Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes

Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes Bhaskar Vira, Christoph Wildburger and Stephanie Mansourian (eds.)
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The lives, health and well-being of all people on earth will be affected by the decisions that individuals, governments and businesses make at the interface of forests and agricultural lands around the world. This is especially important for the hundreds of millions of people living in poverty at that interface. Forests and Food makes a timely and very necessary contribution as the world starts to focus on transforming our world by 2030 through the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Access to world-class research evidence as provided here will help to deliver the first difficult steps on this ambitious but essential journey.
—Professor Paul van Gardingen, Director, Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation Programme; UNESCO Chair in International Development, The University of Edinburgh


By considering the many important interactions between people and their environment, this book takes a refreshingly inclusive approach to addressing the pressing problem of achieving of global food security. While it provides new insights especially for forest landscapes, the contents will be of interest to many others interested in sustainable development.
—Professor Georgina Mace, FRS, Professor of Biodiversity and Ecosystems and Director of the Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, University College London


The twin challenges of tackling hunger and poor nutrition, and addressing pressures on the world's forests, have never been more critical. In this timely new book a stellar line-up of authors show the vital synergies between forest ecosystems and food security, and how a people-centred, landscape-approach can harness these for the benefit of all.
—Professor Melissa Leach, Director, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex and Co-Chair, Future Earth Science Committee


As population estimates for 2050 reach over 9 billion, issues of food security and nutrition have been dominating academic and policy debates. A total of 805 million people are undernourished worldwide and malnutrition affects nearly every country on the planet. Despite impressive productivity increases, there is growing evidence that conventional agricultural strategies fall short of eliminating global hunger, as well as having long-term ecological consequences. Forests can play an important role in complementing agricultural production to address the Sustainable Development Goals on zero hunger. Forests and trees can be managed to provide better and more nutritionally-balanced diets, greater control over food inputs—particularly during lean seasons and periods of vulnerability (especially for marginalised groups)—and deliver ecosystem services for crop production. However forests are undergoing a rapid process of degradation, a complex process that governments are struggling to reverse.

This volume provides important evidence and insights about the potential of forests to reducing global hunger and malnutrition, exploring the different roles of landscapes, and the governance approaches that are required for the equitable delivery of these benefits. Forests and Food is essential reading for researchers, students, NGOs and government departments responsible for agriculture, forestry, food security and poverty alleviation around the globe.

This book is based on the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Global Forest Expert Panel report on Forest and Food Security.


Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes
Bhaskar Vira, Christoph Wildburger and Stephanie Mansourian (eds.) | November 2015
viii + 280 | 40 colour illustrations | 7" x 10" (178 x 254 mm)
ISBN Paperback: 9781783741939
ISBN Hardback: 9781783741946
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781783741953
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781783741960
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781783741977
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0085
BIC subject codes: RND (Environmental policy and protocols) | RNU (Sustainability) | MBNH3 (Dietetics and nutrition)


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Preface: Connecting the Dots
by Alexander Buck

Acknowledgements
Acronyms, Units and Symbols

1 Introduction: Forests, Trees and Landscapes for Food Security and Nutrition
Coordinating lead author: Bhaskar Vira
Lead authors: Bina Agarwal, Ramni Jamnadass, Daniela Kleinschmit, Stepha McMullin, Stephanie Mansourian, Henry Neufeldt, John A. Parrotta, Terry Sunderland and Christoph Wildburger
1.1 Problem Statement: Can Forests and Tree-based Systems Contribute to Food Security and Nutrition?
1.2 Prevailing Paradigms about Forests, Agriculture, Food Security and Nutrition
1.3 Policy Context and Scope
1.4 Structure of the Narrative
1.5 Forests and Tree-based Landscapes for Food Security and Nutrition: A Brief Preview
   1.5.1 Direct and Indirect Contributions of Forests and Tree-based Systems to Food Security and Nutrition
   1.5.2 Drivers Affecting the Relationship between Forest-tree Landscapes and Food
   1.5.3 Trade-offs, Conflicts and Synergies in Land Use, and Responses
1.6 Evidence and Knowledge Gaps
References

2 Understanding the Roles of Forests and Tree-based Systems in Food Provision
Coordinating lead authors: Ramni Jamnadass and Stepha McMullin
Lead authors: Miyuki Iiyama and Ian K. Dawson
Contributing authors: Bronwen Powell, Celine Termote, Amy Ickowitz, Katja Kehlenbeck, Barbara Vinceti, Nathalie van Vliet, Gudrun Keding, Barbara Stadlmayr, Patrick Van Damme, Sammy Carsan, Terry Sunderland, Mary Njenga, Amos Gyau, Paolo Cerutti, Jolien Schure, Christophe Kouame, Beatrice Darko Obiri, Daniel Ofori, Bina Agarwal, Henry Neufeldt, Ann Degrande and Anca Serban
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Food Security and Nutrition
2.3 The Direct Roles of Forests and Tree-based Systems
   2.3.1 Foods Provided by Forests and Tree-based Systems
   2.3.2 Dietary Choices, Access to Resources and Behavioural Change
2.4 The Indirect Roles of Forests and Tree-based Systems
   2.4.1 Income and other Livelihood Opportunities
   2.4.2 Provision of Ecosystem Services
2.5 Conclusions
References

3 The Historical, Environmental and Socio-economic Context of Forests and Tree-based Systems for Food Security and Nutrition
Coordinating lead author: John A. Parrotta
Lead authors: Jennie Dey de Pryck, Beatrice Darko Obiri, Christine Padoch, Bronwen Powell and Chris Sandbrook
Contributing authors: Bina Agarwal, Amy Ickowitz, Katy Jeary, Anca Serban, Terry Sunderland and Tran Nam Tu
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Forests and Tree-based Systems: An Overview
   3.2.1 Historical Overview and the Role of Traditional Knowledge
   3.2.2 Managed Forests, Woodlands and Parklands
   3.2.3 Shifting Cultivation Systems
   3.2.4 Agroforestry Systems
   3.2.5 Single-species Tree Crop Production Systems
3.3 The Influence of Forest Landscape Configuration Management and Use on Food Security and Nutrition
   3.3.1 Interactions between Landscape Components
   3.3.2 The Influence of Landscape Use and Management of Forests and Tree-Based Systems on Nutrition
3.4 The Socio-economic Organisation of Forests and Tree-based Systems
   3.4.1 Introduction
   3.4.2 Land, Tree and Related Natural Resource Tenure
   3.4.3 Gender, Rights to Land and Trees, and Food Security
   3.4.4 Human Capital, Control and Decision-making in Forests and Tree-based Systems
   3.4.5 Financial Capital and Credit: Using and Investing in Forests and Trees
3.5 Conclusions
References

4 Drivers of Forests and Tree-based Systems for Food Security and Nutrition
Coordinating lead author: Daniela Kleinschmit
Lead authors: Bimbika Sijapati Basnett, Adrian Martin, Nitin D. Rai and Carsten Smith-Hall
Contributing authors: Neil M. Dawson, Gordon Hickey, Henry Neufeldt, Hemant R. Ojha and Solomon Zena Walelign
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Environmental Drivers
4.3 Social Drivers
4.4 Economic Drivers
4.5 Governance
4.6 Conclusions
References

5 Response Options Across the Landscape
Coordinating lead author: Terry Sunderland
Lead authors: Frédéric Baudron, Amy Ickowitz, Christine Padoch, Mirjam Ros-Tonen, Chris Sandbrook and Bhaskar Vira
Contributing authors: Josephine Chambers, Elizabeth Deakin, Samson Foli, Katy Jeary, John A. Parrotta, Bronwen Powell, James Reed, Sarah Ayeri Ogalleh, Henry Neufeldt and Anca Serban
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Role of Landscape Configurations
   5.2.1 Temporal Dynamics within Landscapes
   5.2.2 Trade-offs and Choices at the Landscape Scale
5.3 Land Sparing and Land Sharing
5.4 Landscapes and Localised Food Systems
5.5 "Nutrition-sensitive” Landscapes
5.6 Landscape Governance
5.7 Conclusions
References

6 Public Sector, Private Sector and Socio-cultural Response Options
Coordinating lead author: Henry Neufeldt
Lead authors: Pablo Pacheco, Hemant R. Ojha, Sarah Ayeri Ogalleh, Jason Donovan and Lisa Fuchs
Contributing authors: Daniela Kleinschmit, Patti Kristjanson, Godwin Kowero, Vincent O. Oeba and Bronwen Powell
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Governance Responses to Enhance Linkages between Forests and Tree-based Systems and Food Security and Nutrition
   6.2.1 Introduction
   6.2.2 Reforms Related to Tenure and Resource Rights
   6.2.3 Decentralisation and Community Participation in Forest Management
   6.2.4 Regulating Markets
   6.2.5 Catalysing Governance Reform
6.3 Private Sector-driven Initiatives for Enhancing Governance in Food Systems
   6.3.1 Introduction
   6.3.2 The Challenges of Sustainability and Inclusiveness in Food Supply
   6.3.3 Global Initiatives to Support Sustainable Finance and Supply
   6.3.4 Emerging Corporate Sustainability Initiatives
   6.3.5 "Hybrid” Models for Sustainable and Inclusive Supply
6.4 Socio-cultural Response Options
   6.4.1 Introduction
   6.4.2 Changing Urban Demand
   6.4.3 Behaviour Change and Education to Improve Dietary Choices
   6.4.4 Reducing Inequalities and Promoting Gender-responsive Interventions and Policies
   6.4.5 Social Mobilisation for Food Security
6.5 Conclusions
References

7 Conclusions
Coordinating lead author: Bhaskar Vira
Lead authors: Ramni Jamnadass, Daniela Kleinschmit, Stepha McMullin, Stephanie Mansourian, Henry Neufeldt, John A. Parrotta, Terry Sunderland and Christoph Wildburger
7.1 Forests and Trees Matter for Food Security and Nutrition
7.2 Governing Multi-functional Landscapes for Food Security and Nutrition
7.3 The Importance of Secure Tenure and Local Control
7.4 Reimagining Forests and Food Security
7.5 Knowledge Gaps
7.6 Looking Ahead: The Importance of Forest and Tree-based Systems for Food Security and Nutrition

Appendix 1: Glossary
Appendix 2: List of Panel Members, Authors and Reviewers


Bhaskar Vira
’s research focuses on the political economy of natural resources, ecosystem services and development. His work has examined the political economy of land-use and landscape level strategies, water use and management, forest management, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services and human well-being. His research on incentives for natural resource use and management deals with trade-offs and discourses relating to the concept of ecosystem services, and how this overlaps with poverty and human well-being. He is interested in the political economy of human-environment interactions, the ways in which societies value nature, and the political and economic context within which communities, businesses and policy makers make choices about alternative land and resource use strategies.
Bhaskar is Reader in Political Economy at the Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, and Founding Director of the University of Cambridge Conservation Research Institute. He is closely involved with promoting inter-disciplinary collaboration and dialogue through his leadership roles in the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, and the Global Food Security strategic research initiative at the University of Cambridge. He is an Associate Editor of Environmental Conservation, Editorial Board Member of Global Environmental Change, and Advisory Board Member for Conservation and Society.

Stephanie Mansourian is an environmental consultant who founded and has led the environmental consultancy Mansourian.org since 2004. She has worked extensively in the forest, environment and sustainable development sectors with multiple partners, including NGOs, numerous inter-governmental organisations, the European Commission, the Ramsar Convention, the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and environmental foundations, as well as the leading business school, IMD. Her expertise spans a number of topics, with a particular emphasis on terrestrial conservation and forest landscape restoration. For five years she led WWF International’s forest landscape restoration programme. She has been involved in major reviews of topics such as REDD+ and forests and food security (scientific assessments with IUFRO), environmental and forest governance, lessons learnt from forest landscape restoration, to name just a few, and she has published widely on forest issues. Stephanie holds two Masters of Science, one of which is in Environmental Management, and is currently undertaking a part-time PhD with the University of Geneva on governance and forest landscape restoration..

Christoph Wildburger is the coordinator of the Global Forest Expert Panels initiative of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) for IUFRO, the International Union of Forest Research Organisations. As a consultant on environmental policy and natural resource management, he has twenty years of work experience with international institutions and organizations, universities, government agencies, NGOs, and the media. Mr. Wildburger is mainly working at the science-policy interface, providing scientific synthesis and technical analysis, policy proposals and research on relevant issues. His clients include the World Bank, UNEP, the UNFF Secretariat, the CBD Secretariat, UNECE, IUCN, WWF, FOREST EUROPE, the European Commission and governments. He holds a PhD from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna.