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© 2016 Heike Graf. Copyright of each individual chapter is maintained by the author(s).

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the text; to adapt the text and to make commercial use of the text providing attribution is made to the author (but not in any way that suggests that he endorses you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:

Heike Graf (ed.), The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2016.

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit

Further details about CC BY licenses are available at

All external links were active on 5/7/2016 unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at

Updated digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at

Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher.

ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-243-1

ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-244-8

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-245-5

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-78374-246-2

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-78374-247-9

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0096

Cover photo and design by Heidi Couborn, Trees of Co. Cork, Ireland (2010), CC BY 4.0.

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative), PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and Forest Stewardship Council(r)(FSC(r) certified.

Printed in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia
by Lightning Source for Open Book Publishers (Cambridge, UK)