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Contents

Introduction

1

Who is What Works in Conservation for?

1

The Conservation Evidence project

1

Which conservation interventions are included?

2

How we review the literature

3

What does What Works in Conservation include?

4

Expert assessment of the evidence

4

Categorization of interventions

5

How to use What Works in Conservation

5

1. AMPHIBIAN CONSERVATION

9

1.1

Threat: Residential and commercial development

11

Legal protection of species

11

Protect brownfield or ex-industrial sites

12

Restrict herbicide, fungicide and pesticide use on and around ponds on golf courses

12

1.2

Threat: Agriculture

13

1.2.1

Engage farmers and other volunteers

13

Engage landowners and other volunteers to manage land for amphibians

13

Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures

13

1.2.2

Terrestrial habitat management

14

Manage silviculture practices in plantations

14

Manage cutting regime

14

Manage grazing regime

14

Maintain or restore hedges

15

Plant new hedges

15

Reduced tillage

15

1.2.3

Aquatic habitat management

15

Manage ditches

15

Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs from ponds by fencing

16

1.3

Threat: Energy production and mining

17

Artificially mist habitat to keep it damp

17

1.4

Threat: Transportation and service corridors

18

Close roads during seasonal amphibian migration

18

Modify gully pots and kerbs

19

Install barrier fencing along roads

19

Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings

19

Use signage to warn motorists

20

Use humans to assist migrating amphibians across roads

20

1.5

Threat: Biological resource use

21

1.5.1

Hunting and collecting terrestrial animals

21

Reduce impact of amphibian trade

21

Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations

22

Commercially breed amphibians for the pet trade

22

Use amphibians sustainably

22

1.5.2

Logging and wood harvesting

22

Retain riparian buffer strips during timber harvest

23

Use shelterwood harvesting instead of clearcutting

23

Leave coarse woody debris in forests

23

Use patch retention harvesting instead of clearcutting

24

Leave standing deadwood/snags in forests

24

Use leave-tree harvesting instead of clearcutting

24

Harvest groups of trees instead of clearcutting

25

Thin trees within forests

25

1.6

Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

26

Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance

26

1.7

Threat: Natural system modifications

27

Regulate water levels

27

Mechanically remove mid-storey or ground vegetation

28

Use herbicides to control mid-storey or ground vegetation

28

Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime (forests)

28

Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime (grassland)

29

1.8

Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

30

1.8.1

Reduce predation by other species

30

Remove or control fish by drying out ponds

30

Remove or control fish population by catching

31

Remove or control invasive bullfrogs

31

Remove or control invasive viperine snake

31

Remove or control mammals

31

Remove or control fish using Rotenone

32

Exclude fish with barriers

32

Encourage aquatic plant growth as refuge against fish predation

32

Remove or control non-native crayfish

32

1.8.2

Reduce competition with other species

33

Reduce competition from native amphibians

33

Remove or control invasive Cuban tree frogs

33

Remove or control invasive cane toads

33

1.8.3

Reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species

34

Control invasive plants

34

Prevent heavy usage/exclude wildfowl from aquatic habitat

34

1.8.4

Reduce parasitism and disease – chytridiomycosis

35

Use temperature treatment to reduce infection

35

Use antifungal treatment to reduce infection

35

Add salt to ponds

36

Immunize amphibians against infection

36

Remove the chytrid fungus from ponds

36

Sterilize equipment when moving between amphibian sites

37

Treating amphibians in the wild or pre-release

37

Use gloves to handle amphibians

37

Use antibacterial treatment to reduce infection

37

Use antifungal skin bacteria or peptides to reduce infection

38

Use zooplankton to remove zoospores

38

1.8.5

Reduce parasitism and disease – ranaviruses

38

Sterilize equipment to prevent ranaviruses

38

1.9

Threat: Pollution

39

1.9.1

Agricultural pollution

39

Create walls or barriers to exclude pollutants

39

Plant riparian buffer strips

39

Reduce pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer use

40

Prevent pollution from agricultural lands or sewage treatment facilities entering watercourses

40

1.9.2

Industrial pollution

40

Add limestone to water bodies to reduce acidification

40

Augment ponds with ground water to reduce acidification

41

1.10

Threat: Climate change and severe weather

42

Create microclimate and microhabitat refuges

42

Maintain ephemeral ponds

42

Deepen ponds to prevent desiccation

43

Use irrigation systems for amphibian sites

43

Artificially shade ponds to prevent desiccation

43

Protect habitat along elevational gradients

43

Provide shelter habitat

43

1.11

Habitat protection

44

Retain buffer zones around core habitat

44

Protect habitats for amphibians

45

Retain connectivity between habitat patches

45

1.12

Habitat restoration and creation

46

1.12.1

Terrestrial habitat

46

Replant vegetation

46

Clear vegetation

47

Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites

47

Create refuges

47

Restore habitat connectivity

48

Change mowing regime

48

Create habitat connectivity

48

1.12.2

Aquatic habitat

48

Create ponds (amphibians in general)

49

Create ponds (frogs)

50

Create ponds (natterjack toads)

50

Create ponds (salamanders including newts)

50

Create wetlands

50

Deepen, de-silt or re-profile ponds

51

Restore wetlands

51

Create ponds (great crested newts)

52

Create ponds (green toads)

52

Create ponds (toads)

52

Remove specific aquatic plants

52

Restore ponds

53

Remove tree canopy to reduce pond shading

53

Add nutrients to new ponds as larvae food source

54

Add specific plants to aquatic habitats

54

Add woody debris to ponds

54

Create refuge areas in aquatic habitats

54

1.13

Species management

55

1.13.1

Translocate amphibians

55

Translocate amphibians (amphibians in general)

55

Translocate amphibians (great crested newts)

56

Translocate amphibians (natterjack toads)

56

Translocate amphibians (salamanders including newts)

56

Translocate amphibians (toads)

57

Translocate amphibians (wood frogs)

57

Translocate amphibians (frogs)

57

1.13.2

Captive breeding, rearing and releases

58

Release captive-bred individuals (amphibians in general)

59

Release captive-bred individuals (frogs)

59

Breed amphibians in captivity (frogs)

59

Breed amphibians in captivity (harlequin toads)

60

Breed amphibians in captivity (Mallorcan midwife toad)

60

Breed amphibians in captivity (salamanders including newts)

60

Breed amphibians in captivity (toads)

60

Head-start amphibians for release

61

Release captive-bred individuals (Mallorcan midwife toad)

61

Release captive-bred individuals (toads)

62

Use artificial fertilization in captive breeding

62

Use hormone treatment to induce sperm and egg release

62

Release captive-bred individuals (salamanders including newts)

63

Freeze sperm or eggs for future use

63

Release captive-bred individuals (green and golden bell frogs)

63

1.14

Education and awareness raising

64

Engage volunteers to collect amphibian data (citizen science)

64

Provide education programmes about amphibians

64

Raise awareness amongst the general public through campaigns and public information

65

2. BAT CONSERVATION

67

2.1

Threat: Residential and commercial development

69

Protect brownfield sites

69

Provide foraging habitat in urban areas

70

Change timing of building works

70

Conserve existing roosts within developments

70

Conserve old buildings or structures as roosting sites for bats within developments

70

Create alternative roosts within buildings

70

Maintain bridges and retain crevices for roosting

70

Retain or relocate access points to bat roosts

70

Retain or replace existing bat commuting routes within development

70

2.2

Threat: Agriculture

71

2.2.1

Land use change

71

Protect or create wetlands as foraging habitat for bats

71

Retain or plant trees on agricultural land to replace foraging habitat for bats

72

Conserve old buildings or structures on agricultural land as roosting sites for bats

72

Retain old or dead trees with hollows and cracks as roosting sites for bats on agricultural land

72

Retain or replace existing bat commuting routes on agricultural land

72

2.2.2

Intensive farming

72

Convert to organic farming

73

Encourage agroforestry

73

Introduce agri-environment schemes

73

2.3

Threat: Energy production – wind turbines

74

Switch off turbines at low wind speeds to reduce bat fatalities

74

Deter bats from turbines using ultrasound

75

Deter bats from turbines using radar

75

Automatically switch off wind turbines when bat activity is high

75

Close off nacelles on wind turbines to prevent roosting bats

75

Leave a minimum distance between turbines and habitat features used by bats

75

Modify turbine design to reduce bat fatalities

75

Modify turbine placement to reduce bat fatalities

75

Remove turbine lighting to avoid attracting bats

75

2.4

Threat: Energy production – mining

76

Legally protect bat hibernation sites in mines from reclamation

76

Provide artificial hibernacula to replace roosts lost in reclaimed mines

76

Relocate bats from reclaimed mines to new hibernation sites

76

2.5

Threat: Transportation and service corridors

77

Install underpasses as road crossing structures for bats

77

Divert bats to safe crossing points with plantings or fencing

78

Install bat gantries or bat bridges as road crossing structures for bats

78

Install overpasses as road crossing structures for bats

78

Deter bats with lighting

78

Install green bridges as road crossing structures for bats

78

Install hop-overs as road crossing structures for bats

78

Replace or improve habitat for bats around roads

78

2.6

Threat: Biological resource use

79

2.6.1

Hunting

79

Educate local communities about bats and hunting

79

Introduce and enforce legislation to control hunting of bats

79

Introduce sustainable harvesting of bats

79

2.6.2

Guano harvesting

80

Introduce and enforce legislation to regulate the harvesting of bat guano

80

Introduce sustainable harvesting of bat guano

80

2.6.3

Logging and wood harvesting

80

Incorporate forested corridors or buffers into logged areas

81

Use selective harvesting/reduced impact logging instead of clearcutting

81

Use shelterwood cutting instead of clearcutting

81

Retain residual tree patches in logged areas

82

Thin trees within forests

82

Manage woodland or forest edges for bats

82

Replant native trees

82

Retain deadwood/snags within forests for roosting bats

82

2.7

Threat: Human disturbance – caving and tourism

83

Impose restrictions on cave visits

83

Use cave gates to restrict public access

84

Educate the public to reduce disturbance to hibernating bats

84

Legally protect bat hibernation sites

84

Maintain microclimate at underground hibernation/roost sites

84

Provide artificial hibernacula for bats to replace disturbed sites

84

2.8

Threat: Natural system modification – natural fire and fire suppression

85

Use prescribed burning

85

2.9

Threat: Invasive species

86

2.9.1

Invasive species

86

Remove invasive plant species

86

Translocate to predator or disease free areas

87

Control invasive predators

87

2.9.2

White-nose syndrome

87

Control anthropogenic spread

87

Cull infected bats

87

Increase population resistance

87

Modify cave environments to increase bat survival

87

2.10

Threat: Pollution

88

2.10.1

Domestic and urban waste water

88

Change effluent treatments of domestic and urban waste water

88

2.10.2

Agricultural and forestry effluents

89

Introduce legislation to control use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides

89

Change effluent treatments used in agriculture and forestry

89

2.10.3

Light and noise pollution

89

Leave bat roosts, roost entrances and commuting routes unlit

89

Minimize excess light pollution

90

Restrict timing of lighting

90

Use low pressure sodium lamps or use UV filters

90

Impose noise limits in proximity to roosts and bat habitats

90

2.10.4

Timber treatments

90

Use mammal safe timber treatments in roof spaces

90

Restrict timing of treatment

91

2.11

Providing artificial roost structures for bats

92

Provide artificial roost structures for bats

92

2.12

Education and awareness raising

93

Provide training to professionals

93

Educate homeowners about building and planning laws

93

Educate to improve public perception and raise awareness

93

3. BIRD CONSERVATION

95

3.1

Habitat protection

97

Legally protect habitats for birds

97

Provide or retain un-harvested buffer strips

97

Ensure connectivity between habitat patches

98

3.2

Education and awareness raising

99

Raise awareness amongst the general public through campaigns and public information

99

Provide bird feeding materials to families with young children

100

Enhance bird taxonomy skills through higher education and training

100

Provide training to conservationists and land managers on bird ecology and conservation

100

3.3

Threat: Residential and commercial development

101

Angle windows to reduce bird collisions

101

Mark windows to reduce bird collisions

101

3.4

Threat: Agriculture

103

3.4.1

All farming systems

103

Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture

104

Provide (or retain) set-aside areas in farmland

105

Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields

105

Increase the proportion of natural/semi-natural habitat in the farmed landscape

106

Manage ditches to benefit wildlife

106

Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures

106

Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields

107

Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips

107

Leave refuges in fields during harvest

107

Reduce conflict by deterring birds from taking crops (using bird scarers)

108

Relocate nests at harvest time to reduce nestling mortality

108

Use mowing techniques to reduce mortality

108

Control scrub on farmland

108

Offer per clutch payment for farmland birds

109

Manage hedges to benefit wildlife

109

Plant new hedges

109

Reduce conflict by deterring birds from taking crops (using repellents)

109

Take field corners out of management

110

Mark bird nests during harvest or mowing

110

Cross compliance standards for all subsidy payments

110

Food labelling schemes relating to biodiversity-friendly farming

110

Manage stone-faced hedge banks to benefit birds

110

Plant in-field trees

110

Protect in-field trees

110

Reduce field size (or maintain small fields)

110

Support or maintain low-intensity agricultural systems

110

Tree pollarding, tree surgery

110

3.4.2

Arable farming

111

Create ‘skylark plots’ (undrilled patches in cereal fields)

111

Leave overwinter stubbles

112

Leave uncropped cultivated margins or fallow land (includes lapwing and stone curlew plots)

112

Sow crops in spring rather than autumn

113

Undersow spring cereals, with clover for example

113

Reduce tillage

113

Implement mosaic management

114

Increase crop diversity to benefit birds

114

Plant more than one crop per field (intercropping)

114

Create beetle banks

114

Plant cereals in wide-spaced rows

115

Revert arable land to permanent grassland

115

Add 1% barley into wheat crop for corn buntings

115

Create corn bunting plots

115

Leave unharvested cereal headlands within arable fields

115

Plant nettle strips

115

3.4.3

Livestock farming

116

Delay mowing date on grasslands

116

Leave uncut rye grass in silage fields

117

Maintain species-rich, semi-natural grassland

117

Maintain traditional water meadows

117

Mark fencing to avoid bird mortality

118

Plant cereals for whole crop silage

118

Reduce grazing intensity

118

Reduce management intensity of permanent grasslands

119

Exclude livestock from semi-natural habitat

119

Create open patches or strips in permanent grassland

119

Maintain upland heath/moor

120

Protect nests from livestock to reduce trampling

120

Provide short grass for waders

120

Raise mowing height on grasslands

120

Use traditional breeds of livestock

121

Maintain lowland heathland

121

Maintain rush pastures

121

Maintain wood pasture and parkland

121

Plant Brassica fodder crops

121

Use mixed stocking

121

3.4.4

Perennial, non-timber crops

121

Maintain traditional orchards

121

Manage perennial bioenergy crops to benefit wildlife

122

3.4.5

Aquaculture

122

Deter birds from landing on shellfish culture gear

123

Disturb birds at roosts

123

Provide refuges for fish within ponds

123

Use electric fencing to exclude fish-eating birds

123

Use ‘mussel socks’ to prevent birds from attacking shellfish

124

Use netting to exclude fish-eating birds

124

Increase water turbidity to reduce fish predation by birds

124

Translocate birds away from fish farms

124

Use in-water devices to reduce fish loss from ponds

124

Disturb birds using foot patrols

125

Spray water to deter birds from ponds

125

Scare birds from fish farms

125

3.5

Threat: Energy production and mining

126

Paint wind turbines to increase their visibility

126

3.6

Threat: Transportation and service corridors

127

3.6.1

Verges and airports

127

Scare or otherwise deter birds from airports

127

Mow roadside verges

127

Sow roadside verges

128

3.6.2

Power lines and electricity pylons

128

Mark power lines

128

Bury or isolate power lines

129

Insulate electricity pylons

129

Remove earth wires from power lines

129

Use perch-deterrents to stop raptors perching on pylons

129

Thicken earth wires

129

Add perches to electricity pylons

130

Reduce electrocutions by using plastic, not metal, leg rings to mark birds

130

Use raptor models to deter birds from power lines

130

3.7

Threat: Biological resource use

131

3.7.1

Reducing exploitation and conflict

131

Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations

132

Use wildlife refuges to reduce hunting disturbance

132

Employ local people as ‘biomonitors’

132

Increase ‘on-the-ground’ protection to reduce unsustainable levels of exploitation

132

Introduce voluntary ‘maximum shoot distances’

133

Mark eggs to reduce their appeal to collectors

133

Move fish-eating birds to reduce conflict with fishermen

133

Promote sustainable alternative livelihoods

133

Provide ‘sacrificial grasslands’ to reduce conflict with farmers

134

Relocate nestlings to reduce poaching

134

Use education programmes and local engagement to help reduce persecution or exploitation of species

134

Use alerts during shoots to reduce mortality of non-target species

134

3.7.2

Reducing fisheries bycatch

135

Use streamer lines to reduce seabird bycatch on longlines

136

Mark trawler warp cables to reduce seabird collisions

136

Reduce seabird bycatch by releasing offal overboard when setting longlines

136

Weight baits or lines to reduce longline bycatch of seabirds

137

Set lines underwater to reduce seabird bycatch

137

Set longlines at night to reduce seabird bycatch

137

Dye baits to reduce seabird bycatch

138

Thaw bait before setting lines to reduce seabird bycatch

138

Turn deck lights off during night-time setting of longlines to reduce bycatch

138

Use a sonic scarer when setting longlines to reduce seabird bycatch

138

Use acoustic alerts on gillnets to reduce seabird bycatch

138

Use bait throwers to reduce seabird bycatch

139

Use bird exclusion devices such as ‘Brickle curtains’ to reduce seabird mortality when hauling longlines

139

Use high visibility mesh on gillnets to reduce seabird bycatch

139

Use shark liver oil to deter birds when setting lines

139

Use a line shooter to reduce seabird bycatch

140

Reduce bycatch through seasonal or area closures

140

Reduce ‘ghost fishing’ by lost/discarded gear

140

Reduce gillnet deployment time to reduce seabird bycatch

140

Set longlines at the side of the boat to reduce seabird bycatch

140

Tow buoys behind longlining boats to reduce seabird bycatch

140

Use a water cannon when setting longlines to reduce seabird bycatch

140

Use high-visibility longlines to reduce seabird bycatch

140

Use larger hooks to reduce seabird bycatch on longlines

140

3.8

Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

141

Provide paths to limit disturbance

141

Start educational programmes for personal watercraft owners

142

Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance at nest sites

142

Use voluntary agreements with local people to reduce disturbance

142

Habituate birds to human visitors

142

Use nest covers to reduce the impact of research on predation of ground-nesting seabirds

143

Reduce visitor group sizes

143

Set minimum distances for approaching birds (buffer zones)

143

3.9

Threat: Natural system modifications

144

Create scrapes and pools in wetlands and wet grasslands

146

Provide deadwood/snags in forests (use ring-barking, cutting or silvicides)

146

Use patch retention harvesting instead of clearcutting

146

Clear or open patches in forests

147

Employ grazing in artificial grasslands/pastures

147

Employ grazing in natural grasslands

147

Employ grazing in non-grassland habitats

148

Manage water level in wetlands

148

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (forests)

148

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (mowing or cutting natural grasslands)

149

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (mowing or cutting semi-natural grasslands/pastures)

149

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (shrublands)

150

Raise water levels in ditches or grassland

150

Thin trees within forests

150

Use prescribed burning (grasslands)

151

Use prescribed burning (pine forests)

151

Use prescribed burning (savannahs)

152

Use prescribed burning (shrublands)

152

Use selective harvesting/logging instead of clearcutting

152

Clearcut and re-seed forests

153

Coppice trees

153

Fertilise grasslands

153

Manage woodland edges for birds

154

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (reedbeds)

154

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (savannahs)

154

Plant trees to act as windbreaks

155

Plough habitats

155

Provide deadwood/snags in forests (adding woody debris to forests)

155

Remove coarse woody debris from forests

155

Replace non-native species of tree/shrub

156

Re-seed grasslands

156

Use environmentally sensitive flood management

156

Use fire suppression/control

156

Use greentree reservoir management

157

Use prescribed burning (Australian sclerophyll forest)

157

Use shelterwood cutting instead of clearcutting

157

Use variable retention management during forestry operations

157

Apply herbicide to mid- and understorey vegetation

158

Treat wetlands with herbicides

158

Use prescribed burning (coastal habitats)

158

Use prescribed burning (deciduous forests)

159

Protect nest trees before burning

159

3.10

Habitat restoration and creation

160

Restore or create forests

160

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (inland wetlands)

161

Restore or create grassland

161

Restore or create traditional water meadows

162

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (coastal and intertidal wetlands)

162

Restore or create shrubland

163

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (kelp forests)

163

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (lagoons)

163

Restore or create savannahs

163

Revegetate gravel pits

163

3.11

Threat: Invasive alien and other problematic species

164

3.11.1

Reduce predation by other species

164

Control mammalian predators on islands

165

Remove or control predators to enhance bird populations and communities

165

Control avian predators on islands

165

Control invasive ants on islands

166

Reduce predation by translocating predators

166

Control predators not on islands

166

3.11.2

Reduce incidental mortality during predator eradication or control

167

Distribute poison bait using dispensers

167

Use coloured baits to reduce accidental mortality during predator control

167

Use repellents on baits

167

Do birds take bait designed for pest control?

168

3.11.3

Reduce nest predation by excluding predators from nests or nesting areas

168

Physically protect nests from predators using non-electric fencing

169

Physically protect nests with individual exclosures/barriers or provide shelters for chicks

169

Protect bird nests using electric fencing

169

Use artificial nests that discourage predation

170

Guard nests to prevent predation

170

Plant nesting cover to reduce nest predation

170

Protect nests from ants

170

Use multiple barriers to protect nests

170

Use naphthalene to deter mammalian predators

171

Use snakeskin to deter mammalian nest predators

171

Play spoken-word radio programmes to deter predators

171

Use ‘cat curfews’ to reduce predation

171

Use lion dung to deter domestic cats

171

Use mirrors to deter nest predators

171

Use ultrasonic devices to deter cats

171

Can nest protection increase nest abandonment?

171

Can nest protection increase predation of adults and chicks?

172

3.11.4

Reduce mortality by reducing hunting ability or changing predator behaviour

172

Reduce predation by translocating nest boxes

172

Use collar-mounted devices to reduce predation

173

Use supplementary feeding to reduce predation

173

Use aversive conditioning to reduce nest predation

173

3.11.5

Reduce competition with other species for food and nest sites

174

Reduce inter-specific competition for food by removing or controlling competitor species

174

Protect nest sites from competitors

175

Reduce competition between species by providing nest boxes

175

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by modifying habitats to exclude competitor species

175

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by removing competitor species (ground nesting seabirds)

176

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by removing competitor species (songbirds)

176

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by removing competitor species (woodpeckers)

176

3.11.6

Reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species

177

Control or remove habitat-altering mammals

177

Reduce adverse habitat alterations by excluding problematic species (terrestrial species)

177

Reduce adverse habitat alterations by excluding problematic species (aquatic species)

178

Remove problematic vegetation

178

Use buffer zones to reduce the impact of invasive plant control

178

3.11.7

Reduce parasitism and disease

179

Remove/control adult brood parasites

179

Remove/treat endoparasites and diseases

180

Alter artificial nest sites to discourage brood parasitism

180

Exclude or control ‘reservoir species’ to reduce parasite burdens

180

Remove brood parasite eggs from target species’ nests

180

Remove/treat ectoparasites to increase survival or reproductive success (provide beneficial nesting material)

181

Remove/treat ectoparasites to increase survival or reproductive success (remove ectoparasites from feathers)

181

Use false brood parasite eggs to discourage brood parasitism

181

Remove/treat ectoparasites to increase survival or reproductive success (remove ectoparasites from nests)

181

3.11.8

Reduce detrimental impacts of other problematic species

182

Use copper strips to exclude snails from nests

182

3.12

Threat: Pollution

183

3.12.1

Industrial pollution

183

Use visual and acoustic ‘scarers’ to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining or sewage

183

Relocate birds following oil spills

184

Use repellents to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining

184

Clean birds after oil spills

184

3.12.2

Agricultural pollution

185

Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands)

185

Provide food for vultures to reduce mortality from diclofenac

186

Reduce pesticide, herbicide and fertiliser use generally

186

Reduce chemical inputs in permanent grassland management

186

Restrict certain pesticides or other agricultural chemicals

186

Make selective use of spring herbicides

187

Provide buffer strips along rivers and streams

187

Provide unfertilised cereal headlands in arable fields

187

Use buffer strips around in-field ponds

187

Use organic rather than mineral fertilisers

187

3.12.3

Air-borne pollutants

187

Use lime to reduce acidification in lakes

187

3.12.4

Excess energy

188

Shield lights to reduce mortality from artificial lights

188

Turning off lights to reduce mortality from artificial lights

188

Use flashing lights to reduce mortality from artificial lights

189

Use lights low in spectral red to reduce mortality from artificial lights

189

Reduce the intensity of lighthouse beams

189

Using volunteers to collect and rehabilitate downed birds

189

3.13

Threat: Climate change, extreme weather and geological events

190

Replace nesting habitats when they are washed away by storms

190

Water nesting mounds to increase incubation success in malleefowl

191

3.14

General responses to small/ declining populations

192

3.14.1

Inducing breeding, rehabilitation and egg removal

192

Rehabilitate injured birds

192

Remove eggs from wild nests to increase reproductive output

193

Use artificial visual and auditory stimuli to induce breeding in wild populations

193

3.14.2

Provide artificial nesting sites

193

Provide artificial nests (falcons)

194

Provide artificial nests (owls)

195

Provide artificial nests (songbirds)

195

Provide artificial nests (wildfowl)

196

Clean artificial nests to increase occupancy or reproductive success

196

Provide artificial nests (burrow-nesting seabirds)

197

Provide artificial nests (divers/loons)

197

Provide artificial nests (ground- and tree-nesting seabirds)

197

Provide artificial nests (oilbirds)

198

Provide artificial nests (raptors)

198

Provide artificial nests (wildfowl — artificial/floating islands)

198

Artificially incubate eggs or warm nests

198

Guard nests

199

Provide artificial nests (gamebirds)

199

Provide artificial nests (grebes)

199

Provide artificial nests (ibises and flamingos)

199

Provide artificial nests (parrots)

199

Provide artificial nests (pigeons)

200

Provide artificial nests (rails)

200

Provide artificial nests (rollers)

200

Provide artificial nests (swifts)

200

Provide artificial nests (trogons)

201

Provide artificial nests (waders)

201

Provide artificial nests (woodpeckers)

201

Provide nesting habitat for birds that is safe from extreme weather

201

Provide nesting material for wild birds

202

Remove vegetation to create nesting areas

202

Repair/support nests to support breeding

202

Use differently-coloured artificial nests

202

3.14.3

Foster chicks in the wild

203

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (raptors)

203

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (songbirds)

204

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (bustards)

204

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (cranes)

204

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (gannets and boobies)

204

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (owls)

205

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (parrots)

205

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (vultures)

205

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (waders)

205

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (woodpeckers)

206

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (cranes)

206

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (ibises)

206

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (petrels and shearwaters)

206

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (waders)

206

3.14.4

Provide supplementary food

207

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (songbirds)

209

Place feeders close to windows to reduce collisions

209

Provide calcium supplements to increase survival or reproductive success

210

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (cranes)

210

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (gulls, terns and skuas)

210

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (owls)

210

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (raptors)

211

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (songbirds)

211

Provide perches to improve foraging success

212

Provide supplementary food through the establishment of food populations

212

Provide supplementary food to allow the rescue of a second chick

213

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (gamebirds)

213

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (gulls, terns and skuas)

213

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (hummingbirds)

213

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (nectar-feeding songbirds)

214

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (pigeons)

214

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (raptors)

214

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (vultures)

215

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (waders)

215

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (wildfowl)

215

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (woodpeckers)

215

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (auks)

216

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (gamebirds)

216

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (gannets and boobies)

216

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (ibises)

217

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (kingfishers)

217

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (parrots)

217

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (petrels)

217

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (pigeons)

218

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (rails and coots)

218

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (vultures)

218

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (waders)

219

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (wildfowl)

219

Provide supplementary water to increase survival or reproductive success

219

3.14.5

Translocations

219

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (birds in general)

221

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (raptors)

221

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (parrots)

221

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (pelicans)

221

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (petrels and shearwaters)

222

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (rails)

222

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (songbirds)

222

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (wildfowl)

222

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (woodpeckers)

223

Use decoys to attract birds to new sites

223

Use techniques to increase the survival of species after capture

223

Use vocalisations to attract birds to new sites

224

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (gamebirds)

224

Alter habitats to encourage birds to leave

224

Ensure translocated birds are familiar with each other before release

224

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (auks)

225

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (herons, storks and ibises)

225

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (megapodes)

225

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (owls)

225

Translocate nests to avoid disturbance

226

Ensure genetic variation to increase translocation success

226

3.15

Captive breeding, rearing and releases (ex situ conservation)

227

3.15.1

Captive breeding

227

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (raptors)

229

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (seabirds)

229

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (songbirds)

229

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (waders)

230

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (raptors)

230

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (bustards)

230

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (cranes)

231

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (gamebirds)

231

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (parrots)

231

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (penguins)

231

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (rails)

232

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (storks and ibises)

232

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (vultures)

232

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (wildfowl)

232

Freeze semen for artificial insemination

233

Use artificial insemination in captive breeding

233

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (bustards)

233

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (cranes)

234

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (pigeons)

234

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (rails)

234

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (seabirds)

234

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (songbirds)

234

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (storks and ibises)

235

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (tinamous)

235

Use puppets to increase the success of hand-rearing

235

Wash contaminated semen and use it for artificial insemination

236

Can captive breeding have deleterious effects?

236

3.15.2

Release captive-bred individuals

236

Provide supplementary food after release

237

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (cranes)

238

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (raptors)

238

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (songbirds)

238

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (vultures)

239

Clip birds’ wings on release

239

Release birds as adults or sub-adults not juveniles

239

Release birds in groups

240

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (bustards)

240

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (gamebirds)

240

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (owls)

240

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (parrots)

241

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (pigeons)

241

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (rails)

241

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (storks and ibises)

242

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (waders)

242

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (wildfowl)

242

Release chicks and adults in ‘coveys’

242

Use ‘anti-predator training’ to improve survival after release

243

Use appropriate populations to source released populations

243

Use ‘flying training’ before release

243

Use holding pens at release sites

243

Use microlites to help birds migrate

244

4. FARMLAND CONSERVATION

245

4.1

All farming systems

247

Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields

248

Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields

249

Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips

249

Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture

249

Provide or retain set-aside areas in farmland

250

Manage ditches to benefit wildlife

250

Manage hedgerows to benefit wildlife (includes no spray, gap-filling and laying)

251

Pay farmers to cover the cost of conservation measures (as in agri-environment schemes)

251

Provide supplementary food for birds or mammals

251

Connect areas of natural or semi-natural habitat

252

Increase the proportion of semi-natural habitat in the farmed landscape

252

Make direct payments per clutch for farmland birds

252

Manage the agricultural landscape to enhance floral resources

252

Mark bird nests during harvest or mowing

253

Plant new hedges

253

Provide nest boxes for bees (solitary bees or bumblebees)

253

Provide nest boxes for birds

253

Provide other resources for birds (water, sand for bathing)

254

Provide refuges during harvest or mowing

254

Apply ‘cross compliance’ environmental standards linked to all subsidy payments

254

Implement food labelling schemes relating to biodiversity-friendly farming (organic, LEAF marque)

254

Introduce nest boxes stocked with solitary bees

254

Maintain in-field elements such as field islands and rockpiles

254

Manage stone-faced hedge banks to benefit wildlife

254

Manage woodland edges to benefit wildlife

254

Plant in-field trees (not farm woodland)

254

Protect in-field trees (includes management such as pollarding and surgery)

255

Provide badger gates

255

Provide foraging perches (e.g. for shrikes)

255

Provide otter holts

255

Provide red squirrel feeders

255

Reduce field size (or maintain small fields)

255

Restore or maintain dry stone walls

255

Support or maintain low intensity agricultural systems

255

4.2

Arable farming

256

Create skylark plots

257

Leave cultivated, uncropped margins or plots (includes ‘lapwing plots’)

257

Create beetle banks

257

Leave overwinter stubbles

258

Reduce tillage

258

Undersow spring cereals, with clover for example

258

Convert or revert arable land to permanent grassland

259

Create rotational grass or clover leys

259

Increase crop diversity

259

Plant cereals in wide-spaced rows

259

Plant crops in spring rather than autumn

260

Plant nettle strips

260

Sow rare or declining arable weeds

260

Add 1% barley into wheat crop for corn buntings

260

Create corn bunting plots

260

Leave unharvested cereal headlands in arable fields

260

Use new crop types to benefit wildlife (such as perennial cereal crops)

260

Implement ‘mosaic management’, a Dutch agri-environment option

261

Plant more than one crop per field (intercropping)

261

Take field corners out of management

261

4.3

Perennial (non-timber) crops

262

Maintain traditional orchards

262

Manage short-rotation coppice to benefit wildlife (includes 8 m rides)

262

Restore or create traditional orchards

262

4.4

Livestock farming

263

Restore or create species-rich, semi-natural grassland

264

Use mowing techniques to reduce mortality

264

Delay mowing or first grazing date on grasslands

265

Leave uncut strips of rye grass on silage fields

265

Maintain species-rich, semi-natural grassland

265

Maintain traditional water meadows (includes management for breeding and/or wintering waders/waterfowl)

266

Maintain upland heath/moorland

266

Reduce management intensity on permanent grasslands (several interventions at once)

266

Restore or create traditional water meadows

267

Add yellow rattle seed Rhinanthus minor to hay meadows

267

Employ areas of semi-natural habitat for rough grazing (includes salt marsh, lowland heath, bog, fen)

267

Exclude livestock from semi-natural habitat (including woodland)

268

Maintain wood pasture and parkland

268

Plant cereals for whole crop silage

268

Raise mowing height on grasslands

268

Restore or create upland heath/moorland

269

Restore or create wood pasture

269

Use traditional breeds of livestock

269

Reduce grazing intensity on grassland (including seasonal removal of livestock)

269

Maintain rush pastures

270

Mark fencing to avoid bird mortality

270

Plant brassica fodder crops (grazed in situ)

270

Create open patches or strips in permanent grassland

270

Provide short grass for birds

270

Use mixed stocking

270

4.5

Threat: Residential and commercial development

271

Provide owl nest boxes (tawny owl, barn owl)

271

Maintain traditional farm buildings

271

Provide bat boxes, bat grilles, improvements to roosts

271

4.6

Threat: Agri-chemicals

272

Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands)

272

Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally

273

Use organic rather than mineral fertilizers

273

Reduce chemical inputs in grassland management

273

Provide buffer strips alongside water courses (rivers and streams)

274

Restrict certain pesticides

274

Buffer in-field ponds

274

Make selective use of spring herbicides

274

4.7

Threat: Transport and service corridors

275

Manage land under power lines to benefit wildlife

275

4.8

Threat: Hunting and trapping (for pest control, food or sport)

276

Enforce legislation to protect birds against persecution

276

Provide ‘sacrificial’ grasslands to reduce the impact of wild geese on crops

277

Avoid use of lead shot

277

Use alerts to reduce grey partridge by-catch during shoots

277

Use scaring devices (e.g. gas guns) and other deterrents to reduce persecution of native species

277

4.9

Threat: Natural system modification

278

Raise water levels in ditches or grassland

278

Create scrapes and pools

279

Manage heather by swiping to simulate burning

279

Manage heather, gorse or grass by burning

279

Remove flood defence banks to allow inundation

279

Re-wet moorland

280

4.10

Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

281

Control predatory mammals and birds (foxes, crows, stoats and weasels)

281

Control scrub

282

Control weeds without damaging other plants in conservation areas

282

Protect individual nests of ground-nesting birds

282

Control grey squirrels

282

Erect predator-proof fencing around important breeding sites for waders

283

Manage wild deer numbers

283

Remove coarse fish

283

Control bracken

283

Control invasive non-native plants on farmland (such as Himalayan balsam, Japanese knotweed)

283

Control mink

283

Provide medicated grit for grouse

283

4.11

Threat: Education and awareness

284

Provide specialist advice, assistance preparing conservation plans

284

Provide training for land managers, farmers and farm advisers

284

5. FOREST CONSERVATION

285

5.1

Threat: Residential and commercial development

287

5.1.1

Housing and urban areas

287

Compensate for woodland removal with compensatory planting

287

Incorporate existing trees or woods into the landscape of new developments

287

Provide legal protection of forests from development

287

5.1.2

Tourism and recreation areas

288

Adopt ecotourism

288

Create managed paths/signs to contain disturbance

288

Re-route paths, control access or close paths

288

Use warning signs to prevent fire

288

5.2

Threat: Agriculture

289

5.2.1

Livestock farming

289

Use wire fences within grazing areas to exclude livestock from specific forest sections

289

Prevent livestock grazing in forests

290

Reduce the intensity of livestock grazing in forests

290

Shorten livestock grazing period or control grazing season in forests

290

Provide financial incentives not to graze

291

5.3

Threat: Transport and service corridors

292

Maintain/create habitat corridors

292

5.4

Threat: Biological resource use

293

5.4.1

Thinning and wood harvesting

293

Log/remove trees within forests: effects on understory plants

294

Thin trees within forests: effects on understory plants

294

Thin trees within forests: effects on young trees

294

Use shelterwood harvest instead of clearcutting

295

Thin trees within forests: effects on mature trees

295

Log/remove trees within forests: effects on young trees

295

Use partial retention harvesting instead of clearcutting

295

Use summer instead of winter harvesting

296

Remove woody debris after timber harvest

296

Log/remove trees within forests: effect on mature trees

296

Log/remove trees within forests: effect on effects on non-vascular plants

297

Thin trees within forests: effects on non-vascular plants

297

Adopt continuous cover forestry

297

Use brash mats during harvesting to avoid soil compaction

297

5.4.2

Harvest forest products

297

Adopt certification

298

Sustainable management of non-timber products

298

5.4.3

Firewood

298

Provide fuel efficient stoves

298

Provide paraffin stoves

298

5.5

Habitat protection

299

5.5.1

Changing fire frequency

299

Use prescribed fire: effect on understory plants

299

Use prescribed fire: effect on young trees

300

Use prescribed fire: effect on mature trees

300

Mechanically remove understory vegetation to reduce wildfires

300

Use herbicides to remove understory vegetation to reduce wildfires

300

5.5.2

Water management

301

Construct water detention areas to slow water flow and restore riparian forests

301

Introduce beavers to impede water flow in forest watercourses

301

Recharge groundwater to restore wetland forest

301

5.5.3

Changing disturbance regime

301

Use clearcutting to increase understory diversity

302

Use group-selection harvesting

302

Use shelterwood harvesting

303

Thin trees by girdling (cutting rings around tree trunks)

303

Use herbicides to thin trees

303

Use thinning followed by prescribed fire

303

Adopt conservation grazing of woodland

304

Coppice trees

304

Halo ancient trees

304

Imitate natural disturbances by pushing over trees

304

Pollard trees (top cutting or top pruning)

304

Reintroduce large herbivores

304

Retain fallen trees

304

5.6

Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

305

5.6.1

Invasive plants

305

Manually/mechanically remove invasive plants

305

Use herbicides to remove invasive plant species

306

Use grazing to remove invasive plant species

306

Use prescribed fire to remove invasive plant species

306

5.6.2

Native plants

306

Manually/mechanically remove native plants

306

5.6.3

Herbivores

306

Use wire fences to exclude large native herbivores

307

Use electric fencing to exclude large native herbivores

307

Control large herbivore populations

307

Control medium-sized herbivores

307

Use fencing to enclose large herbivores (e.g. deer)

307

5.6.4

Rodents

308

Control rodents

308

5.6.5

Birds

308

Control birds

308

5.7

Threat: Pollution

309

Maintain/create buffer zones

309

Remove nitrogen and phosphorus using harvested products

309

5.8

Threat: Climate change and severe weather

310

Prevent damage from strong winds

310

5.9

Habitat protection

311

Adopt community-based management to protect forests

311

Legal protection of forests

311

Adopt Protected Species legislation (impact on forest management)

312

5.10

Habitat restoration and creation

313

5.10.1

Restoration after wildfire

313

Thin trees after wildfire

313

Remove burned trees

314

Sow tree seeds after wildfire

314

Plant trees after wildfire

314

5.10.2

Restoration after agriculture

314

Restore wood pasture (e.g. introduce grazing)

315

5.10.3

Manipulate habitat to increase planted tree survival during restoration

315

Apply herbicides after restoration planting

315

Cover the ground using techniques other than plastic mats after restoration planting

316

Cover the ground with plastic mats after restoration planting

316

Use selective thinning after restoration planting

316

5.10.4

Restore forest community

316

Build bird-perches to enhance natural seed dispersal

317

Plant a mixture of tree species to enhance diversity

317

Sow tree seeds

317

Water plants to preserve dry tropical forest species

317

Restore woodland herbaceous plants using transplants and nursery plugs

317

Use rotational grazing to restore oak savannas

317

5.10.5

Prevent/encourage leaf litter accumulation

318

Remove or disturb leaf litter to enhance germination

318

Encourage leaf litter development in new planting

318

5.10.6

Increase soil fertility

318

Use vegetation removal together with mechanical disturbance to the soil

319

Add organic matter

319

Use fertilizer

319

Use soil scarification or ploughing to enhance germination

320

Add lime to the soil to increase fertility

320

Use soil disturbance to enhance germination (excluding scarification or ploughing)

320

Enhance soil compaction

321

5.11

Actions to improve survival and growth rate of planted trees

322

Prepare the ground before tree planting

323

Use mechanical thinning before or after planting

323

Fence to prevent grazing after tree planting

323

Use herbicide after tree planting

324

Use prescribed fire after tree planting

324

Apply insecticide to protect seedlings from invertebrates

324

Add lime to the soil after tree planting

325

Add organic matter after tree planting

325

Cover the ground with straw after tree planting

325

Improve soil quality after tree planting (excluding applying fertilizer)

325

Manage woody debris before tree planting

325

Use shading for planted trees

326

Use tree guards or shelters to protect planted trees

326

Use weed mats to protect planted trees

326

Water seedlings

326

Mechanically remove understory vegetation after tree planting

326

Use different planting or seeding methods

327

Use fertilizer after tree planting

327

Apply fungicide to protect seedlings from fungal diseases

327

Infect tree seedlings with mycorrhizae

327

Introduce leaf litter to forest stands

327

Plant a mixture of tree species to enhance the survival and growth of planted trees

327

Reduce erosion to increase seedling survival

327

Transplant trees

327

Use pioneer plants or crops as nurse-plants

327

5.12

Education and awareness raising

328

Provide education programmes about forests

328

Raise awareness amongst the general public through campaigns and public information

328

6. PEATLAND CONSERVATION

329

6.1

Threat: Residential and commercial development

331

Remove residential or commercial development from peatlands

331

Retain/create habitat corridors in developed areas

331

6.2

Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture

332

6.2.1

Multiple farming systems

332

Retain/create habitat corridors in farmed areas

332

Implement ‘mosaic management’ of agriculture

333

6.2.2

Wood and pulp plantations

333

Cut/remove/thin forest plantations

333

Cut/remove/thin forest plantations and rewet peat

334

6.2.3

Livestock farming and ranching

335

Exclude or remove livestock from degraded peatlands

335

Reduce intensity of livestock grazing

337

Use barriers to keep livestock off ungrazed peatlands

337

Change type of livestock

337

Change season/timing of livestock grazing

337

6.3

Threat: Energy production and mining

338

Replace blocks of vegetation after mining or peat extraction

338

Retain/create habitat corridors in areas of energy production or mining

339

6.4

Threat: Transportation and service corridors

340

Maintain/restore water flow across service corridors

340

Backfill trenches dug for pipelines

340

Retain/create habitat corridors across service corridors

340

6.5

Threat: Biological resource use

341

Reduce intensity of harvest

341

Reduce frequency of harvest

342

Use low impact harvesting techniques

342

Use low impact vehicles for harvesting

342

Implement ‘mosaic management’ when harvesting wild biological resources

342

Provide new technologies to reduce pressure on wild biological resources

342

6.6

Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

343

Physically exclude vehicles from peatlands

343

Restrict vehicle use on peatlands

344

Restrict pedestrian access to peatlands

344

Physically exclude pedestrians from peatlands

344

Install boardwalks/paths to prevent trampling

344

Wear snowshoes to prevent trampling

344

Adopt ecotourism principles/create an ecotourism site

344

6.7

Threat: Natural system modifications

345

6.7.1

Modified water management

345

Rewet peatland (raise water table)

345

Irrigate peatland

348

Reduce water level of flooded peatlands

348

Restore natural water level fluctuations

348

6.7.2

Modified vegetation management

348

Cut/mow herbaceous plants to maintain or restore disturbance

349

Cut large trees/shrubs to maintain or restore disturbance

350

Use grazing to maintain or restore disturbance

351

Remove plant litter to maintain or restore disturbance

352

Use prescribed fire to maintain or restore disturbance

353

6.7.3

Modified wild fire regime

354

Thin vegetation to prevent wild fires

354

Rewet peat to prevent wild fires

354

Build fire breaks

354

Adopt zero burning policies near peatlands

354

6.8

Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

355

6.8.1

All problematic species

355

Implement biosecurity measures to prevent introductions of problematic species

355

6.8.2

Problematic plants

355

Use prescribed fire to control problematic plants

356

Physically remove problematic plants

357

Use cutting/mowing to control problematic herbaceous plants

358

Change season/timing of cutting/mowing

358

Use cutting to control problematic large trees/shrubs

359

Use herbicide to control problematic plants

360

Introduce an organism to control problematic plants

360

Physically damage problematic plants

360

Use grazing to control problematic plants

360

Use covers/barriers to control problematic plants

360

6.8.3

Problematic animals

361

Exclude wild herbivores using physical barriers

361

Control populations of wild herbivores

361

6.9

Threat: Pollution

362

6.9.1

Multiple sources of pollution

362

Divert/replace polluted water source(s)

362

Clean waste water before it enters the environment

363

Slow down input water to allow more time for pollutants to be removed

363

Retain or create buffer zones between pollution sources and peatlands

364

Use artificial barriers to prevent pollution entering peatlands

364

Reduce fertilizer or herbicide use near peatlands

364

Manage fertilizer or herbicide application near peatlands

364

6.9.2

Agricultural and aquacultural effluents

364

Convert to organic agriculture or aquaculture near peatlands

364

Limit the density of livestock on farmland near peatlands

364

Use biodegradable oil in farming machinery

364

6.9.3

Industrial and military effluents

365

Remove oil from contaminated peatlands

365

6.9.4

Airborne pollutants

365

Remove pollutants from waste gases before they enter the environment

365

Add lime to reduce acidity and/or increase fertility

366

Drain/replace acidic water

366

6.10

Threat: Climate change and severe weather

367

Add water to peatlands to compensate for drought

367

Plant shelter belts to protect peatlands from wind

367

Build barriers to protect peatlands from the sea

367

Restore/create peatlands in areas that will be climatically suitable in the future

367

6.11

Habitat creation and restoration

368

6.11.1

General habitat creation and restoration

368

Restore/create peatland vegetation (multiple interventions)

368

Restore/create peatland vegetation using the moss layer transfer technique

369

6.11.2

Modify physical habitat only

370

Fill/block ditches to create conditions suitable for peatland plants

371

Remove upper layer of peat/soil

371

Excavate pools

372

Reprofile/relandscape peatland

373

Disturb peatland surface to encourage growth of desirable plants

373

Add inorganic fertilizer

374

Cover peatland with organic mulch

374

Cover peatland with something other than mulch

375

Stabilize peatland surface to help plants colonize

375

Build artificial bird perches to encourage seed dispersal

375

Roughen peat surface to create microclimates

376

Bury upper layer of peat/soil

376

Introduce nurse plants

376

6.11.3

Introduce peatland vegetation

376

Add mosses to peatland surface

376

Add mixed vegetation to peatland surface

377

Directly plant peatland mosses

378

Directly plant peatland herbs

378

Directly plant peatland trees/shrubs

379

Introduce seeds of peatland herbs

379

Introduce seeds of peatland trees/shrubs

380

6.12

Actions to complement planting

382

Cover peatland with organic mulch (after planting)

383

Cover peatland with something other than mulch (after planting)

383

Reprofile/relandscape peatland (before planting)

384

Add inorganic fertilizer (before/after planting)

385

Introduce nurse plants (to aid focal peatland plants)

386

Irrigate peatland (before/after planting)

386

Create mounds or hollows (before planting)

386

Add fresh peat to peatland (before planting)

387

Remove vegetation that could compete with planted peatland vegetation

387

Add root-associated fungi to plants (before planting)

387

Add lime (before/after planting)

388

Add organic fertilizer (before/after planting)

388

Rewet peatland (before/after planting)

388

Remove upper layer of peat/soil (before planting)

388

Bury upper layer of peat/soil (before planting)

388

Encapsulate planted moss fragments in beads/gel

388

Use fences or barriers to protect planted vegetation

388

Protect or prepare vegetation before planting (other interventions)

388

6.13

Habitat protection

389

Legally protect peatlands

389

Pay landowners to protect peatlands

390

Increase ‘on the ground’ protection (e.g. rangers)

390

Create legislation for ‘no net loss’ of wetlands

390

Adopt voluntary agreements to protect peatlands

390

Allow sustainable use of peatlands

390

6.14

Education and awareness

391

Raise awareness amongst the public (general)

391

Provide education or training programmes about peatlands or peatland management

392

Lobby, campaign or demonstrate to protect peatlands

392

Raise awareness amongst the public (wild fire)

392

Raise awareness amongst the public (problematic species)

392

Raise awareness through engaging volunteers in peatland management or monitoring

392

7. PRIMATE CONSERVATION

393

7.1

Threat: Residential and commercial development

395

Remove and relocate ‘problem’ animals

395

Relocate primates to non-residential areas

396

Discourage the planting of fruit trees and vegetable gardens on the urban edge biodiversity-friendly farming

396

7.2

Threat: Agriculture

397

Humans chase primates using random loud noise

398

Prohibit (livestock) farmers from entering protected areas

399

Use nets to keep primates out of fruit trees

399

Create natural habitat islands within agricultural land

399

Use fences as biological corridors for primates

399

Provide sacrificial rows of crops on outer side of fields

399

Compensate farmers for produce loss caused by primates

399

Pay farmers to cover the costs of non-harmful strategies to deter primates

399

Retain nesting trees/shelter for primates within agricultural fields

399

Plant nesting trees/shelter for primates within agricultural fields

399

Regularly remove traps and snares around agricultural fields

399

Certify farms and market their products as ‘primate friendly’

400

Farm more intensively and effectively in selected areas and spare more natural land

400

Install mechanical barriers to deter primates (e.g. fences, ditches)

400

Use of natural hedges to deter primates

400

Use of unpalatable buffer crops

400

Change of crop (i.e. to a crop less palatable to primates)

400

Plant crops favoured by primates away from primate areas

400

Destroy habitat within buffer zones to make them unusable for primates

400

Use GPS and/or VHF tracking devices on individuals of problem troops to provide farmers with early warning of crop raiding

400

Chase crop-raiding primates using dogs

400

Train langur monkeys to deter rhesus macaques

400

Use loud-speakers to broadcast sounds of potential threats (e.g. barking dogs, explosions, gunshots)

400

Use loud-speakers to broadcast primate alarm calls

400

Strategically lay out the scent of a primate predator (e.g. leopard, lion)

400

Humans chase primates using bright light

400

7.3

Threat: Energy production and mining

401

Minimize ground vibrations caused by open cast mining activities

401

Establish no-mining zones in/near watersheds so as to preserve water levels and water quality

401

Use ‘set-aside’ areas of natural habitat for primate protection within mining area

401

Certify mines and market their products as ‘primate friendly’ (e.g. ape-friendly cellular phones)

401

Create/preserve primate habitat on islands before dam construction

401

7.4

Threat: Transportation and service corridors

402

Install rope or pole (canopy) bridges

403

Install green bridges (overpasses)

403

Implement speed limits in particular areas (e.g. with high primate densities) to reduce vehicle collisions with primates

403

Reduce road widths

403

Impose fines for breaking the speed limit or colliding with primates

403

Avoid building roads in key habitat or migration routes

403

Implement a minimum number of roads (and minimize secondary roads) needed to reach mining extraction sites

403

Re-use old roads rather than building new roads

403

Re-route vehicles around protected areas

403

Install speed bumps to reduce vehicle collisions with primates

403

Provide adequate signage of presence of primates on or near roads

403

7.5

Threat: Biological resource use

404

7.5.1

Hunting

404

Conduct regular anti-poaching patrols

405

Regularly de-activate/remove ground snares

405

Provide better equipment (e.g. guns) to anti-poaching ranger patrols

405

Implement local no-hunting community policies/traditional hunting ban

406

Implement community control of patrolling, banning hunting and removing snares

406

Strengthen/support/re-install traditions/taboos that forbid the killing of primates

406

Implement monitoring surveillance strategies (e.g. SMART) or use monitoring data to improve effectiveness of wildlife law enforcement patrols

407

Provide training to anti-poaching ranger patrols

407

Implement no-hunting seasons for primates

407

Implement sustainable harvesting of primates (e.g. with permits, resource access agreements)

407

Encourage use of traditional hunting methods rather than using guns

407

Implement road blocks to inspect cars for illegal primate bushmeat

407

Provide medicine to local communities to control killing of primates for medicinal purposes

407

Introduce ammunition tax

407

Inspect bushmeat markets for illegal primate species

407

Inform hunters of the dangers (e.g., disease transmission) of wild primate meat

407

7.5.2

Substitution

408

Use selective logging instead of clear-cutting

409

Avoid/minimize logging of important food tree species for primates

409

Use patch retention harvesting instead of clear-cutting

409

Implement small and dispersed logging compartments

409

Use shelter wood cutting instead of clear-cutting

409

Leave hollow trees in areas of selective logging for sleeping sites

409

Clear open patches in the forest

409

Thin trees within forests

409

Coppice trees

409

Manually control or remove secondary mid-storey and ground-level vegetation

409

Avoid slashing climbers/lianas, trees housing them, hemi-epiphytic figs, and ground vegetation

410

Incorporate forested corridors or buffers into logged areas

410

Close non-essential roads as soon as logging operations are complete

410

Use ‘set-asides’ for primate protection within logging area

410

Work inward from barriers or boundaries (e.g. river) to avoid pushing primates toward an impassable barrier or inhospitable habitat

410

Reduce the size of forestry teams to include employees only (not family members)

410

Certify forest concessions and market their products as ‘primate friendly’

410

Provide domestic meat to workers of the logging company to reduce hunting

410

7.6

Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

411

Implement a ‘no-feeding of wild primates’ policy

411

Put up signs to warn people about not feeding primates

412

Resettle illegal human communities (i.e. in a protected area) to another location

412

Build fences to keep humans out

412

Restrict number of people that are allowed access to the site

412

Install ‘primate-proof’ garbage bins

412

Do not allow people to consume food within natural areas where primates can view them

412

7.7

Threat: Natural system modifications

413

Use prescribed burning within the context of home range size and use

413

Protect important food/nest trees before burning

413

7.8

Threat: Invasive and other problematic species and genes

414

7.8.1

Problematic animal/plant species and genes

414

Reduce primate predation by non-primate species through exclusion (e.g. fences) or translocation

415

Reduce primate predation by other primate species through exclusion (e.g. fences) or translocation

415

Control habitat-altering mammals (e.g. elephants) through exclusion (e.g. fences) or translocation

415

Control inter-specific competition for food through exclusion (e.g. fences) or translocation

415

Remove alien invasive vegetation where the latter has a clear negative effect on the primate species in question

415

Prevent gene contamination by alien primate species introduced by humans, through exclusion (e.g. fences) or translocation

415

7.8.2

Disease transmission

415

Preventative vaccination of habituated or wild primates

416

Wear face-masks to avoid transmission of viral and bacterial diseases to primates

417

Keep safety distance to habituated animals

417

Limit time that researchers/tourists are allowed to spend with habituated animals

417

Implement quarantine for primates before reintroduction/translocation

418

Ensure that researchers/tourists are up-to-date with vaccinations and healthy

418

Regularly disinfect clothes, boots etc

418

Treat sick/injured animals

419

Remove/treat external/internal parasites to increase reproductive success/survival

419

Conduct veterinary screens of animals before reintroducing/translocating them

419

Implement continuous health monitoring with permanent vet on site

420

Detect and report dead primates and clinically determine their cause of death to avoid disease transmission

420

Implement quarantine for people arriving at, and leaving the site

421

Wear gloves when handling primate food, tool items, etc

421

Control ‘reservoir’ species to reduce parasite burdens/pathogen sources

421

Avoid contact between wild primates and human-raised primates

421

Implement a health programme for local communities

421

7.9

Threat: Pollution

422

7.9.1

Garbage/solid waste

422

Reduce garbage/solid waste to avoid primate injuries

422

Remove human food waste that may potentially serve as food sources for primates to avoid disease transmission and conflict with humans

422

7.9.2

Excess energy

423

Reduce noise pollution by restricting development activities to certain times of the day/night

423

7.10

Education and Awareness

424

Educate local communities about primates and sustainable use

424

Involve local community in primate research and conservation management

425

Regularly play TV and radio announcements to raise primate conservation awareness

425

Implement multimedia campaigns using theatre, film, print media, and discussions

425

Install billboards to raise primate conservation awareness

426

Integrate local religion/taboos into conservation education

426

7.11

Habitat protection

427

7.11.1

Habitat protection

427

Create/protect habitat corridors

427

Legally protect primate habitat

428

Establish areas for conservation which are not protected by national or international legislation (e.g. private sector standards and codes)

428

Create/protect forest patches in highly fragmented landscapes

428

Create buffer zones around protected primate habitat

429

Demarcate and enforce boundaries of protected areas

429

7.11.2

Habitat creation or restoration

429

Plant indigenous trees to re-establish natural tree communities in clear-cut areas

429

Restore habitat corridors

430

Plant indigenous fast-growing trees (will not necessarily resemble original community) in clear-cut areas

430

Use weeding to promote regeneration of indigenous tree communities

430

7.12

Species management

431

7.12.1

Species management

431

Guard habituated primate groups to ensure their safety/well-being

431

Habituate primates to human presence to reduce stress from tourists/researchers etc

432

Implement legal protection for primate species under threat

432

Implement birth control to stabilize primate community/population size

432

7.12.2

Species recovery

433

Regularly and continuously provide supplementary food to primates

433

Regularly provide supplementary food to primates during resource scarce periods only

433

Provide supplementary food for a certain period of time only

434

Provide additional sleeping platforms/nesting sites for primates

434

Provide artificial water sources

434

Provide salt licks for primates

435

Provide supplementary food to primates through the establishment of prey populations

435

7.12.3

Species reintroduction

435

Reintroduce primates into habitat where the species is absent

436

Translocate (capture and release) wild primates from development sites to natural habitat elsewhere

436

Translocate (capture and release) wild primates from abundant population areas to non-inhabited environments

436

Allow primates to adapt to local habitat conditions for some time before introduction to the wild

437

Reintroduce primates in groups

437

Reintroduce primates as single/multiple individuals

438

Reintroduce primates into habitat where the species is present

438

Reintroduce primates into habitat with predators

438

Reintroduce primates into habitat without predators

439

7.12.4

Ex-situ conservation

439

Captive breeding and reintroduction of primates into the wild: born and reared in cages

439

Captive breeding and reintroduction of primates into the wild: limited free-ranging experience

440

Captive breeding and reintroduction of primates into the wild: born and raised in a free-ranging environment

440

Rehabilitate injured/orphaned primates

440

Fostering appropriate behaviour to facilitate rehabilitation

441

7.13

Livelihood; economic and other incentives

442

7.13.1

Provide benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife

442

Provide monetary benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife (e.g. REDD, employment)

443

Provide non-monetary benefits to local communities for sustainably managing their forest and its wildlife (e.g. better education, infrastructure development)

443

7.13.2

Long-term presence of research/tourism project

444

Run research project and ensure permanent human presence at site

444

Run tourism project and ensure permanent human presence at site

445

Permanent presence of staff/managers

445

8. SHRUBLAND AND HEATHLAND CONSERVATION

447

8.1

Threat: Residential and commercial development

449

Remove residential or commercial development

449

Maintain/create habitat corridors in developed areas

449

8.2

Threat: Agriculture and aquaculture

450

Reduce number of livestock

450

Use fences to exclude livestock from shrublands

451

Change type of livestock

452

Shorten the period during which livestock can graze

453

8.3

Threat: Energy production and mining

454

Maintain/create habitat corridors in areas of energy production or mining

454

8.4

Threat: Biological resource use

455

Legally protect plant species affected by gathering

455

Place signs to deter gathering of shrubland species

455

Reduce the frequency of prescribed burning

455

8.5

Threat: Transportation and service corridors

456

Maintain habitat corridors over or under roads and other transportation corridors

456

Create buffer zones besides roads and other transportation corridors

456

8.6

Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

457

Re-route paths to reduce habitat disturbance

457

Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance

457

Plant spiny shrubs to act as barriers to people

457

8.7

Threat: Natural system modifications

458

8.7.1

Modified fire regime

458

Use prescribed burning to mimic natural fire cycle

458

Use prescribed burning to reduce the potential for large wild fires

458

Cut strips of vegetation to reduce the spread of fire

458

8.7.2

Modified vegetation management

459

Reinstate the use of traditional burning practices

459

Use cutting/mowing to mimic grazing

459

Increase number of livestock

460

8.8

Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

462

8.8.1

Problematic tree species

462

Apply herbicide to trees

463

Cut trees

463

Cut trees and remove leaf litter

463

Cut trees and remove seedlings

463

Use prescribed burning to control trees

464

Use grazing to control trees

464

Cut trees and apply herbicide

464

Cut trees and use prescribed burning

465

Increase number of livestock and use prescribed burning to control trees

465

Cut/mow shrubland to control trees

465

Cut trees and increase livestock numbers

465

8.8.2

Problematic grass species

466

Cut/mow to control grass

466

Cut/mow to control grass and sow seed of shrubland plants

467

Rake to control grass

467

Cut/mow and rotovate to control grass

467

Apply herbicide and sow seeds of shrubland plants to control grass

468

Apply herbicide and remove plants to control grass

468

Use grazing to control grass

468

Use precribed burning to control grass

469

Cut and use prescribed burning to control grass

469

Use herbicide and prescribed burning to control grass

469

Strip turf to control grass

469

Rotovate to control grass

470

Add mulch to control grass

470

Add mulch to control grass and sow seed

470

Cut/mow, rotovate and sow seeds to control grass

470

Use herbicide to control grass

471

8.8.3

Bracken

472

Use herbicide to control bracken

472

Cut to control bracken

473

Cut and apply herbicide to control bracken

473

Cut bracken and rotovate

474

Use ‘bracken bruiser’ to control bracken

474

Use herbicide and remove leaf litter to control bracken

474

Cut and burn bracken

475

Use herbicide and sow seed of shrubland plants to control bracken

475

Increase grazing intensity to control bracken

475

Use herbicide and increase livestock numbers to control bracken

475

8.8.4

Problematic animals

475

Use fences to exclude large herbivores

475

Reduce numbers of large herbivores

475

Use biological control to reduce the number of problematic invertebrates

476

8.9

Threat: Pollution

477

Mow shrubland to reduce impact of pollutants

477

Burn shrublands to reduce impacts of pollutants

478

Plant vegetation to act as a buffer to exclude vegetation

478

Reduce pesticide use on nearby agricultural/forestry land

478

Reduce herbicide use on nearby agricultural/forestry land

478

Reduce fertilizer use on nearby agricultural/forestry land

478

Add lime to shrubland to reduce the impacts of sulphur dioxide pollution

478

8.10

Threat: Climate change and severe weather

479

Restore habitat in area predicted to have suitable habitat for shrubland species in the future

479

Improve connectivity between areas of shrubland to allow species movements and habitat shifts in response to climate change

479

8.11

Threat: Habitat protection

480

Legally protect shrubland

480

Legally protect habitat around shrubland

480

8.12

Habitat restoration and creation

481

8.12.1

General restoration

481

Allow shrubland to regenerate without active management

481

Restore/create connectivity between shrublands.

482

8.12.2

Modify physical habitat

482

Add topsoil

483

Disturb vegetation

483

Strip topsoil

484

Remove leaf litter

484

Add sulphur to soil

484

Use erosion blankets/mats to aid plant establishment

484

Add mulch and fertilizer to soil

485

Add manure to soil

485

Irrigate degraded shrublands

485

Remove trees/crops to restore shrubland structure

485

Remove trees, leaf litter and topsoil

485

Add peat to soil

485

Burn leaf litter

485

8.12.3

Introduce vegetation or seeds

486

Sow seeds

486

Plant individual plants

487

Sow seeds and plant individual plants

487

Spread clippings

487

Build bird perches to encourage colonization by plants

488

Plant turf

488

8.13

Actions to benefit introduced vegetation

489

Add fertilizer to soil (alongside planting/seeding)

489

Add peat to soil (alongside planting/seeding)

490

Add mulch and fertilizer to soil (alongside planting/seeding)

490

Add gypsum to soil (alongside planting/seeding)

490

Add sulphur to soil (alongside planting/seeding)

490

Strip/disturb topsoil (alongside planting/seeding)

491

Add topsoil (alongside planting/seeding)

491

Plant seed balls

491

Plant/sow seeds of nurse plants alongside focal plants

492

Plant/seed under established vegetation

492

Plant shrubs in clusters

492

Add root associated bacteria/fungi to introduced plants

492

8.14

Education and awareness

493

Raise awareness amongst the general public

493

Provide education programmes about shrublands

493

9. MANAGEMENT OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS

495

9.1

Ex-situ conservation – breeding amphibians

497

9.1.1

Refining techniques using less threatened species

497

Identify and breed a similar species to refine husbandry techniques prior to working with target species

497

9.1.2

Changing environmental conditions/microclimate

498

Vary enclosure temperature to simulate seasonal changes in the wild

498

Vary quality or quantity (UV% or gradients) of enclosure lighting to simulate seasonal changes in the wild

499

Provide artificial aquifers for species which breed in upwelling springs

499

Vary artificial rainfall to simulate seasonal changes in the wild

499

Vary enclosure humidity to simulate seasonal changes in the wild using humidifiers, foggers/misters or artificial rain

500

Vary duration of enclosure lighting to simulate seasonal changes in the wild

500

Simulate rainfall using sound recordings of rain and/or thunderstorms

500

Allow temperate amphibians to hibernate

500

Allow amphibians from highly seasonal environments to have a period of dormancy

500

Vary water flow/speed of artificial streams in enclosures for torrent breeding species

500

9.1.3

Changing enclosure design for spawning or egg laying sites

500

Provide multiple egg laying sites within an enclosure

501

Provide natural substrate for species which do not breed in water (e.g. burrowing/tunnel breeders)

501

Provide particular plants as breeding areas or egg laying sites

501

9.1.4

Manipulate social conditions

502

Manipulate sex ratio within the enclosure

502

Play recordings of breeding calls to simulate breeding season in the wild

503

Allow female mate choice

503

Provide visual barriers for territorial species

503

Manipulate adult density within the enclosure

503

9.1.5

Changing the diet of adults

504

Supplement diets with carotenoids (including for colouration)

504

Increase caloric intake of females in preparation for breeding

504

Vary food provision to reflect seasonal availability in the wild

505

Formulate adult diet to reflect nutritional composition of wild foods

505

Supplement diets with vitamins/calcium fed to prey (e.g. prey gut loading)

505

Supplement diets with vitamins/calcium applied to food (e.g. dusting prey).

505

9.1.6

Manipulate rearing conditions for young

505

Manipulate temperature of enclosure to improve development or survival to adulthood

506

Formulate larval diets to improve development or survival to adulthood

506

Manipulate larval density within the enclosure

506

Leave infertile eggs at spawn site as food for egg-eating larvae

507

Manipulate humidity to improve development or survival to adulthood

507

Manipulate quality and quantity of enclosure lighting to improve development or survival to adulthood

507

Allow adults to attend their eggs

507

9.1.7

Artificial reproduction

507

Use artificial cloning from frozen or fresh tissue

507

Use hormone treatment to induce sperm and egg release

507

Use artificial fertilization in captive breeding

507

9.2

Promoting health and welfare in captive carnivores (felids, canids and ursids) through feeding practices

508

9.2.1

Diet and food type

508

Provide bones, hides or partial carcasses

509

Feed whole carcasses (with or without organs/gastrointestinal tract)

509

Feed commercially prepared diets

510

Feed plant-derived protein

510

Supplement meat-based diets with prebiotic plant material to facilitate digestion

510

Supplement meat-based diet with amino acid

510

Supplement meat-based diet with vitamins or minerals

511

Supplement meat-based diet with fatty acids

511

Increase variety of food items

511

9.2.2

Food presentation and enrichment

511

Hide food around enclosure

511

Present food frozen in ice

512

Present food inside objects (e.g. Boomer balls)

512

Provide devices to simulate live prey, including sounds, lures, pulleys and bungees

512

Change location of food around enclosure

513

Scatter food around enclosure

513

Provide live vertebrate prey

513

Provide live invertebrate prey

513

Present food in/on water

514

Use food as a reward in animal training

514

9.2.3

Feeding schedule

514

Provide food on a random temporal schedule

514

Allocate fast days

515

Alter food abundance or type seasonally

515

Provide food during natural active periods

515

Use automated feeders

515

Alter feeding schedule according to visitor activity

515

Provide food during visitor experiences

515

9.2.4

Social feeding

515

Feed individuals separately

515

Feed individuals within a social group

515

Hand-feed

515

9.3

Promoting natural feeding behaviours in primates in captivity

516

9.3.1

Food Presentation

516

Scatter food throughout enclosure

517

Hide food in containers (including boxes and bags)

517

Present food frozen in ice

517

Present food items whole instead of processed

517

Present feeds at different crowd levels

518

Maximise both vertical and horizontal presentation locations

518

Present food in puzzle feeders

518

Present food in water (including dishes and ponds)

518

Present food dipped in food colouring

519

Provide live vegetation in planters for foraging

519

Present food which required the use (or modification) of tools

519

Paint gum solutions on rough bark

519

Add gum solutions to drilled hollow feeders

519

9.3.2

Diet manipulation

520

Formulate diet to reflect nutritional composition of wild foods (including removal of domestic fruits)

520

Provide cut branches (browse)

520

Provide live invertebrates

521

Provide fresh produce

521

Provide gum (including artificial gum)

521

Provide nectar (including artificial nectar)

521

Provide herbs or other plants for self-medication

521

Modify ingredients/nutrient composition seasonally (not daily) to reflect natural variability

521

9.3.3

Feeding Schedule

522

Change feeding times

522

Change the number of feeds per day

522

Provide food at natural (wild) feeding times

522

Provide access to food at all times (day and night)

522

Use of automated feeders

522

9.3.4

Social group manipulation

523

Feed individuals in social groups

523

Feed individuals separately

523

Feed individuals in subgroups

523

10. SOME ASPECTS OF CONTROL OF FRESHWATER INVASIVE SPECIES

525

10.1

Threat: Invasive plants

527

10.1.1

Parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum

527

Chemical control using the herbicide 2,4-D

528

Chemical control using the herbicide carfentrazone-ethyl

528

Chemical control using the herbicide triclopyr

528

Chemical control using the herbicide diquat

529

Chemical control using the herbicide endohall

529

Chemical control using other herbicides

529

Reduction of trade through legislation and codes of conduct

530

Biological control using herbivores

530

Water level drawdown

530

Biological control using plant pathogens

531

Mechanical harvesting or cutting

531

Mechanical excavation

531

Removal using water jets

531

Suction dredging and diver-assisted suction removal

531

Manual harvesting (hand-weeding)

531

Use of lightproof barriers

531

Dye application

531

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

531

Use of salt

531

Decontamination / preventing further spread

531

Public education

531

Multiple integrated measures

531

10.1.2

Floating pennywort Hydrocotyle ranunculoides

532

Chemical control using herbicides

532

Flame treatment

532

Physical removal

533

Combination treatment using herbicides and physical removal

533

Biological control using co-evolved, host-specific herbivores

533

Use of hydrogen peroxide

533

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

534

Biological control using native herbivores

534

Environmental control (e.g. shading, reduced flow, reduction of rooting depth, or dredging)

534

Excavation of banks

534

Public education

534

Use of liquid nitrogen

534

10.1.3

Water primrose Ludwigia spp

534

Biological control using co-evolved, host specific herbivores

535

Chemical control using herbicides

535

Combination treatment using herbicides and physical removal

535

Physical removal

536

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

536

Biological control using native herbivores

536

Environmental control (e.g. shading, reduced flow, reduction of rooting depth, or dredging)

536

Excavation of banks

536

Public education

536

Use of a tarpaulin

536

Use of flame treatment

536

Use of hydrogen peroxide

536

Use of liquid nitrogen

536

Use of mats placed on the bottom of the waterbody

536

10.1.4

Skunk cabbage Lysichiton americanus

536

Chemical control using herbicides

537

Physical removal

537

Biological control using co-evolved, host-specific herbivores

538

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

538

Biological control using native herbivores

538

Combination treatment using herbicides and physical removal

538

Environmental control (e.g. shading, or promotion of native plants)

538

Public education

538

Use of a tarpaulin

538

Use of flame treatment

538

Use of hydrogen peroxide

538

Use of liquid nitrogen

538

10.1.5

New Zealand pigmyweed Crassula helmsii

538

Chemical control using herbicides

539

Decontamination to prevent further spread

539

Use lightproof barriers to control plants

540

Use salt water to kill plants

540

Use a combination of control methods

540

Use dyes to reduce light levels

540

Use grazing to control plants

540

Use hot foam to control plants

541

Use hydrogen peroxide to control plants

541

Alter environmental conditions to control plants (e.g. shading by succession, increasing turbidity, re-profiling or dredging)

541

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

541

Biological control using herbivores

541

Bury plants

541

Dry out waterbodies

541

Physical control using manual/mechanical control or dredging

541

Plant other species to suppress growth

541

Public education

541

Surround with wire mesh

541

Use flame throwers

541

Use hot water

541

Use of liquid nitrogen

541

10.2

Threat: Invasive molluscs

542

10.2.1

Asian clams

542

Add chemicals to the water

542

Change salinity of water

543

Mechanical removal

543

Change temperature of water

543

Clean equipment

543

Use of gas-impermeable barriers

544

Reduce oxygen in water

544

Change pH of water

544

Drain the invaded waterbody

544

Exposure to disease-causing organisms

544

Exposure to parasites

544

Hand removal

544

Public awareness and education.

544

10.3

Threat: Invasive crustaceans

545

10.3.1

Ponto-Caspian gammarids

545

Change salinity of the water

545

Change water temperature

546

Dewatering (drying out) habitat

546

Exposure to parasites

546

Add chemicals to water

546

Change water pH

546

Control movement of gammarids

547

Biological control using predatory fish

547

Cleaning equipment

547

Exchange ballast water

547

Exposure to disease-causing organisms

547

10.3.2

Procambarus spp. crayfish

547

Add chemicals to the water

548

Sterilization of males

548

Trapping and removal

548

Trapping combined with encouragement of predators

548

Create barriers

549

Encouraging predators

549

Draining the waterway

549

Food source removal

549

Relocate vulnerable crayfish

549

Remove the crayfish by electrofishing

549

10.4

Threat: Invasive fish

550

10.4.1

Brown and black bullheads

550

Application of a biocide

551

Netting

551

Biological control of beneficial species

551

Biological control using native predators

551

Changing salinity

551

Changing pH

551

Draining invaded waterbodies

551

Electrofishing

551

Habitat manipulation

551

Increasing carbon dioxide concentrations

551

Public education

551

Trapping using sound or pheromonal lures

551

Using a combination of netting and electrofishing

551

UV radiation

551

10.4.2

Ponto-Caspian gobies

552

Changing salinity

552

Use of barriers to prevent migration

553

Application of a biocide

553

Biological control of beneficial species

553

Biological control using native predators

553

Changing pH

553

Draining invaded waterbodies

553

Electrofishing

553

Habitat manipulation

553

Increasing carbon dioxide concentrations

553

Netting

553

Public education

553

Trapping using visual, sound and pheromonal lures

553

Using a combination of netting and electrofishing

553

UV radiation

553

10.5

Threat: Invasive reptiles

554

10.5.1

Red-eared terrapin Trachemys scripta

554

Direct removal of adults

554

Application of a biocide

555

Biological control using native predators

555

Draining invaded waterbodies

555

Public education

555

Search and removal using sniffer dogs

555

10.6

Threat: Invasive amphibians

556

10.6.1

American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeiana

556

Biological control using native predators

556

Direct removal of adults

557

Direct removal of juveniles

557

Application of a biocide

557

Biological control of co-occurring beneficial species

558

Collection of egg clutches

558

Draining ponds

558

Fencing

558

Habitat modification

558

Pond destruction

558

Public education

558

11. SOME ASPECTS OF ENHANCING NATURAL PEST CONTROL

559

11.1

Reducing agricultural pollution

561

Alter the timing of insecticide use

561

Delay herbicide use

562

Incorporate parasitism rates when setting thresholds for insecticide use

563

Use pesticides only when pests or crop damage reach threshold levels

563

Convert to organic farming

564

11.2

All farming systems

566

Grow non-crop plants that produce chemicals that attract natural enemies

566

Use chemicals to attract natural enemies

567

Leave part of the crop or pasture unharvested or uncut

568

Plant new hedges

569

Use alley cropping

569

Use mass-emergence devices to increase natural enemy populations

570

11.3

Arable farming

571

Combine trap and repellent crops in a push-pull system

571

Use crop rotation in potato farming systems

572

Create beetle banks

573

Incorporate plant remains into the soil that produce weed-controlling chemicals

574

11.4

Perennial farming

576

Exclude ants that protect pests

576

Allow natural regeneration of ground cover beneath perennial crops

577

Isolate colonies of beneficial ants

578

11.5

Livestock farming and pasture

579

Grow plants that compete with damaging weeds

579

Delay mowing or first grazing date on pasture or grassland

580

Use grazing instead of cutting for pasture or grassland management

581

Use mixed pasture

581

12. ENHANCING SOIL FERTILITY

583

12.1

Reducing agricultural pollution

585

Change the timing of manure application

585

Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally

586

12.2

All farming systems

587

Control traffic and traffic timing

587

Change tillage practices

588

Convert to organic farming

590

Plant new hedges

590

Change the timing of ploughing

591

12.3

Arable farming

592

Amend the soil using a mix of organic and inorganic amendments

593

Grow cover crops when the field is empty

593

Use crop rotation

594

Amend the soil with formulated chemical compounds

595

Grow cover crops beneath the main crop (living mulches) or between crop rows

596

Add mulch to crops

596

Amend the soil with fresh plant material or crop remains

597

Amend the soil with manures and agricultural composts

598

Amend the soil with municipal wastes or their composts

599

Incorporate leys into crop rotation

599

Retain crop residues

600

Amend the soil with bacteria or fungi

600

Amend the soil with composts not otherwise specified

601

Amend the soil with crops grown as green manures

601

Amend the soil with non-chemical minerals and mineral wastes

601

Amend the soil with organic processing wastes or their composts

601

Encourage foraging waterfowl

602

Use alley cropping

602

12.4

Livestock and pasture farming

603

Reduce grazing intensity

603

Restore or create low input grasslands

604