenem, Christ as Man of Sorrows, engraving. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea48Res. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

146

64

Adoration of the Christ Child by the Magi, painted metalcut. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

147

65

Reverse of the previous image. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

147

66

Adoration of the Christ Child by the Magi, engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 57. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec

149

67

St Augustine encountering the infant Jesus on a riverbank, engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 56. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec

150

68

Pentecost, gilt engraving, formerly pasted to fol. cccc xcvii of the beghards’ book of hours? Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 54. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec

152

69

Pentecost, gilt engraving, formerly pasted to fol. cccc xcvii of the beghards’ book of hours? Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 54. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy

152

70

Christ in Judgment, gilt engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 55. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec

153

71

Christ in Judgment, gilt engraving. Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 55. Photo: Kathryn M. Rudy

153

72

Virgin and Child on a sliver of moon, surrounded by a rosary, originally in London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332 as fol. ccc xviii? Paris, Louvre, Rothschild 69. Paris, musée du Louvre, collection Rothschild Photo (C) RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Tony Querrec

154

73

Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, in Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes.

155

74

Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, for 28 July 1859, BnF.

157

75

Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, Vingt-huit pièces de XVe siècle, 28 March 1860, BnF.

157

76

Handwritten list of acquisitions from the nineteenth century, for 11 August 1868, in the BnF.

158

77

Folio from the beghards’ book of hours, with a pen drawing of a kneeling cleric, beneath an initial that probably once contained a print depicting St Clare. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 9v.

161

78

Digital reconstruction: Israhel van Meckenem’s roundel with SS Francis and Clare, superimposed on a leaf from what was the beghards’ manuscript, now London, British Library, Add. Ms. 41338, fol. 9v.

161

79

Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, with a prayer to St Anne, which has been partially mutilated. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 351 (ccc xci).

163

Chapter 2

80

Calendar in the beghards’ book of hours for the end of September and beginning of October. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 9v–10r.

170

81

Calendar in the beghards’ book of hours for the beginning of May. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 5r.

170

82

Explanation of the Table of Contents in the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. ii (modern foliation 14r).

173

83a

St Catherine, hand-coloured woodcut print, Southern Germany or Swabia. Paris, BnF, Rés. Ea-5 (8)-Boîte (Schreiber 1317/Bouchot 136). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

175

83b

St Mary Magdalene, hand-coloured woodcut print, Southern Germany or Swabia. Paris, BnF, Rés. Ea-5 (8)-Boîte (Schreiber 1594/ Bouchot 139). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

175

84

Book of hours with original foliation reading lvii (although it has lost its table of contents). The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 135 E 36, fol. 45v–46r. http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_135e36%3A045v_046r

178

85

Calendar in a Golden Legend turned into table of contents: months of November and December, Amsterdam, 1450. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 73 D 9, fol. IIIr.

180

86

Folio in a Golden Legend showing original foliation in the upper border, Amsterdam, 1450. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 73 D 9, fol. 179r.

181

87

Table of contents in the beghards’ book of hours. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 14v-15r.

185

88

Folio in the beghards’ book of hours, with the Pater Noster, and beginning of Ave Maria. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 26r.

186

89

Opening in an English book of hours, in English and Latin, and with red lines to mark rhyming lines of poetry. Glasgow, University Library, Ms. Hunter, H512, fol. 32v-33r.

188

90

Opening in the beghards’ book of hours: the beginning of the benediction, with interlineal rubricated translation. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 24332, fol. 27v-28r (modern foliation).

190

91

Symposium at Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, June 2016.

191

92

Weert, Gemeentemuseum Jacob van Horne, Museum interior in 2016.

191

Chapter 3

93

Matte from 1868, with Christological prints removed from Add. 31002. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings.

199

94

‘Trimmed and silhouetted saints’ affixed to a matte assembled in 1868. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings.

200

95

Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with Virgin of the Sun standing on the moon (added engraving), c. 1525. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 138r.

203

96

Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, c. 1525, from which an engraving depicting a bishop’s upper body was removed in 1868. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, 62r (original fol. 272).

205

97

Opening from the calendar of the beghards’ later book of hours for August-September. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fols 8v-9r.

208

98

Opening from the calendar of the beghards’ later book of hours for September-October. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fols 9v-10r.

209

99

Multiplication tables. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 14v-15r.

215

100

Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting St Lambert. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 106r.

216

101

Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting Brother Leo kneeling before St Francis. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 114v.

217

102

Folio in the beghards’ later book of hours, with a coloured drawing depicting a church. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 50v.

218

103

Folio in the beghards’ later manuscript with a space reserved for an image of Veronica. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 34r.

221

104

Electronic reconstruction of Veronica page: superimposition of London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1868,1114.24 onto London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. II, fol. 34r.

221

105

Folio from the beghard’s later manuscript with a prayer, an indulgence, and a blank area where a Marian roundel was formerly pasted. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 76r.

231

106

Folio from the beghard’s later manuscript with a prayer and a blank area where a Marian print was formerly pasted. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 31002, vol. I, fol. 75r.

232

107

Israhel van Meckenem, St Quirinus and three other saints, separate engravings mounted on one sheet. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea48aRes(IvM). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

236

Chapter 4

108

Opening at the Hours of Eternal Wisdom, in a book of hours from the region of Arnhem. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 17524, fol. 109v-110r.

249

109

Opening at the Hours of the Cross, in a book of hours from the region of Arnhem. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 17524, fol. 59v–60r.

251

110

Opening in a book of hours probably made by Franciscan women in Zutphen, with space left for prints to be pasted in. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Ms. 77 L 58, fol. 85v-86r.

253

111

Matte from 1868, with prints taken from two manuscripts. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings.

255

112

Ten hand-coloured engravings removed from what is now London, British Library, Ms. 31001. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1868,1114.222-231.

257

113

Instructions for visiting sites around Jerusalem. Opening of a prayerbook with texts for conducting virtual pilgrimages. London, British Library, Ms. 31001, fols. 71v-72r.

258

114

Calendar with indulgences for virtual visiting the Seven Principal Churches of Rome. Opening of a prayerbook with texts for conducting virtual pilgrimages. London, British Library, Ms. 31001, fols. 59v-60r.

259

115

Attributed to the Monogrammist LF, Basilicas of San Lorenzo and San Sebastiano surmounted by an image of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss, painting on panel, 1502. Commissioned by Helena Rephonin for the Dominican convent of St Catherine in Augsburg.

262

116

Folio removed from a manuscript, with a woodcut print depicting St Opportune. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes. (Courboin 614; Bouchot 140; Schreiber 2716). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

264

117

Pentecost engraving pasted into a painted initial removed from a manuscript. Paris, BnF, Département des Estampes, Ea 18 c Res (Lehrs 25). Published with kind permission from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

266

118

St Augustine, woodcut print, hand-painted. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Box 107 A3A. (Schreiber 1244 E).

269

119

Master the Berlin Passion, Stripping of Christ, hand-painted engraving. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Inv. 2-56. (Lehrs 28 I).

270

120

Master of the Dutuit Garden of Olives, Virgin and Child engraving, printed on parchment and gilt. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Inv. 446-I (Lehrs 49).

272

121

Monogrammist AG, Large Crucifixion, hand-painted engraving on parchment. Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, nr 998-I (Lehrs 3b).

272

122

Opening in a prayerbook, with prayers for the weeks of the liturgical year, each one beginning with an initial filled with a hand-painted engraving. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fols 27v-28r.

276

123

Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers for the feast of the Sacrament. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 49v.

278

124

Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers for the feast of the Holy Cross. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 54v.

279

125

Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers to ‘our holy father’ St Augustine, with an Augustinian sister kneeling before him. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 79v.

280

126

Folio in a prayerbook, with prayers to St Elisabeth. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 85r.

281

127

Opening in a prayerbook, with an initial depicting Christ releasing his arms from the cross in order to embrace an Augustinian sister. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 137v-138r.

283

128

Folio in a prayerbook, with an initial depicting Christ opening his side wound in the presence of an Augustinian sister. Heverlee, Abdij van Park, Ms. 18, fol. 109r.

283

129

Opening in a prayerbook with an added engraving depicting St George. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 158* b 32.

286

130

Opening in a prayerbook with an added roundel by Israhel van Meckenem. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fols 366v-367r.

287

131

Music manuscript with pasted-in roundels made by Israhel van Meckenem, from Soeterbeeck in Deursen near Ravenstein, a convent of Augustinian canonesses. Soeterbeeck, IV 136.

288

132

Opening in a prayerbook with an added engraving depicting the Virgin of the Sun. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fols 280v-281r.

289

133

Opening in a prayerbook with the remains of added engraving, opposite a prayer to a personal angel. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fols 364v-365r.

290

134

Opening in a prayerbook with the remains of added woodcut depicting St Barbara. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fol. 384v-385r.

291

135

Opening in a prayerbook with the ghost image of a print probably depicting the Virgin and Child. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, Ms. 718/253, fol. 406v-407r.

292

136

Opening in a book of hours, featuring a mounted engraving by Israhel van Meckenem depicting Christ before Annas. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1897,0103.3, also known as London, British Library, Sloane Ms. 3981, fols 14v-15r.

297

137

Opening in a book of hours, featuring a mounted engraving by Israhel van Meckenem depicting Christ awaiting crucifixion. London, British Museum, Department of Prints & Drawings, inv. 1897,0103.9, also known as London, British Library, Sloane Ms. 3981, fols 33v-34r.

298