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List of tables

2.1

The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the 24 consonant phonemes of the Received Pronunciation accent of English

15

2.2

The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the 20 vowel phonemes of the Received Pronunciation accent of English, plus /juː/

16

3.1

Main correspndences of the 11 consonant phonemes with variable spellings, by position in the word

20

3.2

Full list of /r/-linking categories

42

3.3

The distribution of <c, ck, k, x> in spellings of /k, ks/

54

3.4

The distribution of <c, s, ss> in initial and medial spellings of /s/ other than in /ks/

74

3.5

The distribution of <c, ce, s, se, ss> in stem-final spellings of /s/ other than in /ks/ (also excluding grammatical suffixes)

76

3.6

The distribution of <ti, ce, ci, si, ssi> as spellings of medial /∫/

93

3.7

Examples of /w/ represented or not between a stem word ending in /(j)uː, əʊ, aʊ/ and a suffix beginning with a vowel phoneme

102

3.8

Examples of /j/ represented or not between a stem word ending in /aɪ, eɪ, ɔɪ, iː/ and a suffix beginning with a vowel phoneme

107

4.1

Single and double consonant spellings after short and long vowels

111

4.2

Non-equivalence of sets of consonant phonemes spelt double in two circumstances

120

4.3

Examples and exceptions of the rule that two-syllable words have medial consonant letters written double after a short vowel phoneme written with a single letter

121

4.4

Some cases where stem words ending in /əl/ do or do not retain /ə/ before a suffix beginning with a vowel phoneme

127

4.5

Examples of the rule that the third syllable from the end of a word rarely ends in a doubled consonant letter, with exceptions not arising from affixation

128

5.1

Main spellings of the 20 vowel phonemes, plus /juː/, by word position

136

5.2

Spellings of /ɒ/ as <a> after /w/

149

5.3

Spellings of /ɔː/ as <ar> after /w/

175

5.4

<au, aw, or, ore> as spellings of /ɔː/

176

5.5

Spellings of /ɪə/ in medial and final positions

187

5.6

<ea, ee, e.e, ie, i.e> as spellings of /iː/ in closed final syllables

202

5.7

Spellings of /əʊ/ in final syllables

212

8.1

All the consonant graphemes of written English, by RP phoneme

255

8.2

All the vowel graphemes of written English, by RP phoneme, plus /juː/

259

8.3

Alphabetical list of the 89 graphemes of the main system

264

8.4

Alphabetical list of the other 195 graphemes

265

9.1

21 main-system consonant graphemes with only one pronunciation each

272

9.2

20 main-system consonant graphemes with only one frequent pronunciation each

273

9.3

Nine main-system consonant graphemes with two regular pronunciations each

274

9.4

Main-system graphemes beginning with consonant letters, by main- system and minor correspondences and numbers of Oddities

275

9.5

Medial <s> pronounced /z/, with sub-exceptions pronounced /s/ and sub-sub-exceptions pronounced /z/

315

9.6

/s, z/ as pronunciations of word-final <se>

320

10.1

Main-system graphemes beginning with vowel letters, by main-system and minor correspondences and numbers of oddities

344

10.2

Regular correspondences of <a, e, i, o, u, y> (±word-final <e>) in monosyllabic content words

437

10.3

Open monosyllables with a single vowel letter

438

10.4

Short and long pronunciations of single-letter vowel graphemes before single and double consonant spellings

439

11.1

‘When two vowels go walking, the first does the talking’

450

11.2

Pronunciations of vowel letters in words with a single, non-final vowel letter followed by at least one consonant letter other than <r, w, y>

451

11.3

Reliability of rules for split digraphs or ‘magic <e>’ where the intervening letter is not <r, w, x, y>

453

B.1

The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of British English spelling, by RP phoneme, 1: Consonants

477

B.2

The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of British English spelling, by RP phoneme, 2: Vowels

479

B.3

The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of British English spelling, 3: 2-phoneme sequences frequently spelt with single graphemes

480

B.4

The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 1: Single graphemes frequently pronounced as 2-phoneme sequences

481

B.5

The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 2: Major correspondences for consonant graphemes

481

B.6

The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 3: Minor correspondences for consonant graphemes

483

B.7

The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 4: Major correspondences for vowel graphemes

484

B.8

The grapheme-phoneme correspondences of British English spelling, 5: Minor correspondences for vowel graphemes

485