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© 2017 Andrew W. Neal. Copyright of each chapter is maintained by the author.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work; to adapt the work and to make commercial use of the work providing attribution is made to the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:

Andrew W. Neal (ed.), Security in a Small Nation: Scotland, Democracy, Politics. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2017.

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit

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All external links were active at the time of publication unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at

Digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at

Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher.

Open Reports Series, vol. 4 | ISSN: 2399-6668 (Print); 2399-6676 (Online)

ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-268-4

ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-269-1

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-270-7

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-78374-271-4

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-78374-272-1

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0078

Cover image: Scottish Parliament (2011) by deargdoom57, CC BY 2.0. Image from Flickr,

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative), PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and Forest Stewardship Council(r)(FSC(r) certified.

Printed in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia by Lightning Source for Open Book Publishers (Cambridge, UK)