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© 2017 Louise Hardiman and Nicola Kozicharow.

Copyright of each chapter is maintained by the author.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work; to adapt the work and to make commercial use of the work providing attribution is made to the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:

Louise Hardiman and Nicola Kozicharow, Modernism and the Spiritual in Russian Art: New Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2017,

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit

Further details about CC BY licenses are available at

All external links were active at the time of publication unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at

Digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at

Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher.

The publication of this volume has been made possible by a grant from the Scouloudi Foundation in association with the Institute of Historical Research at the School of Advanced Study, University of London.

ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-338-4

ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-339-1

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-340-7

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-78374-341-4

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-78374-342-1

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0115

Cover image: Mikhail Vrubel, Демон (сидящий) or Demon Seated (1890), detail, Wikimedia,

Cover design: Heidi Coburn

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is sourced from SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative) accredited mills and the waste is disposed of in an environmentally friendly way.