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Contents

Introduction

Who is What Works in Conservation for?

The Conservation Evidence project

Which conservation interventions are included?

How we review the literature

What does What Works in Conservation include?

Expert assessment of the evidence

Categorization of interventions

How to use What Works in Conservation

1. AMPHIBIAN CONSERVATION

1.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

Legal protection of species

Protect brownfield or ex-industrial sites

Restrict herbicide, fungicide and pesticide use on and around ponds on golf courses

1.2 Threat: Agriculture

1.2.1 Engage farmers and other volunteers

Engage landowners and other volunteers to manage land for amphibians

Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures

1.2.2 Terrestrial habitat management

Manage silviculture practices in plantations

Manage cutting regime

Manage grazing regime

Maintain or restore hedges

Plant new hedges

Reduced tillage

1.2.3 Aquatic habitat management

Manage ditches

Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs from ponds by fencing

1.3 Threat: Energy production and mining

Artificially mist habitat to keep it damp

1.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

Close roads during seasonal amphibian migration

Modify gully pots and kerbs

Install barrier fencing along roads

Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings

Use signage to warn motorists

Use humans to assist migrating amphibians across roads

1.5 Threat: Biological resource use

1.5.1 Hunting and collecting terrestrial animals

Reduce impact of amphibian trade

Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations

Commercially breed amphibians for the pet trade

Use amphibians sustainably

1.5.2 Logging and wood harvesting

Retain riparian buffer strips during timber harvest

Use shelterwood harvesting instead of clearcutting

Leave coarse woody debris in forests

Use patch retention harvesting instead of clearcutting

Leave standing deadwood/snags in forests

Use leave-tree harvesting instead of clearcutting

Harvest groups of trees instead of clearcutting

Thin trees within forests

1.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance

1.7 Threat: Natural system modifications

Regulate water levels

Mechanically remove mid-storey or ground vegetation

Use herbicides to control mid-storey or ground vegetation

Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime (forests)

Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime (grassland)

1.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

1.8.1 Reduce predation by other species

Remove or control fish by drying out ponds

Remove or control fish population by catching

Remove or control invasive bullfrogs

Remove or control invasive viperine snake

Remove or control mammals

Remove or control fish using Rotenone

Exclude fish with barriers

Encourage aquatic plant growth as refuge against fish predation

Remove or control non-native crayfish

1.8.2 Reduce competition with other species

Reduce competition from native amphibians

Remove or control invasive Cuban tree frogs

Remove or control invasive cane toads

1.8.3 Reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species

Control invasive plants

Prevent heavy usage/exclude wildfowl from aquatic habitat

1.8.4 Reduce parasitism and disease – chytridiomycosis

Use temperature treatment to reduce infection

Use antifungal treatment to reduce infection

Add salt to ponds

Immunize amphibians against infection

Remove the chytrid fungus from ponds

Sterilize equipment when moving between amphibian sites

Treating amphibians in the wild or pre-release

Use gloves to handle amphibians

Use antibacterial treatment to reduce infection

Use antifungal skin bacteria or peptides to reduce infection

Use zooplankton to remove zoospores

1.8.5 Reduce parasitism and disease – ranaviruses

Sterilize equipment to prevent ranaviruses

1.9 Threat: Pollution

1.9.1 Agricultural pollution

Create walls or barriers to exclude pollutants

Plant riparian buffer strips

Reduce pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer use

Prevent pollution from agricultural lands or sewage treatment facilities entering watercourses

1.9.2 Industrial pollution

Add limestone to water bodies to reduce acidification

Augment ponds with ground water to reduce acidification

1.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

Create microclimate and microhabitat refuges

Maintain ephemeral ponds

Deepen ponds to prevent desiccation

Use irrigation systems for amphibian sites

Artificially shade ponds to prevent desiccation

Protect habitat along elevational gradients

Provide shelter habitat

1.11 Habitat protection

Retain buffer zones around core habitat

Protect habitats for amphibians

Retain connectivity between habitat patches

1.12 Habitat restoration and creation

1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat

Replant vegetation

Clear vegetation

Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites

Create refuges

Restore habitat connectivity

Change mowing regime

Create habitat connectivity

1.12.2 Aquatic habitat

Create ponds (amphibians in general)

Create ponds (frogs)

Create ponds (natterjack toads)

Create ponds (salamanders including newts)

Create wetlands

Deepen, de-silt or re-profile ponds

Restore wetlands

Create ponds (great crested newts)

Create ponds (green toads)

Create ponds (toads)

Remove specific aquatic plants

Restore ponds

Remove tree canopy to reduce pond shading

Add nutrients to new ponds as larvae food source

Add specific plants to aquatic habitats

Add woody debris to ponds

Create refuge areas in aquatic habitats

1.13 Species management

1.13.1 Translocate amphibians

Translocate amphibians (amphibians in general)

Translocate amphibians (great crested newts)

Translocate amphibians (natterjack toads)

Translocate amphibians (salamanders including newts)

Translocate amphibians (toads)

Translocate amphibians (wood frogs)

Translocate amphibians (frogs)

1.13.2 Captive breeding, rearing and releases

Release captive-bred individuals (amphibians in general)

Release captive-bred individuals (frogs)

Breed amphibians in captivity (frogs)

Breed amphibians in captivity (harlequin toads)

Breed amphibians in captivity (Mallorcan midwife toad)

Breed amphibians in captivity (salamanders including newts)

Breed amphibians in captivity (toads)

Head-start amphibians for release

Release captive-bred individuals (Mallorcan midwife toad)

Release captive-bred individuals (toads)

Use artificial fertilization in captive breeding

Use hormone treatment to induce sperm and egg release

Release captive-bred individuals (salamanders including newts)

Freeze sperm or eggs for future use

Release captive-bred individuals (green and golden bell frogs)

1.14 Education and awareness raising

Engage volunteers to collect amphibian data (citizen science)

Provide education programmes about amphibians

Raise awareness amongst the general public through campaigns and public information

2. BAT CONSERVATION

2.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

Protect brownfield sites

Provide foraging habitat in urban areas

Change timing of building works

Conserve existing roosts within developments

Conserve old buildings or structures as roosting sites for bats within developments

Create alternative roosts within buildings

Maintain bridges and retain crevices for roosting

Retain or relocate access points to bat roosts

Retain or replace existing bat commuting routes within development

2.2 Threat: Agriculture

2.2.1 Land use change

Protect or create wetlands as foraging habitat for bats

Retain or plant trees on agricultural land to replace foraging habitat

Conserve old buildings or structures on agricultural land as roosting sites for bats

Retain old or dead trees with hollows and cracks as roosting sites for bats on agricultural land

Retain or replace existing bat commuting routes on agricultural land

2.2.2 Intensive farming

Convert to organic farming

Encourage agroforestry

Introduce agri-environment schemes

2.3 Threat: Energy production – wind turbines

Switch off turbines at low wind speeds to reduce bat fatalities

Deter bats from turbines using ultrasound

Deter bats from turbines using radar

Automatically switch off wind turbines when bat activity is high

Close off nacelles on wind turbines to prevent roosting bats

Leave a minimum distance between turbines and habitat features used by bats

Modify turbine design to reduce bat fatalities

Modify turbine placement to reduce bat fatalities

Remove turbine lighting to avoid attracting bats

2.4 Threat: Energy production – mining

Legally protect bat hibernation sites in mines from reclamation

Provide artificial hibernacula to replace roosts lost in reclaimed mines

Relocate bats from reclaimed mines to new hibernation sites

2.5 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

Install underpasses as road crossing structures for bats

Divert bats to safe crossing points with plantings or fencing

Install bat gantries or bat bridges as road crossing structures for bats

Install overpasses as road crossing structures for bats

Deter bats with lighting

Install green bridges as road crossing structures for bats

Install hop-overs as road crossing structures for bats

Replace or improve habitat for bats around roads

2.6 Threat: Biological resource use

2.6.1 Hunting

Educate local communities about bats and hunting

Introduce and enforce legislation to control hunting of bats

Introduce sustainable harvesting of bats

2.6.2 Guano harvesting

Introduce and enforce legislation to regulate the harvesting of bat guano

Introduce sustainable harvesting of bat guano

2.6.3 Logging and wood harvesting

Incorporate forested corridors or buffers into logged areas

Use selective harvesting/reduced impact logging instead of clearcutting

Use shelterwood cutting instead of clearcutting

Retain residual tree patches in logged areas

Thin trees within forests

Manage woodland or forest edges for bats

Replant native trees

Retain deadwood/snags within forests for roosting bats

2.7 Threat: Human disturbance – caving and tourism

Impose restrictions on cave visits

Use cave gates to restrict public access

Educate the public to reduce disturbance to hibernating bats

Legally protect bat hibernation sites

Maintain microclimate at underground hibernation/roost sites

Provide artificial hibernacula for bats to replace disturbed sites

2.8 Threat: Natural system modification – natural fire and fire suppression

Use prescribed burning

2.9 Threat: Invasive species

2.9.1 Invasive species

Remove invasive plant species

Translocate to predator or disease free areas

Control invasive predators

2.9.2 White-nose syndrome

Control anthropogenic spread

Cull infected bats

Increase population resistance

Modify cave environments to increase bat survival

2.10 Threat: Pollution

2.10.1 Domestic and urban waste water

Change effluent treatments of domestic and urban waste water

2.10.2 Agricultural and forestry effluents

Introduce legislation to control use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides

Change effluent treatments used in agriculture and forestry

2.10.3 Light and noise pollution

Leave bat roosts, roost entrances and commuting routes unlit

Minimize excess light pollution

Restrict timing of lighting

Use low pressure sodium lamps or use UV filters

Impose noise limits in proximity to roosts and bat habitats

2.10.4 Timber treatments

Use mammal safe timber treatments in roof spaces

Restrict timing of treatment

2.11 Providing artificial roost structures for bats

Provide artificial roost structures for bats

2.12 Education and awareness raising

Provide training to professionals

Educate homeowners about building and planning laws

Educate to improve public perception and raise awareness

3. BIRD CONSERVATION

3.1 Habitat protection

Legally protect habitats for birds

Provide or retain un-harvested buffer strips

Ensure connectivity between habitat patches

3.2 Education and awareness raising

Raise awareness amongst the general public through campaigns and public information

Provide bird feeding materials to families with young children

Enhance bird taxonomy skills through higher education and training

Provide training to conservationists and land managers on bird ecology and conservation

3.3 Threat: Residential and commercial development

Angle windows to reduce bird collisions

Mark windows to reduce bird collisions

3.4 Threat: Agriculture

3.4.1 All farming systems

Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture

Provide (or retain) set-aside areas in farmland

Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields

Increase the proportion of natural/semi-natural habitat in the farmed landscape

Manage ditches to benefit wildlife

Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures

Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields

Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips

Leave refuges in fields during harvest

Reduce conflict by deterring birds from taking crops (using bird scarers)

Relocate nests at harvest time to reduce nestling mortality

Use mowing techniques to reduce mortality

Control scrub on farmland

Offer per clutch payment for farmland birds

Manage hedges to benefit wildlife

Plant new hedges

Reduce conflict by deterring birds from taking crops (using repellents)

Take field corners out of management

Mark bird nests during harvest or mowing

Cross compliance standards for all subsidy payments

Food labelling schemes relating to biodiversity-friendly farming

Manage stone-faced hedge banks to benefit birds

Plant in-field trees

Protect in-field trees

Reduce field size (or maintain small fields)

Support or maintain low-intensity agricultural systems

Tree pollarding, tree surgery

3.4.2 Arable farming

Create ‘skylark plots’ (undrilled patches in cereal fields)

Leave overwinter stubbles

Leave uncropped cultivated margins or fallow land (includes lapwing and stone curlew plots)

Sow crops in spring rather than autumn

Undersow spring cereals, with clover for example

Reduce tillage

Implement mosaic management

Increase crop diversity to benefit birds

Plant more than one crop per field (intercropping)

Create beetle banks

Plant cereals in wide-spaced rows

Revert arable land to permanent grassland

Add 1% barley into wheat crop for corn buntings

Create corn bunting plots

Leave unharvested cereal headlands within arable fields

Plant nettle strips

3.4.3 Livestock farming

Delay mowing date on grasslands

Leave uncut rye grass in silage fields

Maintain species-rich, semi-natural grassland

Maintain traditional water meadows

Mark fencing to avoid bird mortality

Plant cereals for whole crop silage

Reduce grazing intensity

Reduce management intensity of permanent grasslands

Exclude livestock from semi-natural habitat

Create open patches or strips in permanent grassland

Maintain upland heath/moor

Protect nests from livestock to reduce trampling

Provide short grass for waders

Raise mowing height on grasslands

Use traditional breeds of livestock

Maintain lowland heathland

Maintain rush pastures

Maintain wood pasture and parkland

Plant Brassica fodder crops

Use mixed stocking

3.4.4 Perennial, non-timber crops

Maintain traditional orchards

Manage perennial bioenergy crops to benefit wildlife

3.4.5 Aquaculture

Deter birds from landing on shellfish culture gear

Disturb birds at roosts

Provide refuges for fish within ponds

Use electric fencing to exclude fish-eating birds

Use ‘mussel socks’ to prevent birds from attacking shellfish

Use netting to exclude fish-eating birds

Increase water turbidity to reduce fish predation by birds

Translocate birds away from fish farms

Use in-water devices to reduce fish loss from ponds

Disturb birds using foot patrols

Spray water to deter birds from ponds

Scare birds from fish farms

3.5 Threat: Energy production and mining

Paint wind turbines to increase their visibility

3.6 Threat: Transportation and service corridors

3.6.1 Verges and airports

Scare or otherwise deter birds from airports

Mow roadside verges

Sow roadside verges

3.6.2 Power lines and electricity pylons

Mark power lines

Bury or isolate power lines

Insulate electricity pylons

Remove earth wires from power lines

Use perch-deterrents to stop raptors perching on pylons

Thicken earth wires

Add perches to electricity pylons

Reduce electrocutions by using plastic, not metal, leg rings to mark birds

Use raptor models to deter birds from power lines

3.7 Threat: Biological resource use

3.7.1 Reducing exploitation and conflict

Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations

Use wildlife refuges to reduce hunting disturbance

Employ local people as ‘biomonitors’

Increase ‘on-the-ground’ protection to reduce unsustainable levels of exploitation

Introduce voluntary ‘maximum shoot distances’

Mark eggs to reduce their appeal to collectors

Move fish-eating birds to reduce conflict with fishermen

Promote sustainable alternative livelihoods

Provide ‘sacrificial grasslands’ to reduce conflict with farmers

Relocate nestlings to reduce poaching

Use education programmes and local engagement to help reduce persecution or exploitation of species

Use alerts during shoots to reduce mortality of non-target species

3.7.2 Reducing fisheries bycatch

Use streamer lines to reduce seabird bycatch on longlines

Mark trawler warp cables to reduce seabird collisions

Reduce seabird bycatch by releasing offal overboard when setting longlines

Weight baits or lines to reduce longline bycatch of seabirds

Set lines underwater to reduce seabird bycatch

Set longlines at night to reduce seabird bycatch

Dye baits to reduce seabird bycatch

Thaw bait before setting lines to reduce seabird bycatch

Turn deck lights off during night-time setting of longlines to reduce bycatch

Use a sonic scarer when setting longlines to reduce seabird bycatch

Use acoustic alerts on gillnets to reduce seabird bycatch

Use bait throwers to reduce seabird bycatch

Use bird exclusion devices such as ‘Brickle curtains’ to reduce seabird mortality when hauling longlines

Use high visibility mesh on gillnets to reduce seabird bycatch

Use shark liver oil to deter birds when setting lines

Use a line shooter to reduce seabird bycatch

Reduce bycatch through seasonal or area closures

Reduce ‘ghost fishing’ by lost/discarded gear

Reduce gillnet deployment time to reduce seabird bycatch

Set longlines at the side of the boat to reduce seabird bycatch

Tow buoys behind longlining boats to reduce seabird bycatch

Use a water cannon when setting longlines to reduce seabird bycatch

Use high-visibility longlines to reduce seabird bycatch

Use larger hooks to reduce seabird bycatch on longlines

3.8 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance

Provide paths to limit disturbance

Start educational programmes for personal watercraft owners

Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance at nest sites

Use voluntary agreements with local people to reduce disturbance

Habituate birds to human visitors

Use nest covers to reduce the impact of research on predation of ground-nesting seabirds

Reduce visitor group sizes

Set minimum distances for approaching birds (buffer zones)

3.9 Threat: Natural system modifications

Create scrapes and pools in wetlands and wet grasslands

Provide deadwood/snags in forests (use ring-barking, cutting or silvicides)

Use patch retention harvesting instead of clearcutting

Clear or open patches in forests

Employ grazing in artificial grasslands/pastures

Employ grazing in natural grasslands

Employ grazing in non-grassland habitats

Manage water level in wetlands

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (forests)

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (mowing or cutting natural grasslands)

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (mowing or cutting semi-natural grasslands/pastures)

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (shrublands)

Raise water levels in ditches or grassland

Thin trees within forests

Use prescribed burning (grasslands)

Use prescribed burning (pine forests)

Use prescribed burning (savannahs)

Use prescribed burning (shrublands)

Use selective harvesting/logging instead of clearcutting

Clearcut and re-seed forests

Coppice trees

Fertilise grasslands

Manage woodland edges for birds

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (reedbeds)

Manually control or remove midstorey and ground-level vegetation (including mowing, chaining, cutting etc.) (savannahs)

Plant trees to act as windbreaks

Plough habitats

Provide deadwood/snags in forests (adding woody debris to forests)

Remove coarse woody debris from forests

Replace non-native species of tree/shrub

Re-seed grasslands

Use environmentally sensitive flood management

Use fire suppression/control

Use greentree reservoir management

Use prescribed burning (Australian sclerophyll forest)

Use shelterwood cutting instead of clearcutting

Use variable retention management during forestry operations

Apply herbicide to mid- and understorey vegetation

Treat wetlands with herbicides

Use prescribed burning (coastal habitats)

Use prescribed burning (deciduous forests)

Protect nest trees before burning

3.10 Habitat restoration and creation

Restore or create forests

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (inland wetlands)

Restore or create grassland

Restore or create traditional water meadows

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (coastal and intertidal wetlands)

Restore or create shrubland

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (kelp forests)

Restore or create wetlands and marine habitats (lagoons)

Restore or create savannahs

Revegetate gravel pits

3.11 Threat: Invasive alien and other problematic species

3.11.1 Reduce predation by other species

Control mammalian predators on islands

Remove or control predators to enhance bird populations and communities

Control avian predators on islands

Control invasive ants on islands

Reduce predation by translocating predators

Control predators not on islands

3.11.2 Reduce incidental mortality during predator eradication or control

Distribute poison bait using dispensers

Use coloured baits to reduce accidental mortality during predator control

Use repellents on baits

Do birds take bait designed for pest control?

3.11.3 Reduce nest predation by excluding predators from nests or nesting areas

Physically protect nests from predators using non-electric fencing

Physically protect nests with individual exclosures/barriers or provide shelters for chicks

Protect bird nests using electric fencing

Use artificial nests that discourage predation

Guard nests to prevent predation

Plant nesting cover to reduce nest predation

Protect nests from ants

Use multiple barriers to protect nests

Use naphthalene to deter mammalian predators

Use snakeskin to deter mammalian nest predators

Play spoken-word radio programmes to deter predators

Use ‘cat curfews’ to reduce predation

Use lion dung to deter domestic cats

Use mirrors to deter nest predators

Use ultrasonic devices to deter cats

Can nest protection increase nest abandonment?

Can nest protection increase predation of adults and chicks?

3.11.4 Reduce mortality by reducing hunting ability or changing predator behaviour

Reduce predation by translocating nest boxes

Use collar-mounted devices to reduce predation

Use supplementary feeding to reduce predation

Use aversive conditioning to reduce nest predation

3.11.5 Reduce competition with other species for food and nest sites

Reduce inter-specific competition for food by removing or controlling competitor species

Protect nest sites from competitors

Reduce competition between species by providing nest boxes

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by modifying habitats to exclude competitor species

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by removing competitor species (ground nesting seabirds)

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by removing competitor species (songbirds)

Reduce inter-specific competition for nest sites by removing competitor species (woodpeckers)

3.11.6 Reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species

Control or remove habitat-altering mammals

Reduce adverse habitat alterations by excluding problematic species (terrestrial species)

Reduce adverse habitat alterations by excluding problematic species (aquatic species)

Remove problematic vegetation

Use buffer zones to reduce the impact of invasive plant control

3.11.7 Reduce parasitism and disease

Remove/control adult brood parasites

Remove/treat endoparasites and diseases

Alter artificial nest sites to discourage brood parasitism

Exclude or control ‘reservoir species’ to reduce parasite burdens

Remove brood parasite eggs from target species’ nests

Remove/treat ectoparasites to increase survival or reproductive success (provide beneficial nesting material)

Remove/treat ectoparasites to increase survival or reproductive success (remove ectoparasites from feathers)

Use false brood parasite eggs to discourage brood parasitism

Remove/treat ectoparasites to increase survival or reproductive success (remove ectoparasites from nests)

3.11.8 Reduce detrimental impacts of other problematic species

Use copper strips to exclude snails from nests

3.12 Threat: Pollution

3.12.1 Industrial pollution

Use visual and acoustic ‘scarers’ to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining or sewage

Relocate birds following oil spills

Use repellents to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining

Clean birds after oil spills

3.12.2 Agricultural pollution

Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands)

Provide food for vultures to reduce mortality from diclofenac

Reduce pesticide, herbicide and fertiliser use generally

Reduce chemical inputs in permanent grassland management

Restrict certain pesticides or other agricultural chemicals

Make selective use of spring herbicides

Provide buffer strips along rivers and streams

Provide unfertilised cereal headlands in arable fields

Use buffer strips around in-field ponds

Use organic rather than mineral fertilisers

3.12.3 Air-borne pollutants

Use lime to reduce acidification in lakes

3.12.4 Excess energy

Shield lights to reduce mortality from artificial lights

Turning off lights to reduce mortality from artificial lights

Use flashing lights to reduce mortality from artificial lights

Use lights low in spectral red to reduce mortality from artificial lights

Reduce the intensity of lighthouse beams

Using volunteers to collect and rehabilitate downed birds

3.13 Threat: Climate change, extreme weather and geological events

Replace nesting habitats when they are washed away by storms

Water nesting mounds to increase incubation success in malleefowl

3.14 General responses to small/ declining populations

3.14.1 Inducing breeding, rehabilitation and egg removal

Rehabilitate injured birds

Remove eggs from wild nests to increase reproductive output

Use artificial visual and auditory stimuli to induce breeding in wild populations

3.14.2 Provide artificial nesting sites

Provide artificial nests (falcons)

Provide artificial nests (owls)

Provide artificial nests (songbirds)

Provide artificial nests (wildfowl)

Clean artificial nests to increase occupancy or reproductive success

Provide artificial nests (burrow-nesting seabirds)

Provide artificial nests (divers/loons)

Provide artificial nests (ground- and tree-nesting seabirds)

Provide artificial nests (oilbirds)

Provide artificial nests (raptors)

Provide artificial nests (wildfowl — artificial/floating islands)

Artificially incubate eggs or warm nests

Guard nests

Provide artificial nests (gamebirds)

Provide artificial nests (grebes)

Provide artificial nests (ibises and flamingos)

Provide artificial nests (parrots)

Provide artificial nests (pigeons)

Provide artificial nests (rails)

Provide artificial nests (rollers)

Provide artificial nests (swifts)

Provide artificial nests (trogons)

Provide artificial nests (waders)

Provide artificial nests (woodpeckers)

Provide nesting habitat for birds that is safe from extreme weather

Provide nesting material for wild birds

Remove vegetation to create nesting areas

Repair/support nests to support breeding

Use differently-coloured artificial nests

3.14.3 Foster chicks in the wild

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (raptors)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (songbirds)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (bustards)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (cranes)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (gannets and boobies)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (owls)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (parrots)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (vultures)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (waders)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild conspecifics (woodpeckers)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (cranes)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (ibises)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (petrels and shearwaters)

Foster eggs or chicks with wild non-conspecifics (cross-fostering) (waders)

3.14.4 Provide supplementary food

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (songbirds)

Place feeders close to windows to reduce collisions

Provide calcium supplements to increase survival or reproductive success

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (cranes)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (gulls, terns and skuas)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (owls)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (raptors)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (songbirds)

Provide perches to improve foraging success

Provide supplementary food through the establishment of food populations

Provide supplementary food to allow the rescue of a second chick

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (gamebirds)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (gulls, terns and skuas)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (hummingbirds)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (nectar-feeding songbirds)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (pigeons)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (raptors)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (vultures)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (waders)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (wildfowl)

Provide supplementary food to increase adult survival (woodpeckers)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (auks)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (gamebirds)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (gannets and boobies)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (ibises)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (kingfishers)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (parrots)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (petrels)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (pigeons)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (rails and coots)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (vultures)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (waders)

Provide supplementary food to increase reproductive success (wildfowl)

Provide supplementary water to increase survival or reproductive success

3.14.5 Translocations

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (birds in general)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (raptors)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (parrots)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (pelicans)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (petrels and shearwaters)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (rails)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (songbirds)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (wildfowl)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (woodpeckers)

Use decoys to attract birds to new sites

Use techniques to increase the survival of species after capture

Use vocalisations to attract birds to new sites

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (gamebirds)

Alter habitats to encourage birds to leave

Ensure translocated birds are familiar with each other before release

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (auks)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (herons, storks and ibises)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (megapodes)

Translocate birds to re-establish populations or increase genetic variation (owls)

Translocate nests to avoid disturbance

Ensure genetic variation to increase translocation success

3.15 Captive breeding, rearing and releases (ex situ conservation)

3.15.1 Captive breeding

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (raptors)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (seabirds)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (songbirds)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (waders)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (raptors)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (bustards)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (cranes)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (gamebirds)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (parrots)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (penguins)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (rails)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (storks and ibises)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (vultures)

Artificially incubate and hand-rear birds in captivity (wildfowl)

Freeze semen for artificial insemination

Use artificial insemination in captive breeding

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (bustards)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (cranes)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (pigeons)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (rails)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (seabirds)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (songbirds)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (storks and ibises)

Use captive breeding to increase or maintain populations (tinamous)

Use puppets to increase the success of hand-rearing

Wash contaminated semen and use it for artificial insemination

Can captive breeding have deleterious effects?

3.15.2 Release captive-bred individuals

Provide supplementary food after release

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (cranes)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (raptors)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (songbirds)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (vultures)

Clip birds’ wings on release

Release birds as adults or sub-adults not juveniles

Release birds in groups

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (bustards)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (gamebirds)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (owls)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (parrots)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (pigeons)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (rails)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (storks and ibises)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (waders)

Release captive-bred individuals into the wild to restore or augment wild populations (wildfowl)

Release chicks and adults in ‘coveys’

Use ‘anti-predator training’ to improve survival after release

Use appropriate populations to source released populations

Use ‘flying training’ before release

Use holding pens at release sites

Use microlites to help birds migrate

4. FARMLAND CONSERVATION

4.1 All farming systems

Create uncultivated margins around intensive arable or pasture fields

Plant grass buffer strips/margins around arable or pasture fields

Plant nectar flower mixture/wildflower strips

Plant wild bird seed or cover mixture

Provide or retain set-aside areas in farmland

Manage ditches to benefit wildlife

Manage hedgerows to benefit wildlife (includes no spray, gap-filling and laying)

Pay farmers to cover the cost of conservation measures (as in agri-environment schemes)

Provide supplementary food for birds or mammals

Connect areas of natural or semi-natural habitat

Increase the proportion of semi-natural habitat in the farmed landscape

Make direct payments per clutch for farmland birds

Manage the agricultural landscape to enhance floral resources

Mark bird nests during harvest or mowing

Plant new hedges

Provide nest boxes for bees (solitary bees or bumblebees)

Provide nest boxes for birds

Provide other resources for birds (water, sand for bathing)

Provide refuges during harvest or mowing

Apply ‘cross compliance’ environmental standards linked to all subsidy payments

Implement food labelling schemes relating to biodiversity-friendly farming (organic, LEAF marque)

Introduce nest boxes stocked with solitary bees

Maintain in-field elements such as field islands and rockpiles

Manage stone-faced hedge banks to benefit wildlife

Manage woodland edges to benefit wildlife

Plant in-field trees (not farm woodland)

Protect in-field trees (includes management such as pollarding and surgery)

Provide badger gates

Provide foraging perches (e.g. for shrikes)

Provide otter holts

Provide red squirrel feeders

Reduce field size (or maintain small fields)

Restore or maintain dry stone walls

Support or maintain low intensity agricultural systems

4.2 Arable farming

Create skylark plots

Leave cultivated, uncropped margins or plots (includes ‘lapwing plots’)

Create beetle banks

Leave overwinter stubbles

Reduce tillage

Undersow spring cereals, with clover for example

Convert or revert arable land to permanent grassland

Create rotational grass or clover leys

Increase crop diversity

Plant cereals in wide-spaced rows

Plant crops in spring rather than autumn

Plant nettle strips

Sow rare or declining arable weeds

Add 1% barley into wheat crop for corn buntings

Create corn bunting plots

Leave unharvested cereal headlands in arable fields

Use new crop types to benefit wildlife (such as perennial cereal crops)

Implement ‘mosaic management’, a Dutch agri-environment option

Plant more than one crop per field (intercropping)

Take field corners out of management

4.3 Perennial (non-timber) crops

Maintain traditional orchards

Manage short-rotation coppice to benefit wildlife (includes 8 m rides)

Restore or create traditional orchards

4.4 Livestock farming

Restore or create species-rich, semi-natural grassland

Use mowing techniques to reduce mortality

Delay mowing or first grazing date on grasslands

Leave uncut strips of rye grass on silage fields

Maintain species-rich, semi-natural grassland

Maintain traditional water meadows (includes management for breeding and/or wintering waders/waterfowl)

Maintain upland heath/moorland

Reduce management intensity on permanent grasslands (several interventions at once)

Restore or create traditional water meadows

Add yellow rattle seed Rhinanthus minor to hay meadows

Employ areas of semi-natural habitat for rough grazing (includes salt marsh, lowland heath, bog, fen)

Exclude livestock from semi-natural habitat (including woodland)

Maintain wood pasture and parkland

Plant cereals for whole crop silage

Raise mowing height on grasslands

Restore or create upland heath/moorland

Restore or create wood pasture

Use traditional breeds of livestock

Reduce grazing intensity on grassland (including seasonal removal of livestock)

Maintain rush pastures

Mark fencing to avoid bird mortality

Plant brassica fodder crops (grazed in situ)

Create open patches or strips in permanent grassland

Provide short grass for birds

Use mixed stocking

4.5 Threat: Residential and commercial development

Provide owl nest boxes (tawny owl, barn owl)

Maintain traditional farm buildings

Provide bat boxes, bat grilles, improvements to roosts

4.6 Threat: Agri-chemicals

Leave headlands in fields unsprayed (conservation headlands)

Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally

Use organic rather than mineral fertilizers

Reduce chemical inputs in grassland management

Provide buffer strips alongside water courses (rivers and streams)

Restrict certain pesticides

Buffer in-field ponds

Make selective use of spring herbicides

4.7 Threat: Transport and service corridors

Manage land under power lines to benefit wildlife

4.8 Threat: Hunting and trapping (for pest control, food or sport)

Enforce legislation to protect birds against persecution

Provide ‘sacrificial’ grasslands to reduce the impact of wild geese on crops

Avoid use of lead shot

Use alerts to reduce grey partridge by-catch during shoots

Use scaring devices (e.g. gas guns) and other deterrents to reduce persecution of native species

4.9 Threat: Natural system modification

Raise water levels in ditches or grassland

Create scrapes and pools

Manage heather by swiping to simulate burning

Manage heather, gorse or grass by burning

Remove flood defence banks to allow inundation

Re-wet moorland

4.10 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

Control predatory mammals and birds (foxes, crows, stoats and weasels)

Control scrub

Control weeds without damaging other plants in conservation areas

Protect individual nests of ground-nesting birds

Control grey squirrels

Erect predator-proof fencing around important breeding sites for waders

Manage wild deer numbers

Remove coarse fish

Control bracken

Control invasive non-native plants on farmland (such as Himalayan balsam, Japanese knotweed)

Control mink

Provide medicated grit for grouse

4.11 Threat: Education and awareness

Provide specialist advice, assistance preparing conservation plans

Provide training for land managers, farmers and farm advisers

5. FOREST CONSERVATION

5.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development

5.1.1 Housing and urban areas

Compensate for woodland removal with compensatory planting

Incorporate existing trees or woods into the landscape of new developments

Provide legal protection of forests from development

5.1.2 Tourism and recreation areas

Adopt ecotourism

Create managed paths/signs to contain disturbance

Re-route paths, control access or close paths

Use warning signs to prevent fire

5.2 Threat: Agriculture

5.2.1 Livestock farming

Use wire fences within grazing areas to exclude livestock from specific forest sections

Prevent livestock grazing in forests

Reduce the intensity of livestock grazing in forests

Shorten livestock grazing period or control grazing season in forests

Provide financial incentives not to graze

5.3 Threat: Transport and service corridors

Maintain/create habitat corridors

5.4 Threat: Biological resource use

5.4.1 Thinning and wood harvesting

Log/remove trees within forests: effects on understory plants

Thin trees within forests: effects on understory plants

Thin trees within forests: effects on young trees

Use shelterwood harvest instead of clearcutting

Thin trees within forests: effects on mature trees

Log/remove trees within forests: effects on young trees

Use partial retention harvesting instead of clearcutting

Use summer instead of winter harvesting

Remove woody debris after timber harvest

Log/remove trees within forests: effect on mature trees

Log/remove trees within forests: effect on effects on non-vascular plants

Thin trees within forests: effects on non-vascular plants

Adopt continuous cover forestry

Use brash mats during harvesting to avoid soil compaction

5.4.2 Harvest forest products

Adopt certification

Sustainable management of non-timber products

5.4.3 Firewood

Provide fuel efficient stoves

Provide paraffin stoves

5.5 Habitat protection

5.5.1 Changing fire frequency

Use prescribed fire: effect on understory plants

Use prescribed fire: effect on young trees

Use prescribed fire: effect on mature trees

Mechanically remove understory vegetation to reduce wildfires

Use herbicides to remove understory vegetation to reduce wildfires

5.5.2 Water management

Construct water detention areas to slow water flow and restore riparian forests

Introduce beavers to impede water flow in forest watercourses

Recharge groundwater to restore wetland forest

5.5.3 Changing disturbance regime

Use clearcutting to increase understory diversity

Use group-selection harvesting

Use shelterwood harvesting

Thin trees by girdling (cutting rings around tree trunks)

Use herbicides to thin trees

Use thinning followed by prescribed fire

Adopt conservation grazing of woodland

Coppice trees

Halo ancient trees

Imitate natural disturbances by pushing over trees

Pollard trees (top cutting or top pruning)

Reintroduce large herbivores

Retain fallen trees

5.6 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species

5.6.1 Invasive plants

Manually/mechanically remove invasive plants

Use herbicides to remove invasive plant species

Use grazing to remove invasive plant species

Use prescribed fire to remove invasive plant species

5.6.2 Native plants

Manually/mechanically remove native plants

5.6.3 Herbivores

Use wire fences to exclude large native herbivores

Use electric fencing to exclude large native herbivores

Control large herbivore populations

Control medium-sized herbivores

Use fencing to enclose large herbivores (e.g. deer)

5.6.4 Rodents

Control rodents

5.6.5 Birds

Control birds

5.7 Threat: Pollution

Maintain/create buffer zones

Remove nitrogen and phosphorus using harvested products

5.8 Threat: Climate change and severe weather

Prevent damage from strong winds

5.9 Habitat protection

Adopt community-based management to protect forests

Legal protection of forests

Adopt Protected Species legislation (impact on forest management)

5.10 Habitat restoration and creation

5.10.1 Restoration after wildfire

Thin trees after wildfire

Remove burned trees

Sow tree seeds after wildfire

Plant trees after wildfire

5.10.2 Restoration after agriculture

Restore wood pasture (e.g. introduce grazing)

5.10.3 Manipulate habitat to increase planted tree survival during restoration

Apply herbicides after restoration planting

Cover the ground using techniques other than plastic mats after restoration planting

Cover the ground with plastic mats after restoration planting

Use selective thinning after restoration planting

5.10.4 Restore forest community

Build bird-perches to enhance natural seed dispersal

Plant a mixture of tree species to enhance diversity

Sow tree seeds

Water plants to preserve dry tropical forest species

Restore woodland herbaceous plants using transplants and nursery plugs

Use rotational grazing to restore oak savannas

5.10.5 Prevent/encourage leaf litter accumulation

Remove or disturb leaf litter to enhance germination

Encourage leaf litter development in new planting

5.10.6 Increase soil fertility

Use vegetation removal together with mechanical disturbance to the soil

Add organic matter

Use fertilizer

Use soil scarification or ploughing to enhance germination

Add lime to the soil to increase fertility

Use soil disturbance to enhance germination (excluding scarification or ploughing)

Enhance soil compaction

5.11 Actions to improve survival and growth rate of planted trees

Prepare the ground before tree planting

Use mechanical thinning before or after planting

Fence to prevent grazing after tree planting

Use herbicide after tree planting

Use prescribed fire after tree planting

Apply insecticide to protect seedlings from invertebrates

Add lime to the soil after tree planting

Add organic matter after tree planting

Cover the ground with straw after tree planting

Improve soil quality after tree planting (excluding applying fertilizer)

Manage woody debris before tree planting

Use shading for planted trees

Use tree guards or shelters to protect planted trees

Use weed mats to protect planted trees

Water seedlings

Mechanically remove understory vegetation after tree planting

Use different planting or seeding methods

Use fertilizer after tree planting

Apply fungicide to protect seedlings from fungal diseases

Infect tree seedlings with mycorrhizae

Introduce leaf litter to forest stands

Plant a mixture of tree species to enhance the survival and growth of planted trees

Reduce erosion to increase seedling survival

Transplant trees

Use pioneer plants or crops as nurse-plants

5.12 Education and awareness raising

Provide education programmes about forests

Raise awareness amongst the general public through campaigns and public information

6. SOME ASPECTS OF CONTROL OF FRESHWATER INVASIVE SPECIES

6.1 Threat: Invasive plants

6.1.1 Floating pennywort Hydrocotyle ranunculoides

Chemical control using herbicides

Flame treatment

Physical removal

Combination treatment using herbicides and physical removal

Biological control using co-evolved, host-specific herbivores

Use of hydrogen peroxide

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

Biological control using native herbivores

Environmental control (e.g. shading, reduced flow, reduction of rooting depth, or dredging)

Excavation of banks

Public education

Use of liquid nitrogen

6.1.2 Water primrose Ludwigia spp.

Biological control using co-evolved, host specific herbivores

Chemical control using herbicides

Combination treatment using herbicides and physical removal

Physical removal

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

Biological control using native herbivores

Environmental control (e.g. shading, reduced flow, reduction of rooting depth, or dredging)

Excavation of banks

Public education

Use of a tarpaulin

Use of flame treatment

Use of hydrogen peroxide

Use of liquid nitrogen

Use of mats placed on the bottom of the waterbody

6.1.3 Skunk cabbage Lysichiton americanus

Chemical control using herbicides

Physical removal

Biological control using co-evolved, host-specific herbivores

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

Biological control using native herbivores

Combination treatment using herbicides and physical removal

Environmental control (e.g. shading, or promotion of native plants)

Public education

Use of a tarpaulin

Use of flame treatment

Use of hydrogen peroxide

Use of liquid nitrogen

6.1.4 New Zealand pigmyweed Crassula helmsii

Chemical control using herbicides

Decontamination to prevent further spread

Use lightproof barriers to control plants

Use salt water to kill plants

Use a combination of control methods

Use dyes to reduce light levels

Use grazing to control plants

Use hot foam to control plants

Use hydrogen peroxide to control plants

Alter environmental conditions to control plants (e.g. shading by succession, increasing turbidity, re-profiling or dredging)

Biological control using fungal-based herbicides

Biological control using herbivores

Bury plants

Dry out waterbodies

Physical control using manual/mechanical control or dredging

Plant other species to suppress growth

Public education

Surround with wire mesh

Use flame throwers

Use hot water

Use of liquid nitrogen

6.2 Threat: Invasive molluscs

6.2.1 Asian clams

Add chemicals to the water

Change salinity of water

Mechanical removal

Change temperature of water

Clean equipment

Use of gas-impermeable barriers

Reduce oxygen in water

Change pH of water

Drain the invaded waterbody

Exposure to disease-causing organisms

Exposure to parasites

Hand removal

Public awareness and education

6.3 Threat: Invasive crustaceans

6.3.1 Ponto-Caspian gammarids

Change salinity of the water

Change water temperature

Dewatering (drying out) habitat

Exposure to parasites

Add chemicals to water

Change water pH

Control movement of gammarids

Biological control using predatory fish

Cleaning equipment

Exchange ballast water

Exposure to disease-causing organisms

6.3.2 Procambarus spp. crayfish

Add chemicals to the water

Sterilization of males

Trapping and removal

Trapping combined with encouragement of predators

Create barriers

Encouraging predators

Draining the waterway

Food source removal

Relocate vulnerable crayfish

Remove the crayfish by electrofishing

6.4 Threat: Invasive fish

6.4.1 Brown and black bullheads

Application of a biocide

Netting

Biological control of beneficial species

Biological control using native predators

Changing salinity

Changing pH

Draining invaded waterbodies

Electrofishing

Habitat manipulation

Increasing carbon dioxide concentrations

Public education

Trapping using sound or pheromonal lures

Using a combination of netting and electrofishing

UV radiation

6.4.2 Ponto-Caspian gobies

Changing salinity

Use of barriers to prevent migration

Application of a biocide

Biological control of beneficial species

Biological control using native predators

Changing pH

Draining invaded waterbodies

Electrofishing

Habitat manipulation

Increasing carbon dioxide concentrations

Netting

Public education

Trapping using visual, sound and pheromonal lures

Using a combination of netting and electrofishing

UV radiation

6.5 Threat: Invasive reptiles

6.5.1 Red-eared terrapin Trachemys scripta

Direct removal of adults

Application of a biocide

Biological control using native predators

Draining invaded waterbodies

Public education

Search and removal using sniffer dogs

6.6 Threat: Invasive amphibians

6.6.1 American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeiana

Biological control using native predators

Direct removal of adults

Direct removal of juveniles

Application of a biocide

Biological control of co-occurring beneficial species

Collection of egg clutches

Draining ponds

Fencing

Habitat modification

Pond destruction

Public education

7. SOME ASPECTS OF ENHANCING NATURAL PEST CONTROL

7.1 Reducing agricultural pollution

Alter the timing of insecticide use

Delay herbicide use

Incorporate parasitism rates when setting thresholds for insecticide use

Use pesticides only when pests or crop damage reach threshold levels

Convert to organic farming

7.2 All farming systems

Grow non-crop plants that produce chemicals that attract natural enemies

Use chemicals to attract natural enemies

Leave part of the crop or pasture unharvested or uncut

Plant new hedges

Use alley cropping

7.3 Arable farming

Combine trap and repellent crops in a push-pull system

Use crop rotation in potato farming systems

Create beetle banks

Incorporate plant remains into the soil that produce weed-controlling chemicals

7.4 Perennial farming

Exclude ants that protect pests

Allow natural regeneration of ground cover beneath perennial crops

Isolate colonies of beneficial ants

7.5 Livestock farming and pasture

Grow plants that compete with damaging weeds

Delay mowing or first grazing date on pasture or grassland

Use grazing instead of cutting for pasture or grassland management

Use mixed pasture

8. ENHANCING SOIL FERTILITY

8.1 Reducing agricultural pollution

Change the timing of manure application

Reduce fertilizer, pesticide or herbicide use generally

8.2 All farming systems

Control traffic and traffic timing

Change tillage practices

Convert to organic farming

Plant new hedges

Change the timing of ploughing

8.3 Arable farming

Amend the soil using a mix of organic and inorganic amendments

Grow cover crops when the field is empty

Use crop rotation

Amend the soil with formulated chemical compounds

Grow cover crops beneath the main crop (living mulches) or between crop rows

Add mulch to crops

Amend the soil with fresh plant material or crop remains

Amend the soil with manures and agricultural composts

Amend the soil with municipal wastes or their composts

Incorporate leys into crop rotation

Retain crop residues

Amend the soil with bacteria or fungi

Amend the soil with composts not otherwise specified

Amend the soil with crops grown as green manures

Amend the soil with non-chemical minerals and mineral wastes

Amend the soil with organic processing wastes or their composts

Encourage foraging waterfowl

Use alley cropping

8.4 Livestock and pasture farming

Reduce grazing intensity

Restore or create low input grasslands