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© 2015 Jean McClure Mudge. Copyright of individual chapters is maintained by the chapter’s author(s).

Version 1.1. Minor edits made, August 2016.

The text in this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the text; to adapt the text and to make commercial use of the text providing attribution is made to the author (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the author’s name, chapter title and the following title information:

Jean McClure Mudge (ed.). Mr Emerson’s Revolution. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2015.

Many of the illustrations are published with more restrictive re-use licences. Please see the list of illustrations for attribution relating to individual images. Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher. For information about the rights of the Wikimedia Commons images, please refer to the Wikimedia website (the relevant links are listed in the list of illustrations).

In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit:

Further details about CC BY licenses are available at

External links were active on 30/08/2016 unless otherwise stated and archived at the Internet Archive WayBack Machine at

ISBN Paperback: 978–1-78374–097–0

ISBN Hardback: 978–1-78374–098–7

ISBN Digital (PDF): 978–1-78374–099–4

ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978–1-78374–100–7

ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978–1-78374–101–4

DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0065

Cover image: Oil painting of Emerson at 45 in typical lecturing pose by David Scott (1848). Courtesy Concord Free Public Library, all rights reserved.

All paper used by Open Book Publishers is SFI (Sustainable Forestry Initiative) and PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) Certified.

Printed in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia by Lightning Source for Open Book Publishers