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© 2017 Mark McBride

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work; to adapt the work and to make commercial use of the work providing attribution is made to the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:

Mark McBride, Basic Knowledge and Conditions of Knowledge. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2017,

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit

Further details about CC BY licenses are available at

All external links were active at the time of publication unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at

Digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at

The National University of Singapore supported this Open Access publication with a Start Up Grant (WBS No: R-241-000-126-133).

ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-283-7

ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-284-4

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-285-1

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-78374-286-8

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-78374-287-5

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0104

Cover image: Milickie Ponds Nature Reserve. Barycz Valley Landscape Park. Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland. Photo by Bartosz Dworski CC BY-SA 3.0,

Cover design: Heidi Coburn

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative), PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and Forest Stewardship Council(r)(FSC(r) certified.

Printed in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia by Lightning Source for Open Book Publishers (Cambridge, UK)